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Current Infectious Disease Reports

Anat Yerushalmy-Feler, Jacqueline Padlipsky, Shlomi Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a relatively common end-organ infectious complication in immunocompromised hosts which negatively affects clinical outcomes. This paper presents the contemporary approaches to the diagnosis and management of CMV colitis and discusses some of the controversies of this condition, focusing on methods of diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: While certain risk factors for CMV colitis are well recognized, the clinical as well as endoscopic features of this condition are nonspecific...
February 15, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
James Gaensbauer, Richard Broadhurst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis is leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and a significant proportion of the burden of disease occurs in children. In the past 5 years, a number of innovations have improved the diagnosis and treatment for children with both latent tuberculosis infection and active disease. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses three key areas of innovation. First, we assess utilization and performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in different clinical and epidemiologic scenarios...
February 15, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Julie Korol Wright, Lucas Castellani, Christian Lecce, Aisha Khatib, Mark Bonta, Andrea K Boggild
ZIKV-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome presents with an accelerated clinical course compared to classic post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clinicians should anticipate and screen patients with ZIKV infection for neurologic complications bearing in mind that these may manifest during the acute viremic phase or during early convalescence.
February 15, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Gonzalo Bearman, Michelle Doll, Kaila Cooper, Michael P Stevens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the extent to which hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are preventable and to assess expectations, challenges, and barriers to improve patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: HAIs cause significant morbidity and mortality. Getting to zero HAIs is a commonly stated goal yet leads to unrealistic expectations. The extent to which all HAIs can be prevented remains debatable and is subject to multiple considerations and barriers. Current infection prevention science is inexact and evolving...
February 2, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Michelle Doll, Michele Fleming, Michael P Stevens, Gonzalo Bearman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New controversies in the diagnosis and prevention of Clostridiodes difficile are challenging and at times changing infection control practice at many medical centers. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular epidemiologic studies are changing our understanding of C. difficile and its spectrum of disease. C. difficile as a hospital-acquired infection is likely largely overdiagnosed given overly sensitive molecular testing and widespread colonization of ill or debilitated patients...
January 23, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Annelies Wilder-Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dengue is found in tropics and subtropics that are considered to be popular travel destinations. We set out to review the burden of dengue on international travelers. RECENT FINDINGS: GeoSentinel, a global network of travel medicine providers, has seen an increasing trend of dengue in returning travelers over the past decades. In Southeast Asia, annual proportionate morbidity increased from 50 dengue cases per 1000 ill-returned travelers in non-epidemic years to an average of 159 cases per 1000 travelers during epidemic years...
October 29, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Avinash N Mukkala, Jason Kwan, Rachel Lau, David Harris, Dylan Kain, Andrea K Boggild
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Modern advances in malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) technology have increased demand for low-cost, easy-to-use assays in areas endemic for malaria. Substantial developments in diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, improvements in non-falciparum RDTs, and novel biotechnological innovations are gradually aligning the performance of RDTs with reference-level diagnostics including PCR and expert microscopy gold standards. RECENT FINDINGS: Trends have emerged in recent malaria RDT literature: (1) improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs for Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis, making them comparable to expert microscopic examination; (2) reduced false-positive and false-negative reactions with novel antibody development; (3) improved sensitivity and specificity capabilities of Plasmodium vivax-specific RDTs; (4) developing RDTs for co-endemic mixed infection differentiation; (5) significant improvements of RDTs for Plasmodium knowlesi; (6) a global push towards assessing and confronting the growing concerns of widespread pfhrp2 gene deletions; and (7) original innovation in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) biotechnological RDT-like platforms that demonstrate promising performance characteristics for P...
October 23, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Raffaele Zarrilli, Maria Bagattini, Eliana Pia Esposito, Maria Triassi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for many infections in neonates and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); also, outbreaks caused by other Acinetobacter species have been reported. The aim of this review is to document the epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. infections in neonates and risk factors for acquisition of Acinetobacter spp...
October 10, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Samriti Gupta, Rakesh Lodha, S K Kabra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Empirical antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of treatment in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the best option for empirical antibiotics for treatment on an ambulatory basis, as well as in those requiring hospitalization, is still unclear. This review tries to answer the question regarding the most appropriate antibiotics in different settings in children with CAP as well as duration of therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have provided insights regarding use of oral antibiotics in children with mild to moderate CAP, and severe CAP with lower chest retractions but no hypoxia...
