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Trauma, Violence & Abuse

Hannabeth Franchino-Olsen
The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) occur across the United States, violating the rights and health of far too many children and youth. Adequate prevention efforts should seek to understand the factors that make minors vulnerable to sexual exploitation in order to properly design programs to prevent victimization. This review presents the identified risk factors collected via a systematic literature review. Following full-text review, 15 studies were selected for inclusion by meeting the following criteria: original quantitative or qualitative research studies published in English from January 2010 to September 2017 with titles or abstracts that indicated a focus on the risk factors, vulnerabilities, or statistics of CSEC/DMST and a domestic focus on CSEC/DMST (for U...
February 3, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Linda C Karlsson, Jan Antfolk, Hanna Putkonen, Sabine Amon, João da Silva Guerreiro, Vivienne de Vogel, Sandra Flynn, Ghitta Weizmann-Henelius
Familicides have received relatively little attention and are mostly discussed in studies with broader aims. Here, we reviewed 67 studies from 18 countries on familicides, in which an offender killed or attempted to kill their current or former spouse/intimate partner and one or more of their biological or stepchildren. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. Eight studies investigated familicide specifically, while the remaining reported on familicide cases as a subsample...
January 31, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Laurie M Graham, Kashika M Sahay, Cynthia F Rizo, Jill T Messing, Rebecca J Macy
At least one in seven homicides around the world is perpetrated by intimate partners. The danger of intimate partner homicide (IPH) associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) has led to the development of numerous IPV reassault and IPH risk assessment tools. Using 18 electronic databases and research repositories, we conducted a systematic review of IPH or IPV reassault risk assessment instruments. After review, 43 studies reported in 42 articles met inclusion criteria. We systematically extracted, analyzed, and synthesized data on tools studied, sample details, data collection location, study design, analysis methods, validity, reliability, and feasibility of use...
January 22, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Katrina J Debnam, Victoria Mauer
Teen dating violence victimization is associated with a host of adverse mental and physical health problems. A number of bystander-focused interventions have been developed to mitigate the occurrence of abuse but with varying effectiveness. There remains a need to understand more about bystander behaviors used by adolescents to ensure that existing intervention components match with bystanders' attitudes and behaviors about intervening. The current study is a scoping review of existing literature on adolescents' use of bystander behaviors to determine who, when, how, and why adolescents intervene...
January 22, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Arielle A J Scoglio, Shane W Kraus, Jane Saczynski, Shehzad Jooma, Beth E Molnar
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a widespread public health problem in the United States. It has been associated with multiple long-term deleterious outcomes including revictimization in adulthood. This systematic review of 25 studies synthesizes research examining possible risk and protective factors that might explain the established link between CSA and future victimizations. Specific risk factors identified included co-occurring maltreatment in the home, risky sexual behavior (particularly in adolescence), post-traumatic stress disorder, emotion dysregulation, and other maladaptive coping strategies...
January 22, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Shannon N Wood, Nancy Glass, Michele R Decker
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and a leading source of morbidity and mortality to women worldwide. Safety planning is a cornerstone of harm reduction and violence support in many upper income countries. Far less is known about safety strategies used by women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where the IPV support service infrastructure may be more limited. This study aimed to review the literature regarding safety strategies in LMICs. A PubMed search was conducted using search terms "safety," "coping," "harm reduction," and "intimate partner violence...
January 22, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Darshini Ayton, Elizabeth Pritchard, Tess Tsindos
Brain injury is often a precursor to, or result of, family violence. Yet there is little research identifying the connection of these two phenomena. The health cost (personal or societal) of brain injury within the family violence context is difficult to ascertain. Family violence can lead to lifelong psychological or physical scars and even death. A systematic review was conducted over three databases using Medical Subject Heading terms to investigate incidence, prevalence, and contributing factors of brain injury within a family violence context...
January 16, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Lisa S Panisch, Lauren M Tam
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a widespread health issue with unclear etiology that has been linked to a history of trauma among women. This condition is known to be highly comorbid with, and potentially exacerbated by psychiatric conditions, as well as other gynecological concerns and functional pain syndromes. Many comorbid conditions are also related to a history of trauma, and cases of CPP with comorbidity are known to be resistant to treatment. While the prevalence of a traumatic history among females with CPP has been established, less is known about how the role of trauma is addressed in the intervention literature...
January 1, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Ban Hong Lim, Mikhaella A Hodges, Michelle M Lilly
It is well-documented that insecure attachment poses substantial risks to post-trauma recovery. Although attachment anxiety reliably predicts and is associated with elevated post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), the attachment avoidance-PTSS link has been far less consistent. This suggests both attenuating and enhancing connections between attachment difficulties and post-trauma outcomes. The goal of this study is 2-fold: (a) to review and summarize extant evidence concerning the relation between insecure attachment and PTSS and (b) to review mechanism(s) underlying attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance that may explain the development of PTSS...
January 1, 2019: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Emily R Dworkin
Sexual assault (SA) is a common form of trauma that is associated with numerous deleterious outcomes. Understanding the relative prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in people who have been sexually assaulted versus people who have not been assaulted could help to prioritize assessment and intervention efforts, but there has been no quantitative review of this topic. A search of PsychINFO, ProQuest Digital Dissertations and Theses, and Academic Search Premier for articles dated between 1970 and 2014 was conducted, and unpublished data were obtained...
