Nishigandha Pradhan, Mirela Dobre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. New therapeutic options to slow CKD progression and reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have recently emerged. This review highlights recent evidence and gaps in knowledge in emerging CKD preventive strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: EMPA-Kidney trial found that empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) led to 28% lower risk of progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes, compared to placebo...
December 1, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Karolina Łanoszka, Nimasha Vlčková
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent findings investigating the impact of several natural sirtuin (SIRT) activators, particularly SIRT1, on atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Sirtuins that belong to a family of class III histone deacetylases are believed to be novel therapeutic targets to treat age-related and chronic diseases. SIRT expression is regulated by small molecules called SIRT-activating compounds that can be found in natural food products...
December 1, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Lorraine M Schratz, Olivia Larkin, Nilse Dos Santos, Christine Martin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to define caregiver practices that impact childhood eating behaviors and identify ways to utilize these relationships to prevent childhood obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Childhood obesity, which correlates with adult obesity and increased cardiovascular risk, is increasing in prevalence and severity. Caregivers play a significant role in shaping a child's eating behaviors and their predisposition to obesity. Maternal influences during pregnancy and infancy impact a child's future food preferences...
November 30, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Natalie Arnold, Wolfgang Koenig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to critically discuss whether more aggressive lipid-lowering strategies are needed in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, available data on early (in-hospital/discharge) administration of potent lipid-lowering drugs, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors in patients during the vulnerable post-ACS phase, have clearly demonstrated clinical efficacy of the "strike early and strike strong" approach not only for rapid reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to unprecedentedly low levels, but also for associated favorable composition of coronary plaque...
November 28, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Jenny Cheng, Michael Cheng, Aldons J Lusis, Xia Yang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronary artery disease is a complex disorder and the leading cause of mortality worldwide. As technologies for the generation of high-throughput multiomics data have advanced, gene regulatory network modeling has become an increasingly powerful tool in understanding coronary artery disease. This review summarizes recent and novel gene regulatory network tools for bulk tissue and single cell data, existing databases for network construction, and applications of gene regulatory networks in coronary artery disease...
November 27, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Nitesh Gautam, Joshua Mueller, Omar Alqaisi, Tanmay Gandhi, Abdallah Malkawi, Tushar Tarun, Hani J Alturkmani, Muhammed Ali Zulqarnain, Gianluca Pontone, Subhi J Al'Aref
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we sought to provide an overview of ML and focus on the contemporary applications of ML in cardiovascular risk prediction and precision preventive approaches. We end the review by highlighting the limitations of ML while projecting on the potential of ML in assimilating these multifaceted aspects of CAD in order to improve patient-level outcomes and further population health. RECENT FINDINGS: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is estimated to affect 20...
November 27, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Barbora Nussbaumerova, Hana Rosolova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article sumarizes pathopysiological consequencies between obesity and dyslipidemia and aims to bring some practical approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Dyslipidemia is often present in individuals with obesity and simultaneusly, many obese individuals have lipid metabolism disorders. Especially the abdominal obesity increases the cardiometabolic risk because of the presence of atherogenic dyslipidemia while the total low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may be normal...
November 18, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Heena Agarwal, Brea Tinsley, Amesh K Sarecha, Lale Ozcan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The focus of this article is to highlight the importance of the small GTPase, Ras-associated protein 1 (Rap1), in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulation and atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes etiology and discuss the potential therapeutic implications of targeting Rap1 in these disease areas. REVIEW FINDINGS: Cardiometabolic disease characterized by obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remain an important cause of mortality...
November 18, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Kartik Gupta, Colin Hinkamp, Tyler Andrews, Chelsea Meloche, Abdul Mannan Khan Minhas, Leandro Slipczuk, Elizabeth Vaughan, Fatima Zohra Habib, Sana Sheikh, Dinesh Kalra, Salim S Virani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize selected late-breaking science on cardiovascular (CV) disease prevention presented at the 2023 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) congress. RECENT FINDINGS: The NATURE-PARADOX was a naturally randomized trial that used genetic data from the UK Biobank registry to create "cumulative exposure to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)" biomarker and evaluate its association with major CV events regardless of plasma LDL-C levels or age...
November 17, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Jelani K Grant, Carl E Orringer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss and review the technical considerations, fundamentals, and guideline-based indications for coronary artery calcium scoring, and the use of other non-invasive imaging modalities, such as extra-coronary calcification in cardiovascular risk prediction. RECENT FINDINGS: The most robust evidence for the use of CAC scoring is in select individuals, 40-75 years of age, at borderline to intermediate 10-year ASCVD risk. Recent US recommendations support the use of CAC scoring in varying clinical scenarios...
