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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30949879/evaluating-psychophysical-polarity-sensitivity-as-an-indirect-estimate-of-neural-status-in-cochlear-implant-listeners
#1
Kelly N Jahn, Julie G Arenberg
The physiological integrity of spiral ganglion neurons is presumed to influence cochlear implant (CI) outcomes, but it is difficult to measure neural health in CI listeners. Modeling data suggest that, when peripheral processes have degenerated, anodic stimulation may be a more effective neural stimulus than cathodic stimulation. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate the emerging theory that polarity sensitivity reflects neural health in CI listeners. An ideal in vivo estimate of neural integrity should vary independently of other factors known to influence the CI electrode-neuron interface, such as electrode position and tissue impedances...
April 4, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30911952/the-estimated-electrode-neuron-interface-in-cochlear-implant-listeners-is-different-for-early-implanted-children-and-late-implanted-adults
#2
Mishaela DiNino, Gabrielle O'Brien, Steven M Bierer, Kelly N Jahn, Julie G Arenberg
Cochlear implant (CI) programming is similar for all CI users despite limited understanding of the electrode-neuron interface (ENI). The ENI refers to the ability of each CI electrode to effectively stimulate target auditory neurons and is influenced by electrode position, neural health, cochlear geometry, and bone and tissue growth in the cochlea. Hearing history likely affects these variables, suggesting that the efficacy of each channel of stimulation differs between children who were implanted at young ages and adults who lost hearing and received a CI later in life...
March 25, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30825037/towards-a-mechanistic-driven-precision-medicine-approach-for-tinnitus
#3
REVIEW
Thanos Tzounopoulos, Carey Balaban, Lori Zitelli, Catherine Palmer
In this position review, we propose to establish a path for replacing the empirical classification of tinnitus with a taxonomy from precision medicine. The goal of a classification system is to understand the inherent heterogeneity of individuals experiencing and suffering from tinnitus and to identify what differentiates potential subgroups. Identification of different patient subgroups with distinct audiological, psychophysical, and neurophysiological characteristics will facilitate the management of patients with tinnitus as well as the design and execution of drug development and clinical trials, which, for the most part, have not yielded conclusive results...
March 1, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30815761/a-randomized-controlled-crossover-study-of-the-impact-of-online-music-training-on-pitch-and-timbre-perception-in-cochlear-implant-users
#4
Nicole T Jiam, Mickael L Deroche, Patpong Jiradejvong, Charles J Limb
Cochlear implant (CI) biomechanical constraints result in impoverished spectral cues and poor frequency resolution, making it difficult for users to perceive pitch and timbre. There is emerging evidence that music training may improve CI-mediated music perception; however, much of the existing studies involve time-intensive and less readily accessible in-person music training paradigms, without rigorous experimental control paradigms. Online resources for auditory rehabilitation remain an untapped potential resource for CI users...
February 27, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710318/inhibition-of-histone-methyltransferase-g9a-attenuates-noise-induced-cochlear-synaptopathy-and-hearing-loss
#5
Hao Xiong, Haishan Long, Song Pan, Ruosha Lai, Xianren Wang, Yuanping Zhu, Kayla Hill, Qiaojun Fang, Yiqing Zheng, Su-Hua Sha
Posttranslational modification of histones alters their interaction with DNA and nuclear proteins, influencing gene expression and cell fate. In this study, we investigated the effect of G9a (KMT1C, EHMT2), a major histone lysine methyltransferase encoded by the human EHMT2 gene and responsible for histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) on noise-induced permanent hearing loss (NIHL) in adult CBA/J mice. The conditions of noise exposure used in this study led to losses of cochlear synapses and outer hair cells (OHCs) and permanent auditory threshold shifts...
February 1, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706216/the-effect-of-stimulus-polarity-on-the-relation-between-pitch-ranking-and-ecap-spread-of-excitation-in-cochlear-implant-users
#6
Emily R Spitzer, Sangsook Choi, Michelle L Hughes
Although modern cochlear implants (CIs) use cathodic-leading symmetrical biphasic pulses to stimulate the auditory nerve, a growing body of evidence suggests that anodic-leading pulses may be more effective. The positive polarity has been shown to produce larger electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitudes, steeper slope of the amplitude growth function, and broader spread of excitation (SOE) patterns. Polarity has also been shown to influence pitch perception. It remains unclear how polarity affects the relation between physiological SOE and psychophysical pitch perception...
