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Neurosurgical Focus

Soichi Oya, Masahiro Indo, Masabumi Nagashima, Toru Matsui
Aneurysms at the distal portion of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) are very rare. Because of the deep location and a propensity for nonsaccular morphology, aneurysm trapping or endovascular occlusion of the parent artery are the usual treatment options, which are associated with varying risks of ischemic complications. The authors report on a 60-year-old woman who had a 3.5-mm unruptured aneurysm in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the SCA with a significant interval growth to 8 mm. Direct surgical intervention comprising trapping of the aneurysm through a subtemporal approach and intradural anterior petrosectomy combined with revascularization of the distal SCA using the superficial temporal artery (STA) was performed...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Hongzhou Duan, Dapeng Mo, Yang Zhang, Jiayong Zhang, Liang Li
OBJECTIVESymptomatic steno-occlusion of the proximal vertebral artery (VA) or subclavian artery (ScA) heralds a poor prognosis and high risk of stroke recurrence despite medical therapy, including antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. In some cases, the V2 segment of the cervical VA is patent and perfused via collateral vessels. The authors describe 7 patients who were successfully treated by external carotid artery (ECA)-saphenous vein (SV)-VA bypass.METHODSSeven cases involving symptomatic patients were retrospectively studied: 3 cases of V1 segment occlusion, 2 cases of severe in-stent restenosis in the V1 segment, and 2 cases of occlusion of the proximal ScA...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Giovanni Muscas, Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik, Jorn Fierstra, Marco Piccirelli, Martina Sebök, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Antonios Valavanis, Athina Pangalu, Luca Regli, Oliver Bozinov
Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI cerebrovascular reactivity (BOLD-CVR) is a contemporary technique to assess brain tissue hemodynamic changes after extracranial- intracranial (EC-IC) bypass flow augmentation surgery. The authors conducted a preliminary study to investigate the feasibility and safety of intraoperative 3-T MRI BOLD-CVR after EC-IC bypass flow augmentation surgery. Five consecutive patients selected for EC-IC bypass revascularization underwent an intraoperative BOLD-CVR examination to assess early hemodynamic changes after revascularization and to confirm the safety of this technique...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Shunsuke Nomura, Koji Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Akitsugu Kawashima, Yoshikazu Okada, Takakazu Kawamata
OBJECTIVEEffectively retaining the patency of the extracranial-intracranial (ECIC) bypass is one of the most important factors in improving long-term results; however, the factors influencing bypass patency have not been discussed much. Therefore, the authors investigated factors influencing the development of the bypass graft.METHODSIn this retrospective study, the authors evaluated 49 consecutive hemispheres in 47 adult Japanese patients who had undergone ECIC bypass for chronic steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Sauson Soldozy, John S Costello, Pedro Norat, Jennifer D Sokolowski, Kamron Soldozy, Min S Park, Petr Tvrdik, M Yashar S Kalani
While the majority of cerebral revascularization advancements were made in the last century, it is worth noting the humble beginnings of vascular surgery throughout history to appreciate its progression and application to neurovascular pathology in the modern era. Nearly 5000 years of basic human inquiry into the vasculature and its role in neurological disease has resulted in the complex neurosurgical procedures used today to save and improve lives. This paper explores the story of the extracranial-intracranial approach to cerebral revascularization...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Timothy G White, Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Jung Park, Jeffrey Katz, David J Langer, Amir R Dehdashti
OBJECTIVECerebral revascularization for carotid occlusion was previously a mainstay procedure for the cerebrovascular neurosurgeon. However, the 1985 extracranial-intracranial bypass trial and subsequently the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) provided level 1 evidence via randomized controlled trials against bypass for symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid occlusion disease. However, in a small number of patients optimal medical therapy fails, and some patients with flow-limiting stenosis develop a perfusion-dependent neurological examination...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Long Wang, Shuaibin Lu, Li Cai, Hai Qian, Rokuya Tanikawa, Xiang'en Shi
