Matthew W McCarthy
INTRODUCTION: On 31 July 2023, the United States Department of Health and Human Services announced the formation of the Office of Long COVID Research and Practice and the United States National Institutes of Health opened enrollment for RECOVER-Vital, a randomized study to evaluate new treatment options for long Coronavirus (long COVID). AREAS COVERED: The RECOVER Initiative is a $1.15 billion research platform intended to describe, categorize, treat, and prevent long-term symptoms following infection by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes Coronavirus (COVID-19)...
September 21, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Daniel Neureiter, Peter Ellinghaus, Matthias Ocker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Matthew F Pizzuto, Matthew M Laughon, Wesley M Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex condition that encompasses an array of underlying disease processes and affects a diverse population of infants, including those with congenital heart disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, persistent PH of the newborn, and those with lung disease such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. While there are treatments available to adults with PH, limited data exists for infants, especially for the newer medications. Therapies that target the three main pathophysiologic pathways of pulmonary hypertension appear to benefit infants, but which are best for each individual disease process is unclear...
September 14, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Yakup Ergun, Mutlu Dogan, Gokhan Ucar, Pınar Karacin, Cengiz Karacin
BACKGROUND: The combination of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors and standard endocrine therapy (ET) in the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer (BC) has yielded conflicting results. We performed a pooled analysis of the adjuvant efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibitors by including data from the NATALEE trial, the most recent trial on this topic. METHODS: We searched major databases and congress proceedings until 7 June 2023 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing adjuvant CDK4/6 inhibitor plus ET combination versus ET in HR-positive/HER2-negative early-stage BC...
September 13, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Mahmoud Samy Ahmed, Muhammad Ghallab, Talia Ostrow, Mouhamed Nashawi, Zakaria Alagha, Avi Levine, Wilbert S Aronow, Gregg M Lanier
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of refractory pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is challenging and rarely the focus of reviews. The purpose of this review is to discuss current treatment options of refractory PAH, along with the state of research of several new medications. AREAS COVERED: We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search on the relevant literature on treating PAH, with a focus on approved and investigational interventions for high-risk patients. Our strategy used keywords 'Treatment' AND 'Pulmonary Hypertension,' without date restrictions, ensuring a thorough survey of available literature for our review...
September 12, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Aumer Shughoury, Duriye D Sevgi, Thomas A Ciulla
INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the aging population worldwide. Therapeutic options for AMD have traditionally been limited to treatment of macular neovascularization (MNV) in exudative AMD. However, modulation of the complement system, a component of the innate immune system, has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for slowing the progression of geographic atrophy (GA) in AMD. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the current understanding of the complement system, its role in AMD, and the various complement-targeting therapies in development for the treatment of GA, including monoclonal antibodies, aptamers, protein analogs, and gene therapies...
September 11, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Anita L Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Estetrol (E4) is a native estrogen produced only by the fetal liver during pregnancy. E4 is the first new estrogen to be used in hormonal contraception since the introduction of oral contraceptives in 1960. Ethinyl estradiol, the most commonly used estrogen in oral contraceptives today, increases risks of thromboembolism and has other significant hepatic impacts, which induce important drug-drug interactions.On the other hand, Phase 2 E4 characterization studies demonstrated that E4 has negligible impacts on liver, breast and vascular endothelium due to its distinct tissue selectivity...
September 11, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Celine Chaaya, Ghady Zgheib, Fadi El Karak
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy is an intracellular process that plays a key role in the cellular homeostasis. Recently, it has been described as a potential therapeutic target in oncology, whether by activating or inhibiting its different cascades. Autophagy inhibitors interact with different molecular processes of the hallmarks of cancer. AREAS COVERED: Multiple proteins of the autophagy cascade could be aimed by specific inhibitors in many tumors, notably bladder cancer...
September 5, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Justin Faden, Joseph F Goldberg, Leslie Citrome
INTRODUCTION: Agitation is commonly encountered in people with bipolar disorder, particularly when experiencing a manic episode. The number of approved pharmacological agents to manage acute episodes of agitation in this population is limited. AREAS COVERED: A search was conducted using the US National Library of Medicine resource for English-language papers of clinical trials and reviews/meta-analyses, using the text words 'bipolar disorder' AND 'agitation,' as well as any papers with both two text words in the title, without any date restrictions...
September 4, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Riddhita De, Femin Prasad, Nicolette Stogios, Luisa Burin, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Filip K Knop, Margaret K Hahn, Sri Mahavir Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Psychotropic medications, especially antipsychotics, have been consistently shown to cause weight gain in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), a population inherently challenged with poor physical health. Consequently, compared to the general population, this contributes to an increased cardiometabolic burden, including the risk of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Furthermore, comorbid obesity leads to treatment nonadherence, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of relapse, posing a challenge in the management of mental health...
