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Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768766/semaglutide-as-a-promising-antiobesity-drug
#1
REVIEW
Georgios A Christou, Niki Katsiki, John Blundell, Gema Fruhbeck, Dimitrios N Kiortsis
Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) with a long elimination half-life, allowing subcutaneous (sc) administration once per week. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved once-weekly sc semaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The weight loss efficacy of once-weekly sc semaglutide appears to be superior compared with the other once-weekly GLP-1 RAs in patients with T2DM. Semaglutide was recently evaluated as an antiobesity drug in a phase II dose-finding trial, which demonstrated superior weight loss efficacy of once daily sc semaglutide compared with both placebo and once daily 3...
February 15, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768750/a-biopsychosocial-approach-to-processes-and-pathways-in-the-development-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-childhood-insights-from-developmental-theory-and-research
#2
Catherine G Russell, Alan Russell
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in many countries. There is consensus that both biological (especially genetic) and environmental (including psychosocial) factors contribute to weight gain and obesity in childhood. Research has identified extensive risk or predictive factors for childhood obesity from both of these domains. There is less consensus about the developmental processes or pathways showing how these risk factors lead to overweigh/obesity (OW/OB) in childhood. We outline a biopsychosocial process model of the development of OW/OB in childhood...
February 15, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756459/high-fat-diets-reduce-male-reproductive-success-in-animal-models-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Angela J Crean, Alistair M Senior
Sperm counts have shown a progressive decline across the world since the mid-1900s. Global rates of obesity have been climbing at a similarly alarming rate, suggesting that these two factors may be linked. However, studies examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and male fertility have produced conflicting results. These discrepancies among studies are commonly attributed to limitations that are inherent in human studies such as correlational data and confounding factors-limitations that are absent from animal studies...
February 12, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734459/efficacy-of-very-low-energy-diet-programs-for-weight-loss-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-of-intervention-studies-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Andela, Tracy L Burrows, Louise A Baur, Daisy H Coyle, Clare E Collins, Megan L Gow
The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of very low-energy diet (VLED) programs for weight loss in children and adolescents with obesity. Six electronic databases were searched identifying 24 eligible studies (16 pre-post studies, four nonrandomized trials, two randomized controlled trials [RCTs], and two chart reviews) published up to October 2018. Studies were in English, implemented a VLED (≤3360 kJF/day [≤800 kcal/day] or <50% estimated energy requirements) in 5- to 18-year-olds with obesity, and reported at least one weight-related outcome...
February 7, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675990/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-meal-replacements-for-weight-loss
#5
REVIEW
Nerys M Astbury, Carmen Piernas, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Sophia Lapworth, Paul Aveyard, Susan A Jebb
Meal replacements (MR) are generally not recommended in clinical guidelines for the management of obesity. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date systematic evaluation of the effect of weight loss interventions incorporating MR compared with alternative interventions on weight change at 1 year in adults with overweight or obesity. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to the end of August 2018 for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of MR with interventions that did not include MR on weight at 1 year...
January 24, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30674081/increased-maternal-pregnancy-complications-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-appear-to-be-independent-of-obesity-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#6
REVIEW
Mahnaz Bahri Khomami, Anju E Joham, Jacqueline A Boyle, Terhi Piltonen, Michael Silagy, Chavy Arora, Marie L Misso, Helena J Teede, Lisa J Moran
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased risk of maternal pregnancy and delivery complications. However, the impact of clinical features of PCOS and other potential risk factors in PCOS is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the association of PCOS with maternal pregnancy and delivery complications with consideration of risk factors and potential confounders. The meta-analysis included 63 studies. PCOS was associated with higher miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, induction of labour, and caesarean section...
January 23, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653803/overweight-and-obesity-among-adults-in-the-gulf-states-a-systematic-literature-review-of-correlates-of-weight-weight-related-behaviours-and-interventions
#7
REVIEW
Abdulaziz Balhareth, Ree Meertens, Stef Kremers, Ester Sleddens
Obesity has increased to an epidemic level in the Gulf States. This systematic review is the first to explore the scientific evidence on correlates and interventions for overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25) or weight-related behaviours in the region. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO. Ninety-one studies were eligible for this review including 84 correlate studies and seven intervention studies. Correlate studies of overweight focused on sociodemographic factors, physical activity, and dietary habits...
