Alexander Ilan Gipsman, Nicole Christine Lapinel, Oscar Henry Mayer
Airway clearance is a critical component of both maintenance of respiratory health and management of acute respiratory illnesses. The process of effective airway clearance begins with the recognition of secretions in the airway and culminates in expectoration or swallowing. There are multiple points on this continuum at which neuromuscular disease causes impaired airway clearance. This can result in an otherwise mild upper respiratory illness progressing unabated from an easily managed condition to a severe, life-threatening lower respiratory illness requiring intensive therapy for patient recovery...
February 23, 2023: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Nicholas Bolden, Joshua Chang Mell, Jennifer Bouso Logan, Paul J Planet
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause severe pulmonary disease in people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF). These infections present unique challenges for diagnosis and treatment, prompting a recent interest in understanding NTM transmission and pathogenesis during chronic infection. Major gaps remain in our knowledge regarding basic pathogenesis, immune evasion strategies, population dynamics, recombination potential, and the evolutionary implications of host and antibiotic pressures of long-term NTM infections in pwCF...
February 10, 2023: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Dominic A Fitzgerald
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia [BPD] is the most common complication of extremely preterm delivery and its optimal management remains challenging because of a lack of evidence to guide management. There has been improvement in the management of evolving BPD in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The threshold for provision of home oxygen therapy, often occurring because of a preference for earlier discharge from the NICU, creates tensions for clincians and families. Once discharged in supplemental oxygen, the approaches for the weaning of this therapy vary considerably across the world...
January 25, 2023: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Joanna E MacLean, Brigitte Fauroux
Long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an accepted therapy for sleep-related respiratory disorders and respiratory insufficiency or failure. Increase in the use of long-term NIV may, in part, be driven by an increase in the number of children surviving critical illness with comorbidities. As a result, some children start on long-term NIV as part of transitioning from hospital to home. NIV may be used in acute illness to avoid intubation, facilitate extubation or support tracheostomy decannulation, and to avoid the need for a tracheostomy for long-term invasive ventilation...
January 12, 2023: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Brigitte Fauroux, Meryl Vedrenne-Cloquet
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) consists of the delivery of a constant positive pressure in the airways by means of a noninvasive interface aiming to maintain airway patency throughout the entire respiratory cycle. PEEP is increasingly used in the chronic care of children with anatomical or functional abnormalities of the upper airways to correct severe persistent obstructive sleep apnea despite optimal management which commonly includes adenotonsillectomy in young children. PEEP may be used at any age, due to improvements in equipment and interfaces...
January 11, 2023: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Bruce K Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Pierre Goussard, Ernst Eber, Shyam Venkatakrishna, Lisa Frigati, Jacques Janson, Pawel Schubert, Savvas Andronikou
In recent years bronchoscopy equipment has been improved with smaller instruments and larger size working channels. This has ensured that bronchoscopy offers both therapeutic and interventional options. As the experience of paediatric interventional pulmonologists continues to grow, more interventions are being performed. There is a scarcity of published evidence in the field of interventional bronchoscopy in paediatrics. This is even more relevant for complicated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Therapeutic interventional bronchoscopy procedures can be used in the management of complicated tuberculosis, including for endoscopic enucleations, closure of fistulas, dilatations of bronchial stenosis and severe haemoptysis...
December 17, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Pierre Goussard, Ernst Eber, Shyam Venkatakrishna, Lisa Frigati, Jacques Janson, Pawel Schubert, Savvas Andronikou
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent globally. Mortality is related to the delay in diagnosis and starting treatment. According to new guidelines it is very important to classify pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as severe or not severe disease due to the difference in treatment duration. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard for assessing the degree of airway compression and obstruction in paediatric PTB. Paediatric bronchoscopy has evolved from a primarily diagnostic procedure to include interventional bronchoscopy for diagnostic purposes...
December 16, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Bernadette Prentice, Mike Nicholson, Grace Y Lam
Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a common complication of CF that increases in incidence as patients age. Poor glycemic control has been shown to negatively impact lung function and weight, resulting in higher risk of recurrent pulmonary exacerbations. With the advent of highly effective modulator therapies (HEMT), patients with CF are living longer and healthier lives. Consequently, CFRD and its microvascular complications are rising in prominence, becoming one of the most urgent clinical concerns...
December 5, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Arvind Sehgal, Theodore Dassios, Marcel F Nold, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Anne Greenough
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common respiratory sequela of prematurity, and infants born with fetal growth restriction (FGR) are disproportionately represented in BPD statistics, as factors which affect somatic growth may also affect pulmonary growth. Effects of in-utero hypoxia underlying FGR on lung parenchymal architecture predisposing to BPD are well documented, but the pulmonary vascular constructs are not well appreciated. Disruption of angiogenesis during critical periods of lung growth impairs alveolarization, contributing to BPD pathogenesis...