OBJECTIVEThe rapid innovation of the endovascular armamentarium results in a decreased number of indications for a classic surgical approach. However, a middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm remains the best example of one for which results have favored microsurgery over endovascular intervention. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the experience and efficacy regarding surgical outcomes after applying internal maxillary artery (IMA) bypass for complex MCA aneurysms (CMCAAs).METHODSAll IMA bypasses performed between January 2010 and July 2018 in a single-center, single-surgeon practice were screened...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Mohamed Somji, James McEachern, Joseph Silvaggio
OBJECTIVECerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA) is considered a discrete vascular malformation of the brain separate from classical brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). It has unique angiographic characteristics and has been hypothesized to result from chronic cortical ischemia and perinidal oligemia. Treatment with cerebral revascularization has been proposed in an attempt to disrupt regional hypoperfusion and interrupt the angiogenesis that defines CPA. A systematic review of the literature pertaining to the role of cerebral revascularization may highlight a treatment paradigm for this rare disease...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Danielle Golub, Lizbeth Hu, Siddhant Dogra, Jose Torres, Maksim Shapiro
Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is a major cause of stroke in young adults. Multiple sCAD is a rarer, more poorly understood presentation of sCAD that has been increasingly attributed to cervical trauma such as spinal manipulation or genetic polymorphisms in extracellular matrix components. The authors present the case of a 49-year-old, otherwise healthy woman, who over the course of 2 weeks developed progressive, hemodynamically significant, bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Ethan A Winkler, John K Yue, Hansen Deng, Kunal P Raygor, Ryan R L Phelps, Caleb Rutledge, Alex Y Lu, Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Adib A Abla
OBJECTIVECerebral bypass procedures are microsurgical techniques to augment or restore cerebral blood flow when treating a number of brain vascular diseases including moyamoya disease, occlusive vascular disease, and cerebral aneurysms. With advances in endovascular therapy and evolving evidence-based guidelines, it has been suggested that cerebral bypass procedures are in a state of decline. Here, the authors characterize the national trends in cerebral bypass surgery in the United States from 2002 to 2014...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Bradley Kolb, Hassan Fadel, Gary Rajah, Hamidreza Saber, Ali Luqman, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla
OBJECTIVESteno-occlusive diseases of the cerebral vasculature have been associated with cognitive decline. The authors performed a systematic review of the existing literature on intracranial steno-occlusive disease, including intracranial atherosclerosis and moyamoya disease (MMD), to determine the extent and quality of evidence for the effect of revascularization on cognitive performance.METHODSA systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, the Thomson Reuters Web of Science Core Collection, and the KCI Korean Journal Database was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the English-language literature and observational studies that compared cognitive outcomes before and after revascularization in patients with steno-occlusive disease of the intracranial vasculature, from which data were extracted and analyzed...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Kristine Ravina, Ben A Strickland, Robert C Rennert, Joseph N Carey, Jonathan J Russin
Graft stenosis and occlusion remain formidable complications in cerebral revascularization procedures, which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Graft vasospasm can result in early postoperative graft stenosis and occlusion and is believed to be at least partially mediated through adrenergic pathways. Despite various published treatment protocols, there is no single effective spasmolytic agent. Multiple factors, including anatomical and physiological variability in revascularization conduits, patient age, and comorbidities, have been associated with graft vasospasm pathogenesis and response to spasmolytics...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Güliz Acker, Nicolas Schlinkmann, Lucius Fekonja, Lukas Grünwald, Juliane Hardt, Marcus Czabanka, Peter Vajkoczy
