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Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Eman M Khedr, Ragaa H Salama, Mohamed Abdel Hameed, Noha Abo Elfetoh, Peater Seif
OBJECTIVE: To explore the neuropsychological effects and levels of tau protein (TAU), amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42), and lipid peroxidase after 10 sessions of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 46 consecutive patients with probable AD participated in this study. They were classified randomly into 2 equal groups: active versus sham. Each patient received 10 sessions of anodal tDCS over the left and right temporoparietal region for 20 minutes for each side with the cathode on the left arm...
April 3, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Brian P Johnson, Andrea G Shipper, Kelly P Westlake
OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review of nonpharmacological interventions applied during sleep to enhance physical rehabilitation outcomes of individuals with a neurological diagnosis. DATA SOURCES: Three online databases were searched for original research. STUDY SELECTION: Intervention studies were included that used outcome measures of impairment, activity, and/or participation. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently screened 2287 titles and abstracts, reviewed 101 full texts, extracted data, and assessed study quality and risk of bias for 9 included studies...
April 2, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Catherine L Bradley, Diane L Damiano
BACKGROUND: The strong link between dopamine and motor learning has been well-established in the animal literature with similar findings reported in healthy adults and the elderly. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct the first, to our knowledge, systematic review of the literature on the evidence for the effects of dopaminergic medications or genetic variations in dopamine transmission on motor recovery or learning after a nonprogressive neurological injury. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted up until April 2018 for all English articles including participants with nonprogressive neurological injury such as cerebral palsy, stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury; quantitative motor outcomes; and assessments of the dopaminergic system or medications...
March 27, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Supriyo Choudhury, A Shobhana, Ravi Singh, Dwaipayan Sen, Sidharth Shankar Anand, Shantanu Shubham, Mark R Baker, Hrishikesh Kumar, Stuart N Baker
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence from both monkey and human studies suggests that the reticulospinal tract may contribute to recovery of arm and hand function after stroke. In this study, we evaluated a marker of reticulospinal output in stroke survivors with varying degrees of motor recovery. METHODS: We recruited 95 consecutive stroke patients presenting 6 months to 12 years after their index stroke, and 19 heathy control subjects. Subjects were asked to respond to a light flash with a rapid wrist flexion; at random, the flash was paired with either a quiet or loud (startling) sound...
March 27, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Li Ding, Xu Wang, Shugeng Chen, Hewei Wang, Jing Tian, Jifeng Rong, Peng Shao, Shanbao Tong, Xiaoli Guo, Jie Jia
BACKGROUND: Camera technique-based mirror visual feedback (MVF) is an optimal interface for mirror therapy. However, its efficiency for stroke rehabilitation and the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible treatment benefits of camera-based MVF (camMVF) for priming prior to hand function exercise in subacute stroke patients, and to reveal topological reorganization of brain network in response to the intervention. METHODS: Twenty subacute stroke patients were assigned randomly to the camMVF group (MG, N = 10) or a conventional group (CG, N = 10)...
March 25, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Susan Wortman-Jutt, Dylan Edwards
There is ample agreement in the scientific literature, across diverse areas of study, that suggests that language and movement are interrelated. In particular, it is widely held that the upper limb and hand play a key role in language use. Aphasia, a common, disabling language disorder frequently associated with stroke, requires new restorative methods. A combinatorial hand-arm-language paradigm that capitalizes on shared neural networks may therefore prove beneficial for aphasia recovery in stroke patients and requires further exploration...
March 22, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Emily M Mugler, Goran Tomic, Aparna Singh, Saad Hameed, Eric W Lindberg, Jon Gaide, Murad Alqadi, Elizabeth Robinson, Katherine Dalzotto, Camila Limoli, Tyler Jacobson, Jungwha Lee, Marc W Slutzky
BACKGROUND: Abnormal muscle co-activation contributes to impairment after stroke. We developed a myoelectric computer interface (MyoCI) training paradigm to reduce abnormal co-activation. MyoCI provides intuitive feedback about muscle activation patterns, enabling decoupling of these muscles. OBJECTIVE: To investigate tolerability and effects of MyoCI training of 3 muscle pairs on arm motor recovery after stroke, including effects of training dose and isometric versus movement-based training...