December 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Brandy Johnson, Shoshana Leftin Dobkin, Maureen Josephson
Neonates with progressive respiratory failure should be referred early for subspecialty evaluation and lung transplantation consideration. ECMO should be considered for patients with severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction and a high likelihood of death while on maximal medical therapy, either in the setting of reversible medical conditions or while awaiting lung transplantation. While ECMO offers hope to neonates that experience clinical deterioration while awaiting transplant, the risks and benefits of this intervention should be considered on an individual basis...
December 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Ramadan A Mahmoud, Gerd Schmalisch, Abhishek Oswal, Charles Christoph Roehr
Non-invasive ventilatory support (NIV) is considered the gold standard in the care of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). NIV from birth is superior to mechanical ventilation (MV) for the prevention of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), with a number needed to treat between 25 and 35. Various methods of NIV are available, some of them extensively researched and with well proven efficacy, whilst others are needing further research. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) has replaced routine invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) for the initial stabilization and the treatment of RDS...
December 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Kimberley R Kaspy, Gregory Burg, Aaron P Garrison, Claire K Miller, Scott Pentiuk, Matthew M Smith, Dan Benscoter
The current available literature evaluating pediatric multidisciplinary aerodigestive programs for the management of aerodigestive disorders in infants was reviewed. Multidisciplinary aerodigestive programs have emerged to provide coordinated and comprehensive care for the growing population of children with aerodigestive conditions, including complex airway, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and feeding disorders, which are prevalent among infants discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The team approach central to aerodigestive clinics offers a comprehensive diagnostic workup and unified management plan through consolidated interdisciplinary clinics, combined endoscopic procedures, and regular team discussions, leading to improved resource utilization and health care outcomes...
December 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Katharine Tsukahara, Oscar Henry Mayer
Thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS) was described in 2003 as the inability of the thorax to support normal respiration or lung growth. TIS includes a broad and disparate group of typically degenerative thoracospinal conditions. Although TIS arises due to a heterogeneous group of disorders and thus its incidence is not well quantified, general approaches to management and treatment exist. Evolving imaging techniques and measurements of health-related quality of life augment tests of pulmonary function to quantify disease burden, longitudinally and pre- and post-intervention...
December 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Helena Teresinha Mocelin, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Júlia Danezi Piccini, Renata Baú, Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Janice Luisa Lukrafka
OBJECTIVE: To discuss surgery for non-cystic fibrosis [CF] bronchiectasis in children and adolescents. SOURCES: Non-systematic review including articles in English, mainly from the last 5 years. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: In this review, we present that in low- and middle-income countries [LMIC] clinical treatment fails in around 20% of cases due to low socioeconomic status and poor adherence. This causes the disease to progress and require surgery...
November 21, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Adam Lawton, Alexander Stephenson-Allen, Abigail Whitehouse, Atul Gupta
Asthma is now the commonest chronic disease of childhood, but not all children with asthma receive equivalent standards of medical care which influences their clinical outcomes. In this paper we sought to determine the proportion of participants in registered clinical trials relating to paediatric or adolescent asthma over the last decade that were from white and non-white backgrounds. We searched the database for all completed interventional studies between the dates 1st January 2011 and 1st January 2021 that were on the topic of 'asthma', and included participants below 18 years of age...
November 19, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Dominic A Fitzgerald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Megan Sheppard, Hiran Selvadurai, Paul D Robinson, Chetan Pandit, S Murthy Chennapragada, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Haemoptysis occurs in up to 25 % of young people with Cystic fibrosis (CF) [1]. We undertook a literature review and described the management approach to haemoptysis in CF between 2010 and 2020 at an Australian tertiary paediatric centre, The Children's Hospital Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, using a retrospective review of the medical records which identified 67 episodes. Sixty episodes met inclusion criteria, including 31 patients. Using the US CF Foundation guidelines, episodes were classified as scant (53...
November 3, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Bernadette J Prentice, Kathryn J Potter, Adèle Coriati, Valérie Boudreau, Leah Rusnell, Tamizan Kherani, Peter A Senior, Shihab Hameed, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD) is a unique type of diabetes mellitus that shares some features with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Yet, its distinguishing feature of acute pulmonary complications associated with hyperglycemia and the catabolic metabolism associated with a relative insulin deficiency poses challenges to the application of traditional definitions and treatments for diabetes mellitus. People with CF (pwCF) undergo rigorous annual screening starting at age 10, a process that is challenging for patients and limited by sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility...
October 5, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Rosalie S N Linssen, Michael S Schechter, Bruce K Rubin
Viral bronchiolitis, which is most commonly caused by an infection with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), can lead to respiratory difficulties in young children which may require hospitalization. Despite years of research and medical trials, the mainstay of bronchiolitis treatment remains supportive only. This review provides an overview of the history of different treatments for bronchiolitis, including those that failed, as well as new therapies that are under study. Future studies for the treatment of bronchiolitis should consider different age-groups, important subgroups (i...
September 29, 2022: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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