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Pest Management Science

Anderson Bolzan, Fernando E O Padovez, Antonio R B Nascimento, Ingrid S Kaiser, Ewerton C Lira, Fernando S A Amaral, Rubens H Kanno, José Bruno Malaquias, Celso Omoto
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic basis of insect resistance to insecticides can help to implement Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) strategies. In this study, we selected a resistant strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to chlorantraniliprole by F2 screen method, characterized the inheritance of resistance and evaluated patterns of cross-resistance to other diamide insecticides. RESULTS: The chlorantraniliprole-resistant strain (Chlorant-R) was selected from a field-collect population with an estimated allele frequency of 0...
February 14, 2019: Pest Management Science
Eba Alemayehu Simma, Wannes Dermauw, Vasileia Balabanidou, Simon Snoeck, Astrid Bryon, Richard M Clark, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, John Vontas, Luc Duchateau, Thomas Van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: Vector control is the main intervention in malaria control and elimination strategies. However, the development of insecticide resistance is one of the major challenges for controlling malaria vectors. Anopheles arabiensis populations in Ethiopia showed resistance against both DDT and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Although a L1014F target-site resistance mutation was present in the voltage gated sodium channel of investigated populations, the levels of resistance indicated the presence of additional resistance mechanisms...
February 11, 2019: Pest Management Science
Xiaobo Huang, Min Lv, Hui Xu
BACKGROUND: To discover novel natural-product-based pesticidal agents for crop protection, a series of N-acyl/sulfonyl derivatives of 5 (3,5)-(di)halogenocytisines/cytisine were prepared by structural modifications of cytisine. Their pesticidal activities were evaluated against three typically crop-threatening agricultural pests, Mythimna separata Walker, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval, and Sitobion avenae Fabricius. RESULTS: Compound 5f exhibited the promising pesticidal activities against three tested pests...
February 11, 2019: Pest Management Science
Xiaoyu Cheng, Fanchi Li, Jian Chen, Hui Wang, Tingting Mao, Jinxin Li, Jiahuan Hu, Bing Li
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used in the prevention and control of pests in agriculture and forestry, but they can also affect the development of nontarget economic insects. In order to determine the effects of trace acetamiprid on the development of reproductive system of silkworm, we studied the gonad development and endogenous hormone metabolism in silkworms exposed to trace acetamiprid. RESULT: The silkworm showed mild poisoning symptoms after being exposed to trace acetamiprid (0...
February 10, 2019: Pest Management Science
Lucy Alford, Richard Marley, Anthony Dornan, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Julian A T Dow, Ronald J Nachman, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are regulators of critical life processes in insects and, due to their high specificity, represent potential targets in the development of greener insecticidal agents. Fundamental to this drive is understanding neuroendocrine pathways that control key physiological processes in pest insects and the screening of potential analogues. The current study investigated neuropeptide binding sites of kinin and CAPA (CAPA-1) in the aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum rosae and the effect of biostable analogues on aphid fitness under conditions of desiccation, starvation and thermal (cold) stress...
February 7, 2019: Pest Management Science
Shun-Fan Wu, Xiao-Min Jv, Jing-Mei Huang, Cong-Fen Gao
BACKGROUND: Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, regulates and modulates many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. It mediates its effects by binding to specific octopamine receptors, which belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The expression profiles of octopamine receptor genes have been well documented in different developmental stages and multiple tissue types in several different insect orders. However, little work has addressed this issue in Hemiptera...
February 7, 2019: Pest Management Science
Verena Pichler, Chiara Malandruccolo, Serini Paola, Romeo Bellini, Francesco Severini, Luciano Toma, Marco Di Luca, Fabrizio Montarsi, Marco Ballardini, Mattia Manica, Vincenzo Petrarca, John Vontas, Shinji Kasai, Alessandra Della Torre, Beniamino Caputo
BACKGROUND: The highly invasive mosquito species, Aedes albopictus, has become a major health concern in temperate areas due to its role as vector of exotic arboviruses. Pyrethroid insecticides represent the main tools for limiting the circulation of such mosquito-borne viruses. The present work aimed at extending previous reports on phenotypic pyrethroid-resistance in European Ae. albopictus, to identify its genetic basis and to monitor the geographical distribution of resistant genotypes, with a particular focus on sites experiencing the 2017 chikungunya-outbreak in Italy...