August 31, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Michał Ciebiera, Obianuju Sandra Madueke-Laveaux, Stepan Feduniw, Mara Ulin, Robert Spaczynski, Magdalena Zgliczyńska, Monika Bączkowska, Elżbieta Zarychta, Tomasz Łoziński, Mohamed Ali, Ayman Al-Hendy
INTRODUCTION: Uterine fibroids are the most common noncancerous tumors in women of childbearing age. This review was developed to evaluate the current role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists in therapy of symptomatic uterine fibroids. AREAS COVERED: There is a great need of alternative methods to surgical treatment of uterine fibroids. The hormonal therapy remains the first line treatment option for most patients. GnRH analogs (agonists and antagonists) modulate the pulsatile release of GnRH...
August 21, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Clemens Plattner, Markus Pirklbauer, Gert Mayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Theocharis Koufakis, Vasilis Tsimihodimos, Symeon Metallidis, Kalliopi Kotsa, Michael Doumas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Yoshiya Tanaka
INTRODUCTION: The molecular targeted therapies available for rheumatoid arthritis include 10 types of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and five types of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. This article reviews the differential and proper use of bDMARDs and JAK inhibitors, focusing on their efficacy and safety, based mainly on phase III clinical trials. AREA COVERED: The JAK inhibitors approved for treating rheumatoid arthritis are compared with bDMARDs based on the evidence derived from global phase III trials...
August 14, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Phoebe Tall, Mubasher A Qamar, Ivana Rosenzweig, Vanessa Raeder, Anna Sauerbier, Zach Heidemarie, Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
INTRODUCTION: The heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease (PD) is evident from descriptions of non-motor (NMS) subtypes and Park Sleep, originally identified by Sauerbier et al. 2016, is one such clinical subtype associated with the predominant clinical presentation of sleep dysfunctions including excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), along with insomnia. AREAS COVERED: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases, accessed between 1 February 2023 and 28 March 2023...
August 10, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Maria Mitsogianni, Athanasios Papatsoris, Vanessa-Meletia Bala, Hussein Issa, Mohammad Moussa, Iraklis Mitsogiannis
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in the male. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer however, due to the outgrowth of castration-resistant cell population the disease inevitably progresses to an aggressive, difficult to handle stage. AREAS COVERED: We have reviewed the literature regarding hormonal-directed therapy prostate cancer. New agents, namely abiraterone acetate, combined with prednisone, and next generation antiandrogens (enzalutamide, apalutamide and darolutamide) have shown considerable efficacy, not only in patients with metastatic but also in those with non-metastatic disease, either castration resistant (CRPC) or hormone sensitive (HSPC)...
August 7, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Andrew R Scheinberg, Paul Martin, Joshua A Turkeltaub
INTRODUCTION: Terlipressin is a synthetic vasopressin analog which has been recently approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome. Terlipressin stimulates vasopressin receptors located on the smooth muscle vasculature of the splanchnic circulation and renal tubules which results in splanchnic vasoconstriction with improved renal perfusion and antidiuretic activity, respectively. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we discuss available data regarding the FDA approved use of terlipressin, safety, and tolerability, as well as highlight alternative uses in chronic liver disease currently still under investigation...
August 7, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Andrea Fagiolini, Narcis Cardoner, Sebnem Pirildar, Pichai Ittsakul, Bernardo Ng, Kalil Duailibi, Nasser El Hindy
INTRODUCTION: Mental health disorders, especially depressive and anxiety disorders, are associated with substantial health-related burden. While the second-generation antidepressants are widely accepted as first-line pharmacological treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), patient response to such treatment is variable, with more than half failing to achieve complete remission, and residual symptoms are frequently present. AREAS COVERED: Here, the pharmacodynamics of venlafaxine XR are reviewed in relation to its role as both a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a serotonin-norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), and we look at how these pharmacodynamic properties can be harnessed to guide clinical practice, asking the question 'is it possible to develop a symptom-cluster-based approach to the treatment of MDD with comorbid anxiety utilizing venlafaxine XR?...
August 7, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Erasmia Sampani, Marieta Theodorakopoulou, Fotini Iatridi, Pantelis A Sarafidis
INTRODUCTION: Hyperkalemia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with serious adverse outcomes. Hyperkalemia risk is even greater when CKD patients also have additional predisposing conditions such as diabetes or heart failure. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) blockers are first-line treatments for cardio- and nephroprotection but their use in everyday practice is often limited due to K+ elevation, resulting in high rates of discontinuation...
August 6, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Kashif M Munir, Stephen N Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2023: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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