January 31, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693416/effects-of-musical-training-and-hearing-loss-on-fundamental-frequency-discrimination-and-temporal-fine-structure-processing-psychophysics-and-modeling
#7
Federica Bianchi, Laurel H Carney, Torsten Dau, Sébastien Santurette
Several studies have shown that musical training leads to improved fundamental frequency (F0 ) discrimination for young listeners with normal hearing (NH). It is unclear whether a comparable effect of musical training occurs for listeners whose sensory encoding of F0 is degraded. To address this question, the effect of musical training was investigated for three groups of listeners (young NH, older NH, and older listeners with hearing impairment, HI). In a first experiment, F0 discrimination was investigated using complex tones that differed in harmonic content and phase configuration (sine, positive, or negative Schroeder)...
January 28, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675674/neural-switch-asymmetry-in-feature-based-auditory-attention-tasks
#8
Susan A McLaughlin, Eric Larson, Adrian K C Lee
Active listening involves dynamically switching attention between competing talkers and is essential to following conversations in everyday environments. Previous investigations in human listeners have examined the neural mechanisms that support switching auditory attention within the acoustic featural cues of pitch and auditory space. Here, we explored the cortical circuitry underlying endogenous switching of auditory attention between pitch and spatial cues necessary to discern target from masker words. Because these tasks are of unequal difficulty, we expected an asymmetry in behavioral switch costs for hard-to-easy versus easy-to-hard switches, mirroring prior evidence from vision-based cognitive task-switching paradigms...
January 23, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623318/interaural-pitch-discrimination-range-effects-for-bilateral-and-single-sided-deafness-cochlear-implant-users
#9
Matthew J Goupell, Stefano Cosentino, Olga A Stakhovskaya, Joshua G W Bernstein
By allowing bilateral access to sound, bilateral cochlear implants (BI-CIs) or unilateral CIs for individuals with single-sided deafness (SSD; i.e., normal or near-normal hearing in one ear) can improve sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Spatial hearing in the horizontal plane is primarily conveyed by interaural time and level differences computed from neurons in the superior olivary complex that receive frequency-matched inputs. Because BI-CIs and SSD-CIs do not necessarily convey frequency-matched information, it is critical to understand how to align the inputs to CI users...
April 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30635804/water-waves-to-sound-waves-using-zebrafish-to-explore-hair-cell-biology
#10
REVIEW
Sarah B Pickett, David W Raible
Although perhaps best known for their use in developmental studies, over the last couple of decades, zebrafish have become increasingly popular model organisms for investigating auditory system function and disease. Like mammals, zebrafish possess inner ear mechanosensory hair cells required for hearing, as well as superficial hair cells of the lateral line sensory system, which mediate detection of directional water flow. Complementing mammalian studies, zebrafish have been used to gain significant insights into many facets of hair cell biology, including mechanotransduction and synaptic physiology as well as mechanisms of both hereditary and acquired hair cell dysfunction...
February 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623319/neural-itd-sensitivity-and-temporal-coding-with-cochlear-implants-in-an-animal-model-of-early-onset-deafness
#11
Yoojin Chung, Brian D Buechel, Woongsang Sunwoo, Joseph D Wagner, Bertrand Delgutte
Users of cochlear implant (CI) face challenges in everyday situations such as understanding conversations in noise, even with CIs in both ears. These challenges are related to difficulties with tasks that require fine temporal processing such as discrimination of pulse rates or interaural time differences (ITD), a major cue for sound localization. The degradation in temporal processing and ITD sensitivity are especially acute in those who lost hearing in early childhood. Here, we characterized temporal coding and ITD sensitivity of single neurons in a novel animal model of early-onset deafness...
January 8, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30564989/a-new-model-for-congenital-vestibular-disorders
#12
Sigmund J Lilian, Hayley E Seal, Anastas Popratiloff, June C Hirsch, Kenna D Peusner
Many developmental disorders of the inner ear are manifested clinically as delayed motor development and challenges in maintaining posture and balance, indicating involvement of central vestibular circuits. How the vestibular circuitry is rewired in pediatric cases is poorly understood due to lack of a suitable animal model. Based on this, our lab designed and validated a chick embryo model to study vestibular development in congenital vestibular disorders. The developing inner ear or "otocyst" on the right side of 2-day-old chick embryos (E2) was surgically rotated 180° in the anterior-posterior axis, forming the "anterior-posterior axis rotated otocyst chick" or ARO chick...
December 18, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30543016/effect-of-chronic-stimulation-and-stimulus-level-on-temporal-processing-by-cochlear-implant-listeners
#13
Robert P Carlyon, François Guérit, Alexander J Billig, Yu Chuen Tam, Frances Harris, John M Deeks
A series of experiments investigated potential changes in temporal processing during the months following activation of a cochlear implant (CI) and as a function of stimulus level. Experiment 1 tested patients on the day of implant activation and 2 and 6 months later. All stimuli were presented using direct stimulation of a single apical electrode. The dependent variables were rate discrimination ratios (RDRs) for pulse trains with rates centred on 120 pulses per second (pps), obtained using an adaptive procedure, and a measure of the upper limit of temporal pitch, obtained using a pitch-ranking procedure...