November 16, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Pablo Corral, Carlos A Aguilar Salinas, María Gabriela Matta, Valeria Zago, Laura Schreier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is the most common monogenic autosomal dominant disorder. However, the condition is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the risk stratification in patients with HeFH, incorporating new cardiovascular imaging techniques, various biomarkers, and genetic studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnosis of HeFH places patients in a high cardiovascular risk category due to the increased incidence of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
November 3, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Asier Larrea-Sebal, Shifa Jebari-Benslaiman, Unai Galicia-Garcia, Ane San Jose-Urteaga, Kepa B Uribe, Asier Benito-Vicente, César Martín
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a hereditary condition characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease if left untreated. This review aims to discuss the role of bioinformatics tools in evaluating the pathogenicity of missense variants associated with FH. Specifically, it highlights the use of predictive models based on protein sequence, structure, evolutionary conservation, and other relevant features in identifying genetic variants within LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 genes that contribute to FH...
October 17, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Marianne Klevmoen, Janneke W C M Mulder, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep, Kirsten B Holven
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the existing research on sex differences in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) across the lifespan. RECENT FINDINGS: From childhood onward, total- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in girls are higher than those in boys with FH. By the age of 30 years, women with FH have a higher LDL-C burden than men. In adulthood, women are diagnosed later than men, receive less lipid-lowering treatment, and consequently have higher LDL-C levels...
November 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Golsa Joodi, Sristi Palimar, Marcella Calfon Press
PURPOSEOF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women globally. Numerous studies show ongoing disparities in diagnosis, management, and outcomes of ischemic heart disease in women compared to men. We aim to review the factors contributing to sex-based differential outcomes of percutaneous coronary interventions in women. RECENT FINDINGS: Hormonal influence on coronary arteries and progression of atherosclerosis in women results in distinct coronary plaque characteristics and unique pathological process such as spontaneous coronary artery dissection and myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries...
October 10, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Shirin Pourteymour, Christian A Drevon, Knut Tomas Dalen, Frode A Norheim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the key factors contributing to the onset and progress of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and put them in a system genetics context. We particularly focus on how genetic regulation of hepatic lipids contributes to NAFLD. RECENT FINDINGS: NAFLD is characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver. This can progress to steatohepatitis (inflammation and hepatocyte injury) and eventually, cirrhosis. The severity of NAFLD is determined by a combination of factors including obesity, insulin resistance, and lipotoxic lipids, along with genetic susceptibility...
October 9, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Mitra Nekouei Shahraki, Soroush Mohammadi Jouabadi, Daniel Bos, Bruno H Stricker, Fariba Ahmadizar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aimed to determine the association between statin use and coronary artery calcification (CAC), as detected by computed tomography in the general population, in previously published observational studies (OSs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic search until February 2022 identified 41 relevant studies, comprising 29 OSs and 12 RCTs. We employed six meta-analysis models, stratifying studies based on design and effect metrics...
October 5, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Amber Pirzada, Jianwen Cai, Christina Cordero, Linda C Gallo, Carmen R Isasi, John Kunz, Bharat Thyagaragan, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Martha L Daviglus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) has made important contributions on the prevalence of and factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among diverse Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. This article summarizes the knowledge gained thus far on major CVD risk factors from this landmark study. RECENT FINDINGS: HCHS/SOL demonstrated the sizeable burdens of CVD risk in all major Hispanic/Latino groups in the US, as well as the marked variations in prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking by sex and background...
September 29, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Rachel Tobin, Nidhi Patel, Kardie Tobb, Brittany Weber, Puja K Mehta, Ijeoma Isiadinso
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to the general population, despite most patients being young females, who are not classically considered to be at high risk for cardiovascular disease using traditional risk assessment tools. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in SLE and raise awareness of the relationship between SLE and CVD. RECENT FINDINGS: The increased risk of CVD in SLE patients is multifactorial, due to proatherogenic lipid profiles, immune dysregulation and inflammation, side effects of lupus treatment, and microvascular dysfunction...
September 28, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Benjamin N Wadström, Anders B Wulff, Kasper M Pedersen, Børge G Nordestgaard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent large clinical trials have failed to show that triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-lowering therapies decrease the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In this review, we reconcile these findings with evidence showing that elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and the cholesterol they contain, remnant cholesterol, cause ASCVD alongside low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. RECENT FINDINGS: Results from observational epidemiology, genetic epidemiology, and randomized controlled trials indicate that lowering of remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decrease ASCVD risk by a similar magnitude per 1 mmol/L (39 mg/dL) lower non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (remnant cholesterol+LDL cholesterol)...
September 28, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Shun-Yi Shi, Fang Jia, Meng-Fei Wang, Ya-Feng Zhou, Jian-Jun Li
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are two clinically common disease entities that share numerous risk factors. This review aimed to discuss the impacts of NAFLD on ACS. RECENT FINDINGS: In an era of improved control of traditional risk factors, the substantial burden of cardiometabolic abnormalities has caused widespread concern. NAFLD is considered the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, which can exert an impact on human health beyond the liver...
September 28, 2023: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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