February 6, 2019: Pest Management Science
Simone Haller, Franco Widmer, Blair D Siegfried, Xuguo Zhuo, Jörg Romeis
BACKGROUND: One concern with the adoption of RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops is the potential harm to valued non-target organisms. Species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) are important natural enemies and might be exposed to the insecticidal dsRNA produced by the plant. To assess their susceptibility to dietary RNAi, we fed Adalia bipunctata and Coccinella septempunctata with a dsRNA designed to target the vATPase A of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Dvv dsRNA)...
February 6, 2019: Pest Management Science
Arpita Dalal, Ross N Cuthbert, Jaimie T A Dick, Susmita Gupta
BACKGROUND: Context-dependencies can modulate the strength of predatory interactions and often remain unquantified. In particular, differences in water depth within aquatic systems could influence predator efficiencies towards prey which utilise 3D-space through the water column. Differences in prey size could drive prey size-refuge effects, influencing the efficacy of natural enemies towards vector species. We thus quantify the predatory impact of two notonectid predators, Anisops breddini and Anisops sardeus, towards four different larval instars of Culex quinquefasciatus prey across a water depth gradient, using functional responses (FRs)...
February 6, 2019: Pest Management Science
Kai P Purnhagen, Justus H H Wesseler
New Plant Breeding Technologies (NPBTs), including CRISPR gene editing, are widely used and drive the development of new crops. However, these new technologies are disputed, creating uncertainty in how applications of these technologies for agricultural and food uses will be regulated. While in North America regulatory systems respond with a differentiated approach to NPBTs, the Court of Justice of the European Union has in effect made most if not all NPBT subject to the same regulatory regime as GMOs. Since, discussion on the regulatory reform of the EU's GM legal systems are underway...
February 3, 2019: Pest Management Science
Lori Lach, Trevor M Volp, Shawn M Wilder
BACKGROUND: Recent research on multiple invasive ant species has revealed the importance of carbohydrates for achieving high activity levels and outcompeting native ants. However, comparatively little is known about the role of diet and macronutrient preferences for uptake of insecticidal baits used to control invasive ants. We tested whether diet affected yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes Fr Smith) survival, behavior, and whether bait preference would be complementary to past diet...
January 31, 2019: Pest Management Science
Qing Chen, Xiao Liang, Chunling Wu, Jintao Gao, Qian Chen, Zhe Zhang
BACKGROUD: The red spider mite Tetranychus urticae is known as worldwide pest in cassava production which can caused serious economic losses. Because no threshold levels are established for T.urticae in cassava cropping, many growers in China are applying excessive chemical applications per cassava cropping period. This is not only expensive, but also results in lower yields because of severe leaf damage and development of resistance. This study aims to develop an immediate threshold level for T...
January 31, 2019: Pest Management Science
Ja Yeong Jang, Quang Le Dang, Gyung Ja Choi, Hae Woong Park, Jin-Cheol Kim
BACKGROUND: Waltheria indica exhibited strong nematocidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita, a causal agent of root-knot nematode disease. This study aimed to characterize the nematocidal metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of the formulated extract of W. indica in the biological control of M. incognita under both pot and field conditions. RESULTS: Three 4-quinolone alkaloids, 5´-methoxywaltherione A, waltherione A, and waltherione C, were isolated and characterized as nematocidal metabolites...