January 17, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30645010/treatment-of-obesity-in-older-persons-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Cilla Haywood, Priya Sumithran
The study aims to systematically review the available evidence regarding weight loss interventions (lifestyle, surgical, and pharmacological) for obesity in adults aged over 60 years. A search of prospective, randomized studies took place in January 2018, on Medline (Web of Science) and PubMed databases. Search terms included the following: elderly, obese, hypocaloric, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. Abstracts were screened for eligibility. A total of 256 publications regarding lifestyle interventions were identified; of these, 69 studies were eligible...
January 15, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633845/understanding-the-impact-of-rural-weight-loss-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Gwenndolyn C Porter, Karen Laumb, Tzeyu Michaud, Fabiana Brito, Daniel Petreca, Gina Schwieger, Todd Bartee, Karen H K Yeary, Paul A Estabrooks
Rural adults have a higher risk of developing obesity than urban adults. Several evidence-based interventions have targeted rural regions, but their impact, defined as reach (number and representativeness of participants) by effectiveness, has not been examined. The purpose of this review was to determine the impact of rural weight loss interventions and the availability of data across dimensions of the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A systematic review was conducted to identify rural weight loss interventions that targeted adults...
January 11, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633422/maternal-obesity-in-pregnancy-impacts-offspring-cardiometabolic-health-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-animal-studies
#10
REVIEW
M D Menting, S Mintjens, C van de Beek, C J Frick, S E Ozanne, J Limpens, T J Roseboom, C R Hooijmans, A W van Deutekom, R C Painter
Obesity before and during pregnancy leads to reduced offspring cardiometabolic health. Here, we systematically reviewed animal experimental evidence of maternal obesity before and during pregnancy and offspring anthropometry and cardiometabolic health. We systematically searched Embase and Medline from inception until January 2018. Eligible publications compared offspring of mothers with obesity to mothers with a normal weight. We performed meta-analyses and subgroup analyses. We also examined methodological quality and publication bias...
January 11, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628172/are-school-based-physical-activity-interventions-effective-and-equitable-a-meta-analysis-of-cluster-randomized-controlled-trials-with-accelerometer-assessed-activity
#11
REVIEW
Rebecca Love, Jean Adams, Esther M F van Sluijs
The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at epidemic rates globally, with widening inequalities between advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Despite the promise of schools as a universal context to access and influence all children, the potential of school-based interventions to positively impact children's physical activity behaviour, and obesity risk, remains uncertain. We searched six electronic databases to February 2017 for cluster randomized trials of school-based physical activity interventions...
January 9, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624854/variation-in-the-physical-activity-environment-according-to-area-level-socio-economic-position-a-systematic-review
#12
Jane Jacobs, Laura Alston, Cindy Needham, Kathryn Backholer, Claudia Strugnell, Steven Allender, Melanie Nichols
Physical inactivity is a major contributing factor to obesity, and both follow a socio-economic gradient. This systematic review aims to identify whether the physical activity environment varies by socio-economic position (SEP), which may contribute to socio-economic patterning of physical activity behaviours, and in turn, obesity levels. Six databases were searched. Studies were included if they compared an objectively measured aspect of the physical activity environment between areas of differing SEP in a high-income country...
January 9, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30618143/the-informas-healthy-food-environment-policy-index-food-epi-in-mexico-an-assessment-of-implementation-gaps-and-priority-recommendations
#13
Claudia Nieto, Estefania Rodríguez, Karina Sánchez-Bazán, Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo, Angela Carriedo-Lutzenkirchen, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Simón Barquera
Mexico is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of obesity and recently declared a national epidemic of diabetes. Healthy food environments have the potential to improve the diet of the population and decrease the burden of disease. The aim of the study was to assess the efforts of the Mexican Government towards creating healthier food environments using the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI). The tool was developed by the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS)...