September 20, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Catia Cillóniz, Antonella Ielpo, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the most recent publications on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the HIV-infected population on antiretroviral therapy (ART), focusing on epidemiology, prognostic factors, etiology, and antimicrobial therapy. The data discussed here were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline and references from relevant articles. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients and incurs high health costs despite the introduction of ART...
September 10, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Geoffrey Shumilak, Wendy I Sligl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite advances in diagnostic microbiology and sepsis management, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Current recommendations regarding the use of beta-lactams in combination with macrolides published in clinical practice guidelines are variable and based on low-quality evidence that is frequently retrospective, observational, and heterogeneous in nature. While population-based studies have historically suggested improved clinical outcomes with the routine use of macrolide combination therapy in hospitalized patients with CAP, emerging evidence from recent randomized controlled trials has challenged this practice...
September 6, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Van-Thuan Hoang, Philippe Gautret
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mass gatherings (MGs) are characterized by a high concentration of people at a specific time and location. Infectious diseases are of particular concern at MGs. The aim of this review was to summarize findings in the field of infectious diseases with a variety of pathogens associated with international MGs in the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: In the context of Hajj, one of the largest religious MGs at Mecca, Saudi Arabia, respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of infectious diseases in pilgrims with a prevalence of 50-93%...
August 28, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
J D Sobel, S Suprapaneni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evaluation of pathogenicity of an uncommon vaginal Candida species, Candida parapsilosis with particular references to susceptibility to conventional antifungal agents. RECENT FINDINGS: C. parapsilosis vaginal isolates usually present in asymptomatic women as commensals but may induce vulvovaginal symptoms indistinguishable from C. albicans requiring antifungal therapy; however, recent experience reveals clinically relevant resistance to the azole class of antimycotics...
August 27, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Leighanne O Parkes, Susy S Hota
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize recent outbreaks attributed to hospital sinks and examine design features and behaviors that contributed to these outbreaks. The effectiveness of various risk mitigation strategies is presented. Finally, we examine investigational strategies targeted at reducing the risk of sink-related infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Outbreaks of hospital sink-related infections involve a diverse spectrum of microorganisms. They can be attributed to defects in sink design and hospital wastewater systems that promote the formation and dispersion of biofilm, as well as healthcare practitioner and patient behaviors...
August 20, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Diana Vlad, Alina Dutu, Anda Apostol, Veronica Trombitas, Adrian Mihalca, Silviu Albu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial biofilms seem to play an active role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). They represent an adaptive defense resource enabling resistance to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Biofilms are thought to be accountable for refractory cases of sinusitis by perpetuating local inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of spray cryotherapy as a biofilm disruption agent in CRS in an in vitro model. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 23 patients with CRS undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) were included...
August 13, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Emily J Godbout, Amy L Pakyz, John Daniel Markley, Andrew J Noda, Michael P Stevens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and antimicrobial stewardship (AS) strategies in the United States (US) inpatient setting. Furthermore, we review current gaps and challenges for unique pediatric populations and those in ambulatory settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials have been identified as key factors for antimicrobial resistance (AR)...
August 1, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
K Mehta, L W Goneau, J Wong, A G L'Huillier, J B Gubbay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zoonotic influenza viruses are those influenza viruses that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this second part of a two-part review, we discuss the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of zoonotic influenza, and provide an overview of prevention strategies...
August 1, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
L W Goneau, K Mehta, J Wong, A G L'Huillier, J B Gubbay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of infection, and also discuss history and epidemiology...
August 1, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Maria Nikoloudi, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Anastasios Tentolouris, Ourania A Kosta, Nikolaos Tentolouris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are common in patients with diabetes mellitus complicated by foot ulcers and can be classified in different categories based on their severity. In this report, we present the diagnosis and management of DFIs according to their classification. RECENT FINDINGS: While appropriate antibiotic regiments and surgical techniques for the treatment of DFIs are well established, new technologies and techniques for example in medical imaging, wound care modalities, and supplementary therapy approaches show potentially promising results in preventing DFIs...
August 1, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
M Eugenia Socias, M-J Milloy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People who use drugs face multiple challenges to achieve optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This review discusses the current knowledge in substance use and antiretroviral therapy adherence, highlighting recent findings and potential interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies continue to demonstrate the negative impacts of substance use and related disorders on antiretroviral therapy adherence, with the exception of cannabis. Evidence-based addiction treatment, in particular, opioid agonist therapy, appears to improve adherence levels...
July 31, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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