Yuanyuan Ren, Zi Li, Jiaoyu Li, Rui Liang, Zhen Wang, Yiduo Bai, Yafang Yang, Qian Tang, Yaolei Fu, Xiaobo Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yi Yu, Yuyan Xiong
As the most common internal post-transcriptional RNA modification in eukaryotic cells, N6-methyladenosine (m6 A) performs a dynamic and reversible role in a variety of biological processes mediated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6 A binding proteins (readers). M6 A methylation enables transcriptome conversion in different signals that regulate various physiological activities and organ development. Over the past few years, emerging studies have identified that mRNA m6 A regulators defect in β-cell leads to abnormal regulation of the target mRNAs, thereby resulting in β-cell dysfunction and loss of β-cell identity and mass, which are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis...
September 21, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Xiaofen Zhang, Li Gao, Haiyang Meng, Ailing Zhang, Yan Liang, Jingli Lu
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and is strongly associated with multiple immunological diseases, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Recent animal studies revealed that obesity-induced immunological changes worsen immune-driven diseases and cause resistance to immunotherapy. Here, we discuss the role of obesity in the immunopathology and treatment responses of cancers, respiratory and allergic diseases, and IL-17-mediated inflammatory diseases. We summarize the unique features of the inflammatory state of these diseases, which are orchestrated by obesity...
September 19, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Alhanouf S Al-Alsheikh, Shahd Alabdulkader, Alexander D Miras, Anthony P Goldstone
This systematic review collates studies of dietary or bariatric surgery interventions for obesity using positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Of 604 publications identified, 22 met inclusion criteria. Twelve studies assessed bariatric surgery (seven gastric bypass, five gastric bypass/sleeve gastrectomy), and ten dietary interventions (six low-calorie diet, three very low-calorie diet, one prolonged fasting). Thirteen studies examined neurotransmitter systems (six used tracers for dopamine DRD2/3 receptors: two each for 11 C-raclopride, 18 F-fallypride, 123 I-IBZM; one for dopamine transporter, 123 I-FP-CIT; one used tracer for serotonin 5-HT2A receptor, 18 F-altanserin; two used tracers for serotonin transporter, 11 C-DASB or 123 I-FP-CIT; two used tracer for μ-opioid receptor, 11 C-carfentanil; one used tracer for noradrenaline transporter, 11 C-MRB); seven studies assessed glucose uptake using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose; four studies assessed regional cerebral blood flow using 15 O-H2 O (one study also used arterial spin labeling); and two studies measured fatty acid uptake using 18 F-FTHA and one using 11 C-palmitate...
September 12, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Roger S Zoh, Bridget H Esteves, Xiaoxin Yu, Amanda J Fairchild, Ana I Vazquez, Andrew G Chapple, Andrew W Brown, Brandon George, Derek Gordon, Douglas Landsittel, Gary L Gadbury, Greg Pavela, Gustavo de Los Campos, Luis M Mestre, David B Allison
It is increasingly assumed that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to dietary recommendations for the management and treatment of chronic diseases such as obesity. This phenomenon that not all individuals respond uniformly to a given treatment has become an area of research interest given the rise of personalized and precision medicine. To conduct, interpret, and disseminate this research rigorously and with scientific accuracy, however, requires an understanding of treatment response heterogeneity. Here, we define treatment response heterogeneity as it relates to clinical trials, provide statistical guidance for measuring treatment response heterogeneity, and highlight study designs that can quantify treatment response heterogeneity in nutrition and obesity research...
September 4, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Seonad K Madden, Kiran D K Ahuja, Claire Blewitt, Briony Hill, Andrew P Hills, Helen Skouteris
The link between work and health outcomes for preconception, pregnant, and postpartum (PPP) working women is complex. Further, innovation and enhanced understanding are required to address the work-related determinants of maternal obesity. However, workplace health promotion is not typically systems-based nor attuned to the specific needs and context of individual PPP women. We propose that to improve health outcomes for PPP women, we must understand the pathways between paid work and health for the individual woman by taking a systems-thinking approach...