OBJECTIVEMoyamoya vasculopathy (MMV) is a steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease that can be treated by a surgical revascularization. All the revascularization techniques influence the blood supply of the scalp, with a risk for wound healing disorders. The authors' aim was to analyze the wound healing process in the patients who underwent a direct or combined bypass surgery with a focus on different skin incisions.METHODSThe authors retrospectively identified all the patients with MMV who were treated surgically in their institution...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Jonathan J Russin, Amir R Dehdashti, Peter Vajkoczy, Satoshi Kuroda, Ying Mao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Avital Perry, Christopher S Graffeo, Lucas P Carlstrom, William J Anding, Michael J Link, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla
OBJECTIVESylvian fissure dissection following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a challenging but fundamental skill in microneurosurgery, and one that has become increasingly difficult to develop during residency, given the overarching management trends. The authors describe a novel rodent model for simulation of sylvian fissure dissection and cerebrovascular bypass under SAH conditions.METHODSA standardized microvascular anastomosis model comprising rat femoral arteries and veins was used for the experimental framework...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
M Asif Taqi, Sajid S Suriya, Ajeet Sodhi, Syed A Quadri, Mudassir Farooqui, Atif Zafar, Martin M Mortazavi
OBJECTIVESeveral retrospective studies have supported the use of conscious sedation (CS) over general anesthesia (GA) as the preferred methods of sedation for stroke thrombectomy, but a recent randomized controlled trial showed no difference in outcomes after CS or GA. The purpose of the Ideal Sedation for Stroke Thrombectomy (ISST) study was to evaluate the difference in time and outcomes in the reperfusion of anterior circulation in ischemic stroke using GA and monitored anesthesia care (MAC).METHODSThe ISST study was a prospective, open-label registry...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Mayur Sharma, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Enzo M Fortuny, Nicolas K Khattar, Noberto Andaluz, Robert F James, Brian J Williams, Maxwell Boakye, Dale Ding
OBJECTIVEThe development and recent widespread dissemination of flow diverters may have reduced the utilization of surgical bypass procedures to treat complex or giant unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to observe trends in cerebral revascularization procedures for UIAs in the United States before and after the introduction of flow diverters by using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS).METHODSThe authors extracted data from the NIS database for the years 1998-2015 using the ICD-9/10 diagnostic and procedure codes...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Krishna C Joshi, Daniel F Heiferman, André Beer-Furlan, Demetrius K Lopes
External carotid artery (ECA) to internal carotid artery (ICA) bypass is a well-established procedure for the treatment of chronic ischemic diseases of the carotid artery. Rarely de novo aneurysms can develop at the site of anastomosis. The treatment of these aneurysms can be very challenging due to various factors, including the presence of graft, previous craniotomy, atherosclerotic vessels, and lack of direct access. In this video the authors report and discuss the management of a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) wide-necked de novo aneurysm by stent-assisted coiling through a retrograde trans-posterior communicating artery access...
January 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Giovanni Vercelli, Thomas J Sorenson, Enrico Giordan, Giuseppe Lanzino, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla
Cerebral protection device utilization during carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been demonstrated to decrease the risk of perioperative stroke. The ProximAl Protection with the MO.MA Device During CaRotid Stenting (ARMOUR) Trial had the lowest event rates of any independently adjudicated study. In this video of two cases of severe carotid artery stenosis, the authors present the nuances of the CAS procedure utilizing a dual-balloon guide catheter device (MO.MA). This device has the benefit of being in place before the lesion is crossed with any device, being able to arrest flow while the atherosclerotic lesion is crossed, and aiding in protection from distal emboli and stroke...
January 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Oriela Rustemi, Loris Di Clemente, Fabio Raneri, Lorenzo Volpin, Giuseppe Iannucci
Distal, dissecting, middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are changing surgically and endovascularly. Endovascular treatment requires flow diverter stenting. A good vessel visualization is crucial for safe navigation. Three-dimensional rotational digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) is used routinely in diagnostic imaging. The utilization of the 3D-DSA road map in vessel navigation and stent deployment is novel. An illustrative video of a distal, dissecting left MCA aneurysm treated with flow diverter stenting is presented...
January 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
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