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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

Mariana Bona, Pedro Henrique Medeiros, Ana Karolina Santos, Thiago Freitas, Mara Prata, Herlice Veras, Marília Amaral, Daniel Oliveira, Alexandre Havt, Aldo Ângelo Lima
Shigella/Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) pathotype is a major enteropathogen associated with diarrhea and malnutrition in children from developing countries. This study aimed to correlate Shigella/EIEC virulence-related genes (VRGs) with clinical symptoms, nutritional status and coenteropathogens in children from the Brazilian semiarid region. We designed a case-control study of community diarrhea in six cities of the Brazil semiarid region with 1200 children aging 2-36 months. Standardized questionnaire was applied for collecting sociodemographic, nutritional status and clinical information of the children...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Xiumei Sheng, Weiwei Wang, Long Chen, Hong Zhang, Ying Zhang, Shungao Xu, Huaxi Xu, Xinxiang Huang
Mig-14 is essential for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) resistance to antimicrobial peptides, including polymyxin B (PB). However, the molecular mechanism is as yet unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that mig-14 also played a crucial role in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) resistance to PB. A series of genes associated with drug-resistance controlled by Mig-14 were identified in the presence of PB. Among which, ompF and ompC were up-regulated 8 and 6 folds in mig-14 mutant (Δmig-14) strains, respectively...
January 16, 2019: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ana Paula R Gadelha, Bárbara Bravim, Juliana Vidal, Lissa Catherine Reignault, Bruno Cosme, Kilian Huber, Franz Bracher, Wanderley de Souza
Giardia trophozoites have developed resistance mechanisms to currently available compounds, leading to treatment failures. In this context, the development of new additional agents is mandatory. Sirtuins, which are class III NAD+ -dependent histone deacetylases, have been considered important targets for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. Here, we evaluated the activity of KH-TFMDI, a novel 3-arylideneindolin-2-one-type sirtuin inhibitor, on G. intestinalis trophozoites. This compound decreased the trophozoite growth presenting an IC50 value lower than nicotinamide, a moderately active inhibitor of yeast and human sirtuins...
January 15, 2019: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Maria F Cavenague, Aline F Teixeira, Antonio S Filho, Gisele O Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Ana L T O Nascimento
Leptospirosis is a severe zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. This work focuses on a hypothetical protein of unknown function, encoded by the gene LIC13259, and predicted to be a surface protein, widely distributed among pathogenic leptospiral strain. The gene was amplified from L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, strain Fiocruz L1-130, cloned and the protein expressed using Escherichia coli as a host system. Immunofluorescence assay showed that the protein is surface-exposed. The recombinant protein LIC13259 (rLIC13259) has the ability to interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) laminin, in a dose-dependent manner but saturation was not reach...
January 6, 2019: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Zhiyuan An, Xiaoxi Huang, Chunming Zheng, Wenyi Ding
Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved self-balancing process that plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis via the clearance of damaged organelles and misfolded proteins. Infection-triggered autophagy specifically inhibits the invasion of intracellular bacterial replication and hence protects the cells from microbial infections. It has been reported that Acinetobacter baumannii trigger cell autophagy. However, the role of its virulence protein OmpA remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effects of Acinetobacter baumannii OmpA on cell autophagy and its underlying molecular mechanisms...
December 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Atsushi Hinenoya, Hidetoshi Ichimura, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Noritomo Yasuda, Jun Yatsuyanagi, Shinji Yamasaki
Escherichia albertii is an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen, related to Escherichia coli, which can be misidentified as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), due to the presence of the eae gene in E. albertii. The aim of this study was to verify our hypothesis that E. coli cytolethal distending toxin-II (Eccdt-II) gene-positive E. coli is E. albertii and to accumulate the data regarding the bacteriological characteristics of E. albertii. For these purposes, we attempted to detect E...