September 1, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Oliver W A Wilson, Michella Thai, Lindsay Williams, Sarah Nutter, Maxine Myre, Shelly Russell-Mayhew
Though anthropometric measurement (AM) frequently occurs in school settings, it is not without risks to child wellbeing. The aim of this scoping review was to examine how AM in school settings takes place and is reported on to make recommendations on best practices. We identified and extracted data from 440 studies published since 2005 that conducted AM in school (pre-school through secondary/high school) settings. Privacy and sensitivity of AM were unclear in over 90% of studies. Thirty-one studies (7.0%) reported protecting student privacy, while nine (2...
August 31, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Rieneke van der Meer, Siham A Mohamed, Valerie M Monpellier, Ronald S L Liem, Eric J Hazebroek, Paul W Franks, Timothy M Frayling, Ignace M C Janssen, Mireille J Serlie
The extent to which genetic variations contribute to interindividual differences in weight loss and metabolic outcomes after bariatric surgery is unknown. Identifying genetic variants that impact surgery outcomes may contribute to clinical decision making. This review evaluates current evidence addressing the association of genetic variants with weight loss and changes in metabolic parameters after bariatric surgery. A search was conducted using Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library...
August 26, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Rebecca K Evans, Paul Christiansen, Amy Finlay, Andrew Jones, Michelle Maden, Emma Boyland
Videogame livestreaming platforms are an emerging form of digital media, popular with young people, where users watch gaming influencers play videogames. Food and non-alcoholic beverage (hereafter: food) brands have a substantial presence on these platforms, yet no studies have examined the impact of this food marketing on young people. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the evidence (quantitative or mixed-method) for a relationship between exposure to digital game-based or influencer food marketing, and food-related (brand awareness, attitudes, preferences, purchase, and consumption), and post-consumption (weight, body mass index [BMI], and dental caries) outcomes in young people (≤18 years)...
August 22, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Ivonne Palacios-Marin, Dolors Serra, Josep C Jiménez-Chillarón, Laura Herrero, Marijana Todorčević
Obesity is the leading risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity represents an alarming health challenge because children with obesity are prone to remain with obesity throughout their life and have an increased morbidity and mortality risk. The ability of adipose tissue to store lipids and expand in size during excessive calorie intake is its most remarkable characteristic. Cellular and lipid turnovers determine adipose tissue size and are closely related with metabolic status...
August 22, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Sinead Ahern, Sarah Marshall, Geraldine Wallbank, Danielle Jawad, Sarah Taki, Louise A Baur, Li Ming Wen
Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds experience higher rates of obesity and have poorer outcomes in obesity prevention studies. Interventions tailored to specific cultural groups may be limited within linguistically diverse, multicultural communities, and thus, alternative approaches to childhood obesity prevention in these communities are needed. This study aims to describe communication strategies used in interventions targeting prevention of obesity/obesity-related behaviors, among children 0-5 years, from linguistically diverse communities, and assess their effectiveness...
August 22, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Cláudia Mendes, Manuel Carvalho, Leandro Oliveira, Luís Monteiro Rodrigues, João Gregório
The prevalence of obesity has become a global health concern, and severe obesity is associated with various chronic diseases and decreased quality of life. Bariatric surgery has shown success in treating obesity. Nevertheless, some patients experience weight regain and unsatisfactory outcomes. Multidisciplinary interventions have been shown to improve postoperative outcomes. Case managers, often specialized nurses, play a crucial role in patient support and coordination of care. However, the diverse design of case-managing interventions hinders the assessment of their success...
August 22, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Elisabeth Grey, Tania Griffin, Kate Jolly, Miranda Pallan, Helen Parretti, Ameeta Retzer, Fiona Gillison
Uptake of child weight management (CWM) support is typically low, and services are not available in all areas. Extended brief interventions (EBIs) have been proposed as an affordable way to provide enhanced support, at a level between one-off brief advice and intensive CWM programs. This rapid systematic review sought to synthesize evidence on the efficacy of EBIs for weight management and obesity prevention in children (2-18 years). Embase and Web of Science were searched from January 2012 to January 2022...