January 7, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609450/weight-loss-and-lifestyle-interventions-for-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-in-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Almudena Carneiro-Barrera, Amparo Díaz-Román, Alejandro Guillén-Riquelme, Gualberto Buela-Casal
Lifestyle interventions addressing diet, exercise-training, sleep hygiene, and/or tobacco/alcohol cessation are recommended in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Yet their effectiveness on this condition still requires further research. This systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed at establishing (a) the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and secondary OSA measures among adults, and (b) which intervention characteristics may drive the greatest improvements...
January 4, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609449/beyond-the-bone-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-in-adipose-tissue
#15
REVIEW
Ana M Blázquez-Medela, Medet Jumabay, Kristina I Boström
The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the same superfamily as related to transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), and activins. They were initially described as inducers of bone formation but are now known to be involved in morphogenetic activities and cell differentiation throughout the body, including the development of adipose tissue and adipogenic differentiation. BMP4 and BMP7 are the most studied BMPs in adipose tissue, with major roles in white adipogenesis and brown adipogenesis, respectively, but other BMPs such as BMP2, BMP6, and BMP8b as well as some inhibitors and modulators have been shown to also affect adipogenesis...
January 4, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609260/an-11-country-study-to-benchmark-the-implementation-of-recommended-nutrition-policies-by-national-governments-using-the-healthy-food-environment-policy-index-2015-2018
#16
Stefanie Vandevijvere, Simon Barquera, Gabriela Caceres, Camila Corvalan, Tilakavati Karupaiah, Maria Fernanda Kroker-Lobos, Mary L'Abbé, See Hoe Ng, Sirinya Phulkerd, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Salome A Rebello, Marcela Reyes, Gary Sacks, Carmen María Sánchez Nóchez, Karina Sanchez, David Sanders, Mark Spires, Rina Swart, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Zoey Tay, Anna Taylor, Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo, Rob Van Dam, Lana Vanderlee, Fiona Watson, Clare Whitton, Boyd Swinburn
The Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) aims to assess the extent of implementation of recommended food environment policies by governments compared with international best practices and prioritize actions to fill implementation gaps. The Food-EPI was applied in 11 countries across six regions (2015-2018). National public health nutrition panels (n = 11-101 experts) rated the extent of implementation of 47 policy and infrastructure support good practice indicators by their government(s) against best practices, using an evidence document verified by government officials...
January 4, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589980/gender-related-issues-in-the-pharmacology-of-new-anti-obesity-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Mauro Cataldi, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Silvia Savastano, Luigi Barrea, Bruna Guida, Maurizio Taglialatela, Annamaria Colao
Four new medicines-liraglutide, lorcaserin, bupropion/naltrexone, and phentermine/topiramate-have been recently added to the pharmacological arsenal for obesity treatment and could represent important tools to manage this epidemic disease. To achieve satisfactory anti-obesity goals, the use of these new medicines should be optimized and tailored to specific patient subpopulations also by applying dose adjustments if needed. In the present review, we posit that gender could be among the factors influencing the activity of the new obesity drugs both because of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors...
December 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589506/reply-to-letter-to-the-editor-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-fracture-risk-is-there-a-significant-higher-risk
#18
LETTER
Qi Zhang, Jing Li, Qin Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589498/metabolic-surgery-and-iron-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Peter N Benotti, G Craig Wood, Christopher D Still, Glenn S Gerhard, David D Rolston, Bruce R Bistrian
Iron deficiency and anaemia after metabolic surgery, potentially modifiable nutritional complications, are becoming an increasing cause for concern as prevalence increases with time and there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of the current guidelines for prophylactic oral iron supplementation and treatment for deficiency. Abnormalities in iron nutrition predisposing to deficiency are common in severely obese patients, and the low-grade systemic inflammation, also common to these patients, reduces the effectiveness of oral iron supplementation...
December 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589487/crosstalk-between-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-cardiometabolic-syndrome
#20
Soo Lim, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic condition characterized by fat accumulation combined with low-grade inflammation in the liver. A large body of clinical and experimental data shows that increased flux of free fatty acids from increased visceral adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis can lead to NAFLD and insulin resistance. Thus, individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia are at the greatest risk of developing NAFLD. Conversely, NAFLD is a phenotype of cardiometabolic syndrome...
December 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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