December 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Zeyu Jin, Qiu Jiang, Bo Fang, Baolin Sun
The two-component system response regulator ArlR and the global regulator MgrA in Staphylococcus aureus participated in numerous biological processes including biofilm formation inhibition. Previous studies have shown that these two regulators could function as a regulatory cascade. Rbf is a positive regulator of biofilm formation enhancing the production of PIA (polysaccharide intercellular adhesin). Here we have demonstrated that both ArlR and MgrA can directly bind to the promoter of rbf and repress its expression...
December 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Chao Wang, Qiaoli Zhang, Xudong Tang, Yanan An, Shulin Li, Hongyue Xu, Yan Li, Xuefei Wang, Wenjing Luan, Yang Wang, Mingyuan Liu, Lu Yu
Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease and of high incidence in low-income countries that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). M. tuberculosis can form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, and the cells in the biofilm can survive at high concentrations of antibiotics. CwlM is a peptidoglycan hydrolase (amidase) and can hydrolyze bacterial cell walls, and the effects of CwlM on autolysis and biofilms is worthy of in-depth study. In this study, we successfully constructed an in vitro biofilm model of M...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Bruna G Garcia, Felipe S Castro, Mônica A M Vieira, Dennys M Girão, Lucas T Uenishi, Maria C Cergole-Novella, Luis F Dos Santos, Roxane M F Piazza, Rodrigo T Hernandes, Tânia A T Gomes
Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (tEPEC) cause attaching/effacing lesions in eukaryotic cells and produce the bundle-forming pilus (BFP), which interweaves and aggregates bacteria, resulting in the localized adherence (LA) pattern on eukaryotic cells. Previously, we identified tEPEC strains (serotype O119:H6) that exhibited LA simultaneously with an aggregative adherence (AA)-like pattern (LA/AA-like+). Remarkably, AA is characteristically produced by strains of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), another diarrheagenic E...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Maneesha K Suresh, Raja Biswas, Lalitha Biswas
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) readily forms biofilms on prosthetic devices such as the pacemakers, heart valves, orthopaedic implants, and indwelling catheters. Its biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy and pose a serious burden in the healthcare setting as they drastically increase the treatment cost and morbidity of the patient. Prevention and treatment of staphylococcal biofilms has therefore been an area of active research for the past two decades. While catheters coated with different antiseptics and antibiotics capable of preventing S...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Gillian A M Tarr, Hanna N Oltean, Amanda I Phipps, Peter Rabinowitz, Phillip I Tarr
BACKGROUND: Multiple case definitions for post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are used across public health, research, and clinical practice. METHODS: To identify a single definition of D+ HUS for standardized use, we evaluated the comparability and validity of four common, heterogeneous definitions: the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) definition, hematology-focused and age-focused definitions from the literature, and hospital diagnosis...
December 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jacob R Elder, Narayan C Paul, Raquel Burin, Jean Guard, Devendra H Shah
Salmonella pathogenicity island 13 (SPI-13) contributes to the virulence of Salmonella. The majority of the SPI-13 genes encode proteins putatively involved in bacterial metabolism, however, their functions largely remain uncharacterized. It is currently unknown if SPI-13 contributes to metabolic fitness of Salmonella and, if so, what are the metabolic substrates for the protein encoded by genes within SPI-13. We employed Phenotype Microarray (Biolog, USA) to compare the metabolic properties of SPI-13 deficient mutant (ΔSPI-13) and the WT parent strain of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica sub sp...
December 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ana Margarida Sousa, Rosana Monteiro, Maria Olívia Pereira
Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infections are the major cause of high morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients due to the use of sophisticated mechanisms of adaptation, including clonal diversification into specialized CF-adapted phenotypes. In contrast to chronic infections, very little is known about what occurs after CF lungs colonization and at early infection stages. This study aims to investigate the early events of P. aeruginosa adaptation to CF environment, in particular, to inspect the occurrence of clonal diversification at early stages of infection development and its impact on antibiotherapy effectiveness...