December 12, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30264229/interaural-time-difference-perception-with-a-cochlear-implant-and-a-normal-ear
#14
Tom Francart, Konstantin Wiebe, Thomas Wesarg
Currently there is a growing population of cochlear-implant (CI) users with (near) normal hearing in the non-implanted ear. This configuration is often called SSD (single-sided deafness) CI. The goal of the CI is often to improve spatial perception, so the question raises to what extent SSD CI listeners are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs). In a controlled lab setup, sensitivity to ITDs was investigated in 11 SSD CI listeners. The stimuli were 100-pps pulse trains on the CI side and band-limited click trains on the acoustic side...
December 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30191424/surface-motion-of-tympanic-membrane-in-a-chinchilla-model-of-acute-otitis-media
#15
Xuelin Wang, Rong Z Gan
The conductive hearing loss caused by acute otitis media (AOM) is commonly related to a reduction of the tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in response to sound stimuli. However, spatial alterations of the TM surface motion associated with AOM have rarely been addressed. In this study, the TM surface motion was determined using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV) in a chinchilla model of AOM. The AOM was established by transbullar injection of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. The TM surface vibration was measured in control (uninfected) animals and two AOM groups of animals: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation...
December 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30456730/speech-perception-with-spectrally-non-overlapping-maskers-as-measure-of-spectral-resolution-in-cochlear-implant-users
#16
Erin R O'Neill, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Poor spectral resolution contributes to the difficulties experienced by cochlear implant (CI) users when listening to speech in noise. However, correlations between measures of spectral resolution and speech perception in noise have not always been found to be robust. It may be that the relationship between spectral resolution and speech perception in noise becomes clearer in conditions where the speech and noise are not spectrally matched, so that improved spectral resolution can assist in separating the speech from the masker...
November 19, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30456729/time-compressed-speech-identification-is-predicted-by-auditory-neural-processing-perceptuomotor-speed-and-executive-functioning-in-younger-and-older-listeners
#17
James W Dias, Carolyn M McClaskey, Kelly C Harris
Older adults typically have difficulty identifying speech that is temporally distorted, such as reverberant, accented, time-compressed, or interrupted speech. These difficulties occur even when hearing thresholds fall within a normal range. Auditory neural processing speed, which we have previously found to predict auditory temporal processing (auditory gap detection), may interfere with the ability to recognize phonetic features as they rapidly unfold over time in spoken speech. Further, declines in perceptuomotor processing speed and executive functioning may interfere with the ability to track, access, and process information...
November 19, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30421148/vestibular-evoked-myographic-correlation
#18
Bernd Lütkenhöner
This work started from the hypothesis that the physiological processes giving rise to the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) can be induced not only by transient sounds but also by a continuous stimulation with a stochastic signal. The hypothesis is based on the idea that the number of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) decreases after a momentary amplitude increase of the effective stimulus, whereas a momentary amplitude decrease has the opposite effect. This concept was theoretically analyzed by assuming that the effective stimulus is closely related to the envelope of the stimulus actually presented...
November 12, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30377852/interaction-between-pitch-and-timbre-perception-in-normal-hearing-listeners-and-cochlear-implant-users
#19
Xin Luo, Samara Soslowsky, Kathryn R Pulling
Despite their mutually exclusive definitions, pitch and timbre perception interact with each other in normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Cochlear implant (CI) users have worse than normal pitch and timbre perception. However, the pitch-timbre interaction with CIs is not well understood. This study tested the interaction between pitch and sharpness (an aspect of timbre) perception related to the fundamental frequency (F0) and spectral slope of harmonic complex tones, respectively, in both NH listeners and CI users...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30341698/study-of-the-mechanisms-by-which-aminoglycoside-damage-is-prevented-in-chick-embryonic-hair-cells
#20
Huanju Bai, Xi Wang, Xue Gao, Jie Bing, Weiqian Wang, Xuebo Zhang, Chao Xi, Lingling Jiang, Xinwen Zhang, Zhongming Han, Shaoju Zeng, Jincao Xu
A major side effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics is mammalian hair cell death. It is thus intriguing that embryonic chick hair cells treated with aminoglycosides at embryonic day (E) 12 are insensitive to ototoxicity. To exclude some unknown factors in vivo that might be involved in preventing aminoglycoside damage to embryonic hair cells, we first cultured chick embryonic basilar papilla (BP) with an aminoglycoside antibiotic in vitro. The results indicated that the hair cells were almost intact at E12 and E14 and were only moderately damaged in most parts of the BP at E16 and E18...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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