March 19, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Jill Campbell Stewart, Rebecca Lewthwaite, Janelle Rocktashel, Carolee J Winstein
BACKGROUND: Persistent deficits in arm function are common after stroke. An improved understanding of the factors that contribute to the performance of skilled arm movements is needed. One such factor may be self-efficacy (SE). OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of SE for skilled, goal-directed reach actions in individuals with mild motor impairment after stroke and whether SE for reach performance correlated with actual reach performance. METHODS: A total of 20 individuals with chronic stroke (months poststroke: mean 58...
March 18, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Alon Kalron, Peter Feys, Ulrik Dalgas, Tori Smedal, Jennifer Freeman, Anders Romberg, Helen Conyers, Iratxe Elorriaga, Benoit Gebara, Johanna Merilainen, Adnan Heric-Mansrud, Ellen Jensen, Kari Jones, Kathy Knuts, Benoit Maertens de Noordhout, Andrej Martic, Britt Normann, Bert O Eijnde, Kamila Rasova, Carme Santoyo Medina, Ilse Baert
BACKGROUND: Physical rehabilitation programs can lead to improvements in mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: To identify which rehabilitation program elements are employed in real life and how they might affect mobility improvement in PwMS. METHODS: Participants were divided into improved and nonimproved mobility groups based on changes observed in the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 following multimodal physical rehabilitation programs...
March 17, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Michelle Ploughman, Gail A Eskes, Liam P Kelly, Megan C Kirkland, Augustine J Devasahayam, Elizabeth M Wallack, Beraki Abraha, S M Mahmudul Hasan, Matthew B Downer, Laura Keeler, Graham Wilson, Elaine Skene, Ishika Sharma, Arthur R Chaves, Marie E Curtis, Emily Bedford, George S Robertson, Craig S Moore, Jason McCarthy, Marilyn Mackay-Lyons
BACKGROUND: Paired exercise and cognitive training have the potential to enhance cognition by "priming" the brain and upregulating neurotrophins. METHODS: Two-site randomized controlled trial. Fifty-two patients >6 months poststroke with concerns about cognitive impairment trained 50 to 70 minutes, 3× week for 10 weeks with 12-week follow-up. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 physical interventions: Aerobic (>60% VO2peak using <10% body weight-supported treadmill) or Activity (range of movement and functional tasks)...
February 28, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Noa Doron, Debbie Rand
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with stroke often present symptoms of multiple domains, such as weakness of the affected upper extremity (UE) and unilateral spatial neglect (USN), which are both associated with poor functional outcome. The aims of this systematic review were to search and review studies that investigated (1) the relationship between USN and affected UE sensorimotor recovery poststroke and (2) the effectiveness of sensorimotor interventions to improve the affected UE in patients with USN...
February 20, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Kazu Kobayakawa, Kyleigh Alexis DePetro, Hui Zhong, Bau Pham, Masamitsu Hara, Akihito Harada, Jumpei Nogami, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, V Reggie Edgerton
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that step training leads to reorganization of neuronal networks in the lumbar spinal cord of rodents after a hemisection (HX) injury and step training, including increases excitability of spinally evoked potentials in hindlimb motor neurons. METHODS: In this study, we investigated changes in RNA expression and synapse number using RNA-Seq and immunohistochemistry of the lumbar spinal cord 23 days after a mid-thoracic HX in rats with and without post-HX step training...
February 19, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Shirley Handelzalts, Michal Kenner-Furman, Ganit Gray, Nachum Soroker, Guy Shani, Itshak Melzer
BACKGROUND: Reactive balance responses are critical for fall prevention. Perturbation-based balance training (PBBT) has shown a positive effect in reducing the risk of falls among older adults and persons with Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of a short-term PBBT on reactive balance responses, performance-based measures of balance and gait and balance confidence. METHODS: Thirty-four moderate-high functioning, subacute persons with stroke (PwS) (lower extremity Fugl-Meyer score 29...