January 30, 2019: Pest Management Science
Sachiyo Sanada-Morimura, Tomohisa Fujii, Ho Van Chien, Le Quoc Cuong, Gerardo F Estoy, Masaya Matsumura
BACKGROUND: Strong resistance to imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) has developed in Southeastern and East Asia. Although the mode of inheritance for resistance is very useful information for pest control, this information is unknown in N. lugens. Here, we established two resistant strains that were selected from field populations in Vietnam and the Philippines and conducted crossing experiments to determine the inheritance pattern. RESULTS: The resistance ratio of LD50 values for the two resistance-selected strains, i...
January 30, 2019: Pest Management Science
Maria Isabella Prigigallo, Maria Teresa Melillo, Giovanni Bubici, Petre I Dobrev, Radomira Vankova, Fabrizio Cillo, Pasqua Veronico
BACKGROUND: Ozonated water (O3 wat) soil drench and/or foliar spray applications, were evaluated for their potential to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (RKN) and the airborne pathogen Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato. We investigated how O3 wat modulates the SA/JA/ET signalling network in the host, locally and systemically, to induce resistance to nematode and virus. RESULTS: The application as soil drench was effective in reducing the number of galls and egg masses, but did not reduce the incidence and severity of TSWV infection...
January 30, 2019: Pest Management Science
Roberta Alvarenga, Alexander Machado Auad, Jair Campos Moraes, Sandra Elisa Barbosa da Silva, Brunno Santos Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Several factors may degrade pastures, in particular, inadequate nutrient application and spittlebug attacks. Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), one of the species that occur in Brazil, is a limiting pest in forage production. The current investigation analyzes the influence of fertilization with the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) on the survival of nymphs of M. spectabilis and damage by nymphs and adults on the production, quality and regrowth capacity of the forages Brachiaria ruziziensis, Pennisetum purpureum and Digitaria sp...
January 30, 2019: Pest Management Science
Kailang Yang, Xiaojian Wen, Yuan Ren, Junbao Wen
BACKGROUND: Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus is a major pest of tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima, in China. Damage caused by E. scrobiculatus has increased as beetle populations have expanded. We developed a trunk trap net (TTN) and two modified TTNs, i.e., TTN with a wire ring (TTN-WR) and TTN with a spongy cushion (TTN-SC), and evaluated their ability to capture E. scrobiculatus in plantations of A. altissima. RESULTS: We obtained significantly higher laboratory weevil recapture rates using the TTN-WR and TTN-SC (i...
January 25, 2019: Pest Management Science
Francisco A Macías, Francisco J R Mejías, José M G Molinillo
Allelopathy is the biological phenomenon of chemical interaction between living organisms in the ecosystem, and it must be taken into account to address pest and weed problems in future sustainable agriculture. Allelopathy is a multidisciplinary science, but in some cases, chemistry aspects are overlooked, despite the need for a deep knowledge of chemical structural characteristics of allelochemicals to facilitate the design of new herbicides. This review is focused on the most important advances in allelopathy, with particular attention paid to the design and development of phenolic compounds, terpenoids and alkaloids as herbicides...
January 25, 2019: Pest Management Science
Ewa Matyjaszczyk
Compulsory integrated pest management poses a number of challenges and debatable issues. Some of them are discussed in reference to the European Union requirements set in Annex III of Directive 128/2009. Requirements on the use of plant protection products bring problems with dose reduction in the light of resistance prevention strategy, the lack of threshold levels, the necessity of chemical treatments and the limited availability of effective products of biological origin. Making use of preventive measures of pest control faces barriers related to profitability and lack of famers knowledge...
January 25, 2019: Pest Management Science
L B Adduci, V A León, M Busch, J Fraschina
BACKGROUND: The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a cosmopolitan rodent that has become adapted to living in close association with humans and is considered a serious pest because it poses a risk to human health and causes economic losses due to food and crop consumption and damage to building structures. Its control in animal production farms is achieved mainly through the application of anticoagulant rodenticides, but the effect of these compounds is limited because of the presence of resistant individuals and aversive behaviours...
January 24, 2019: Pest Management Science
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