December 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Martin Bitzan, Omar AlKandari, Blair Whittemore, Xiao-Ling Yin
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare complication of invasive pneumococcal infection (pnHUS). Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and treatment remains controversial. The emerging role of complement in various forms of HUS warrants a new look at this "old" disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory features of three sequential cases of pnHUS since 2008 associated with pneumonia/pleural empyema, two due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19 A. Profound depletion of complement C3 (and less of C4) was observed in two patients...
December 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Marc Schulte, Torsten Sterzenbach, Katarzyna Miskiewicz, Laura Elpers, Michael Hensel, Nicole Hansmeier
The expression of bacterial virulence factors is controlled in response to host or environmental factors and most virulence genes are not expressed under laboratory conditions. Investigations of molecular structures and cellular functions of bacterial virulence factors demand systems for experimentally controlled expression. We describe a simple and robust system that is based on the tetA promoter and the cognate repressor TetR. Expression under control of PtetA can be induced by non-antibiotic derivatives of tetracycline such as anhydrotetracycline (AHT)...
November 16, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Qing Zhu, Wen Wen, Wanying Wang, Baolin Sun
Staphylococcus aureus can produce numerous surface proteins involved in the adhesion and internalization of host cells, immune evasion, and inflammation initiation. Among these surface proteins, the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules contain many crucial cell wall-anchored virulence factors. The Sar-family regulatory protein Rot has been reported to regulate many important extracellular virulence factors at the transcriptional level, including Spa and clumping factor B. SpoVG, a global regulator in S...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Laure Surgers, Anders Boyd, Pierre-Marie Girard, Guillaume Arlet, Dominique Decré
OBJECTIVES: Biofilm production in extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae provides a favourable environment for the exchange of antibiotic-resistance genes and could facilitate widespread dissemination. We aimed to assess biofilm development in ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates and determine how development relates to microbiological characteristics and clinical outcomes. METHODS: 147 ESBL-producing E. coli and 82 K. pneumoniae were genetically characterized...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Patricia Trübe, Tobias Hertlein, Daniel M Mrochen, Daniel Schulz, Ilka Jorde, Bettina Krause, Julia Zeun, Stefan Fischer, Silver A Wolf, Birgit Walther, Torsten Semmler, Barbara M Bröker, Rainer G Ulrich, Knut Ohlsen, Silva Holtfreter
Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is a leading cause of bacterial infection world-wide, and currently no vaccine is available for humans. Vaccine development relies heavily on clinically relevant infection models. However, the suitability of mice for S. aureus infection models has often been questioned, because experimental infection of mice with human-adapted S. aureus requires very high infection doses. Moreover, mice were not considered to be natural hosts of S. aureus. The latter has been disproven by our recent findings, showing that both laboratory mice, as well as wild small mammals including mice, voles, and shrews, are naturally colonized with S...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ina Gajic, Celine Plainvert, Dusan Kekic, Nicolas Dmytruk, Vera Mijac, Asmaa Tazi, Philippe Glaser, Lazar Ranin, Claire Poyart, Natasa Opavski
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) remains the leading cause of invasive diseases in neonates and an important cause of infections in the elderly. The aim of this study was to access the prevalence of GBS genito-rectal colonisation of pregnant women and to evaluate the genetic characteristics of invasive and non-invasive GBS isolates recovered throughout Serbia. A total of 432 GBS isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) types and the presence of the hvgA gene...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
S Feuerbaum, N Saile, G Pohlentz, J Müthing, H Schmidt
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 encodes the single chromosomal 9-O-acetylesterase NanS, and several copies of prophage-encoded 9-O-acetylesterases (NanS-p). These enzymes have recently been shown to cleave 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2 ) to yield de-O-acetylated Neu5Ac, the latter of which may serve as a carbon and/or nitrogen source. In the current study, we investigated the NanS- and NanS-p-mediated digestion of synthetic O-acetylated neuraminic acids and bovine submaxillary glands mucin (BSM)-derived O-acetylneuraminic acids by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and nano electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI MS)...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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