February 15, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Deanna Anderlini, Guy Wallis, Welber Marinovic
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the developed world and the primary cause of adult disability. The most common site of stroke is the middle cerebral artery (MCA), an artery that supplies a range of areas involved in both language and motor function. As a consequence, many stroke patients experience a combination of language and motor deficits. Indeed, those suffering from Broca's aphasia have an 80% chance of also suffering hemiplegia. Despite the prevalence of multifaceted disability in patients, the current trend in both clinical trials and clinical practice is toward compartmentalization of dysfunction...
February 13, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Ander Ramos-Murguialday, Marco R Curado, Doris Broetz, Özge Yilmaz, Fabricio L Brasil, Giulia Liberati, Eliana Garcia-Cossio, Woosang Cho, Andrea Caria, Leonardo G Cohen, Niels Birbaumer
BACKGROUND: Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been recently proposed as a new tool to induce functional recovery in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: Here we evaluated long-term effects of BMI training and physiotherapy in motor function of severely paralyzed chronic stroke patients 6 months after intervention. METHODS: A total of 30 chronic stroke patients with severe hand paresis from our previous study were invited, and 28 underwent follow-up assessments...
February 5, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Katia Monte-Silva, Daniele Piscitelli, Nahid Norouzi-Gheidari, Marc Aureli Pique Batalla, Philippe Archambault, Mindy F Levin
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have demonstrated some benefits of electromyogram-triggered/controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation (EMG-NMES) on motor recovery of upper limb (UL) function in patients with stroke. However, EMG-NMES use in clinical practice is limited due to a lack of evidence supporting its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of EMG-NMES on stroke UL recovery based on each of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) domains...
February 1, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Martina Maier, Belén Rubio Ballester, Armin Duff, Esther Duarte Oller, Paul F M J Verschure
BACKGROUND: Despite the rise of virtual reality (VR)-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation over the past decade, no consensus has been reached on its efficacy. This ostensibly puzzling outcome might not be that surprising given that VR is intrinsically neutral to its use-that is, an intervention is effective because of its ability to mobilize recovery mechanisms, not its technology. As VR systems specifically built for rehabilitation might capitalize better on the advantages of technology to implement neuroscientifically grounded protocols, they might be more effective than those designed for recreational gaming...
January 30, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Yingchun Shang, Xin Wang, Fangjuan Li, Tao Yin, Jianhai Zhang, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Growing evidences suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF/TrkB) plays a key role in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a prenatal stress (PNS) rat model. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is currently being acknowledged to affect attention and memory in both preclinical and clinical studies, although the mechanism is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to explore whether a whole brain rTMS (5 Hz, 14 days) could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction-induced PNS in male offspring, and examine if the positive effect of rTMS was associated with the BDNF/TrkB signaling in the hippocampus...
April 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Marte C Ørbo, Per M Aslaksen, Audny Anke, Pål M Tande, Torgil R Vangberg
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in long-term survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) but corresponding neuroimaging data are lacking. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the relationship among the cortical brain structure, cognitive performance, and clinical variables after OHCA. METHODS: Three months after resuscitation, 13 OHCA survivors who had recovered from a coma to living independently and 19 healthy controls were assessed by cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests quantifying memory, fine-motor coordination, and attention/executive functions...
April 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Maud Pradines, Mouna Ghedira, Raphaël Portero, Ingrid Masson, Christina Marciniak, Dawn Hicklin, Emilie Hutin, Pierre Portero, Jean-Michel Gracies, Nicolas Bayle
INTRODUCTION: The effects of long-term stretching (>6 months) in hemiparesis are unknown. This prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled trial compared changes in architectural and clinical parameters in plantar flexors of individuals with chronic hemiparesis following a 1-year guided self-stretch program, compared with conventional rehabilitation alone. METHODS: Adults with chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis (time since lesion >1 year) were randomized into 1 of 2, 1-year rehabilitation programs: conventional therapy (CONV) supplemented with the Guided Self-rehabilitation Contract (GSC) program, or CONV alone...
April 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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