December 25, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Joke Depraetere, Christophe Vandeviver, Tom Vander Beken, Ines Keygnaert
Sexual victimization is typically presented as a gender-based problem involving a female victim and a male offender. Science, policy, and society focus on female victims at the expense of male victims. Male sexual victimization is thus understudied compared with female sexual victimization. By performing a critical interpretive synthesis of research papers, policy documents, and gray literature ( N = 67) published in four electronic databases from January 2000 through September 2017, this article establishes the prevalence of male sexual victims and the causes that underlie the underrepresentation of this group in existing research and current policy...
December 16, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Frances R Gonzalez, Lorraine T Benuto, Jena B Casas
Violence against women continues to be a great concern in today's society. In the United States, women experience high rates of interpersonal violence throughout their lifetime. Among Latinas, interpersonal violence is also highly prevalent however the wide variation of interpersonal prevalence rates among Latinas is problematic. The aims of this systematic review of the literature were to (1) document the prevalence rates of violence among Latinas, (2) determine the types of violence that Latinas are most impacted by, and (3) assess the prevalence rates of interpersonal across Latina subethnicities...
December 16, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Aja Louise Murray, Daniela Kaiser, Sara Valdebenito, Claire Hughes, Adriana Baban, Asvini D Fernando, Bernadette Madrid, Catherine L Ward, Joseph Osafo, Michael Dunne, Siham Sikander, Susan Walker, Vo Van Thang, Mark Tomlinson, Manuel Eisner
Prenatal intimate partner violence (P-IPV) can have significant adverse impacts on both mother and fetus. Existing P-IPV interventions focus on the safety of the mother and on reducing revictimization; yet expanding these to address the adverse impact on the fetus has considerable potential for preventing long-term negative developmental outcomes. In this review, we draw together evidence on major pathways linking exposure to P-IPV and child outcomes, arguing that these pathways represent potential targets to improve P-IPV intervention efforts...
December 4, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Maya I Ragavan, Kristie A Thomas, Anjali Fulambarker, Jill Zaricor, Lisa A Goodman, Megan H Bair-Merritt
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a methodological approach where community-academic teams build equitable relationships throughout the research process. In the domestic violence (DV) field, CBPR may be particularly important when conducting research with racial and ethnic minority DV survivors, as this group faces concurrent oppressions that inform their lived experiences. To our knowledge, no systematic review has synthesized articles using a CBPR approach to explore the needs and lived experiences of racial and ethnic minority DV survivors...
December 3, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Laura C Wilson
Due to methodological heterogeneity, the exact prevalence of military sexual trauma (MST) is unknown. To elucidate our understanding of the pervasiveness of this important social issue, a meta-analysis was conducted. A computerized database search in PsycINFO, PubMed, and PILOTS revealed 584 unique citations for review. Of these identified studies, 69 met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The results revealed that 15.7% of military personnel and veterans report MST (3.9% of men, 38.4% of women) when the measure includes both harassment and assault...
December 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Blaine Menon, Kaylee Van Dommelen, Adam Awerbuch, Luke Caddell, Ken Roberts, Hanni Stoklosa, Jonell Potter
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence on the clinical management of patients who have suffered human trafficking. Synthesizing the evidence from similar patient populations may provide valuable insight. This review summarizes findings on therapeutic interventions for survivors of sexual assault and intimate partner violence (IPV). METHOD: We conducted two systematic reviews using the MEDLINE database. We included only randomized controlled trials of therapies with primary outcomes related to health for survivors of sexual assault and IPV...
November 19, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Heather A Love, Chelsea M Spencer, Scott A May, Marcos Mendez, Sandra M Stith
Johnson developed a typology of intimate partner violence (IPV) which includes two different categories of violence: situational couple violence (SCV) and intimate terrorism (IT). Johnson proposed that IT is more likely to be found in clinical samples (e.g., batterer intervention programs or domestic violence shelters) compared to nonclinical (general population) samples. This meta-analysis ( n = 149 studies; k = 216 effect sizes) examines differences in the strengths of IPV risk markers in clinical and nonclinical samples of male perpetrators and female victims...
November 8, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Brittany Jamieson
Inadequate prenatal care utilization has been proposed as a mechanism between exposure to violence during pregnancy and adverse maternal and fetal obstetric outcomes. Adequate prenatal care is important for identifying and treating obstetric complications as they arise and connecting pregnant women to supports and interventions as needed. There is some evidence that pregnant women experiencing relational violence may delay or never enter prenatal care, though this association has not been systematically or quantitatively synthesized...
October 15, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Ieke De Vries, Kelly E Goggin
Scholars and practitioners have drawn attention to the issue of commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of minors, yet we continue to lack a clear understanding of which factors increase a minor's risk to this type of victimization. The current article reviews the literature about the impact of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse on the risk of CSE. The study utilizes quantitative meta-analytical techniques to estimate an overall impact of prior abuse. Nineteen studies were selected after a comprehensive search of electronic databases covering the fields of social science, criminology, psychology, or related fields...
October 10, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Eugene Emeka Dim
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a reality the average Nigerian woman has to grapple with everyday. Ethnicity and place of residence play a pivotal role in the social realities of Nigerian women, especially with their experience of IPV. However, there is a paucity of reviews examining the impact of ethnicity and place of residence on women's experiences of IPV in Nigeria. This study seeks to explore the ethnoregional dynamics of IPV from the range of studies undertaken on the subject matter. Eighteen studies meant the inclusion criteria for analysis...
October 5, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
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