August 21, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Jacqueline Monaghan, Kathryn Backholer, Amy-Louise McKelvey, Rebecca Christidis, Ann Borda, Cobi Calyx, Alessandro Crocetti, Christine Driessen, Christina Zorbas
Globally, the adoption and implementation of policies to improve the healthiness of food environments and prevent population weight gain have been inadequate. This is partly because of the complexity associated with monitoring dynamic food environments. Crowdsourcing is a citizen science approach that can increase the extent and nature of food environment data collection by engaging citizens as sensors or volunteered computing experts. There has been no literature synthesis to guide the application of crowdsourcing to food environment monitoring...
August 21, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Xinrui Qi, Zhangwang Li, Jiashu Han, Wenqing Liu, Panpan Xia, Xia Cai, Xiao Liu, Xu Liu, Jing Zhang, Peng Yu
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammatory responses in the adipose tissue, accompanied by pronounced insulin resistance and metabolic anomalies. It affects almost all body organs and eventually leads to diseases such as fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. Recently, T cells have emerged as interesting therapeutic targets because the dysfunction of T cells and their cytokines in the adipose tissue is implicated in obesity-induced inflammation and their complicated onset...
August 15, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Candida J Rebello, Tyler S Morales, Katsya Chuon, Shu Dong, V Tyrone Lam, Dan Purner, Stanley Lewis, Jonathan Lakey, Robbie A Beyl, Frank L Greenway
Insulin is secreted in pulses from pancreatic beta-cells, and these oscillations maintain fasting plasma glucose levels within a narrow normal range. Within islets, beta-cells exhibit tight synchronization of regular oscillations. This control circuit is disrupted in type 2 diabetes, and irregularities in pulse frequency and amplitude occur. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is three times higher in American Indian and Native Alaskans compared to Whites, and their genetic ancestry is associated with low beta-cell function...
August 14, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Santenna Chenchula, Sushil Sharma, Mukesh Tripathi, Madhavrao Chavan, Arup Kumar Misra, Gaurav Rangari
Cohort studies have shown that both overweight and obesity have their impact by increasing hospitalization with COVID-19. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and MedRxiv databases following the PRISMA guidelines. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA software version 16 MP (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) and Med Calc software version 22.009(Med Calc software Ltd, Ostend, Belgium). The primary outcome was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their impact on the risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 patients under and above 50 years of age...
August 13, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Nor Akma Yunus, Grant Russell, Rosediani Muhamad, Tze Lin Chai, Mohamad Ariff Fahmi Ahmad Zawawi, Elizabeth Sturgiss
Sociocultural and biological backgrounds significantly influence people's experience of obesity. Yet the experience within the Asian sociocultural context is underexplored. This scoping review aims to summarize the qualitative evidence that explores the lived experience of adults with obesity in Asian countries. Guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) approach, we systematically searched five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Scopus) for studies exploring the lived experience of adults with obesity in Asian countries...
August 9, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Münevver Demir, Stefan R Bornstein, Christos S Mantzoros, Nikolaos Perakakis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disorder characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver that can progress to liver inflammation (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Although most efforts for drug development are focusing on the treatment of the latest stages of NAFLD, where significant fibrosis and NASH are present, findings from studies suggest that the amount of liver fat may be an important independent risk factor and/or predictor of development and progression of NAFLD and metabolic diseases...
August 8, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Fiona Curran, Mary E Davis, Kaitlyn Murphy, Natasha Tersigni, Adam King, Nina Ngo, Gráinne O'Donoghue
Overweight and obesity are consistently associated with lower physical activity (PA) levels and greater sedentary behavior (SB) in population studies. To date, no review has evaluated the factors associated with these behaviors in the specific population who have developed obesity/overweight. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the correlates/determinants of SB and PA in adults with overweight and obesity. Five databases were searched for studies, which reported factors or outcomes relating to PA or SB in adults living with overweight/obesity, published from 1980 to 2021...
August 7, 2023: Obesity Reviews
Kanishka N Nilaweera, Paul D Cotter
There is a considerable appeal for interventions that can selectively reduce either the visceral or subcutaneous white adipose tissues in humans and other species because of their associated impact on outcomes related to metabolic health. Here, we reviewed the data related to the specificity of five interventions to affect the two depots in humans and rodents. The interventions relate to the use of dietary proteins, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, calorie restriction, or bariatric surgery...
August 7, 2023: Obesity Reviews
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