Jose Rubio, Vasileios C Kyttaris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is characterized by the presence of clinical symptoms of a systemic autoimmune disease in addition to laboratory evidence of autoimmunity with the patients not fulfilling any of the widely used classification criteria for classic autoimmune diseases. The presence of UCTD as a separate entity versus an early stage of such diseases as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or scleroderma has long been debated. Given the uncertainty regarding this condition, we performed a systematic review on the topic...
March 8, 2023: Current Rheumatology Reports
M Sobejana, M van der Esch, J van den Hoek, G Kitas, M van der Leeden, M T Nurmohamed, G S Metsios
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In addition to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment, exercise is increasingly promoted in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although both are known to reduce disease activity, few studies have investigated the combined effects of these interventions on disease activity. The aim of this scoping review was to provide an overview of the reported evidence on whether a combined effect-i.e., a greater reduction in disease activity outcome measures-can be detected in studies where an exercise intervention was performed in addition to the DMARD treatment in patients with RA...
March 3, 2023: Current Rheumatology Reports
S R Harrison, H Marzo-Ortega
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An overview of how the treatment landscape of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) has shaped our understanding of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Prior to the millennium, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the only treatment for axSpA, yet only 30% of patients responded and many developed side effects. In 2003, the first biological disease-modifying drug (bDMARD) was licensed for axSpA which substantially improved outcomes in comparison to NSAIDs...
January 18, 2023: Current Rheumatology Reports
Mohamad Bittar, Muhammad Asim Khan, Marina Magrey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to review the challenges in axial spondyloarthritis diagnosis and identify the possible contributing factors. RECENT FINDINGS: The inability to reach an accurate diagnosis in a timely fashion can lead to treatment delays and worse disease outcomes. The lack of validated diagnostic criteria and the misuse of the currently available classification criteria could be contributing. There is also significant inter-reader variability in interpreting images, and the radiologic definitions of axial spondyloarthritis continue to be re-defined to improve their positive predictive value...
January 5, 2023: Current Rheumatology Reports
Patrick X Bradley, Karl N Thomas, Avery L Kratzer, Allison C Robinson, Jocelyn R Wittstein, Louis E DeFrate, Amy L McNulty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Meniscus injury often leads to joint degeneration and post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) development. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to outline the current understanding of biomechanical and biological repercussions following meniscus injury and how these changes impact meniscus repair and PTOA development. Moreover, we identify key gaps in knowledge that must be further investigated to improve meniscus healing and prevent PTOA. RECENT FINDINGS: Following meniscus injury, both biomechanical and biological alterations frequently occur in multiple tissues in the joint...
December 7, 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Ann-Sophie De Craemer, Zuzanna Łukasik, Philippe Carron
Medical imaging remains the cornerstone of diagnostics and follow-up of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients. With the lack of specific biomarkers allowing monitoring of disease activity and progression, clinicians refer to imaging modalities for accurate evaluation of the axSpA burden. Technological advances and increasing availability of modern imaging techniques such as MRI have enabled faster diagnosis of the disease, hence dramatically changed the diagnostic delay and improved the prognosis and functional outcomes for axSpA patients...
December 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Jeanne Gosselin, Chantal Roy-Hewitson, Sean S M Bullis, John C DeWitt, Bruno P Soares, Sidarth Dasari, Alana Nevares
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide an update of clinical presentation, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment according to recent evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Neurosarcoidosis remains a diagnosis of exclusion, with infectious and malignant etiologies recognized as important mimickers. Corticosteroids remain as first-line therapy. In recent years, however, studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in the treatment of neurosarcoidosis, leading to improved outcomes...
December 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Jose Garrido-Mesa, Matthew A Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is strongly associated with the HLA-B27 gene. The canonical function of HLA-B27 is to present antigenic peptides to CD8 lymphocytes, leading to adaptive immune responses. The 'arthritogenic peptide' theory as to the mechanism by which HLA-B27 induces ankylosing spondylitis proposes that HLA-B27 presents peptides derived from exogenous sources such as bacteria to CD8 lymphocytes, which subsequently cross-react with antigens at the site of inflammation of the disease, causing inflammation...
December 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Carlos J Cruz, L Savannah Dewberry, Kevin J Otto, Kyle D Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The following review discusses the therapeutic potential of targeting the autonomic nervous system (ANS) for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment and encourages the field to consider the candidacy of bioelectronic medicine as a novel OA treatment strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: The study of OA pathogenesis has focused on changes occurring at the joint level. As such, treatments for OA have been aimed at the local joint environment, intending to resolve local inflammation and decrease pain...
November 26, 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Milena Bond, Filippo Fagni, Michele Moretti, Federica Bello, Allyson Egan, Augusto Vaglio, Giacomo Emmi, Christian Dejaco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of existing literature on pathogenetic and clinical aspects of cardiac and vascular involvement in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). RECENT FINDINGS: In EGPA, cardiac and vascular involvement are more common than previously thought. However, no international recommendations on the topic are available yet. Herein, we summarize the existing evidence on the topic and propose a diagnostic approach for cardiac involvement in EGPA...
November 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Kinanah Yaseen, Alana Nevares, Hiromichi Tamaki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drug-induced vasculitis (DIV) is a rare form of vasculitis related to the use of various drugs. DIV primarily affects small to medium size vessels, but it can potentially involve vessels of any size. Differentiating between primary systemic vasculitis and DIV can be challenging; however, it is crucial, so that the offending agent can be discontinued promptly. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical phenotype of DIV is protean and depends on the size of the affected vessels...
November 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Mauro Fatica, Arianna D'Antonio, Lucia Novelli, Paola Triggianese, Paola Conigliaro, Elisabetta Greco, Alberto Bergamini, Carlo Perricone, Maria Sole Chimenti
PURPOSE: This review aims at investigating pathophysiological mechanisms in spondyloarthritis (SpA). Analysis of genetic factors, immunological pathways, and abnormalities of bone metabolism lay the foundations for a better understanding of development of the axial clinical manifestations in patients, allowing physician to choose the most appropriate therapeutic strategy in a more targeted manner. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the contribution of MHC system, findings emerged about the role of non-HLA genes (as ERAP1 and 2, whose inhibition could represent a new therapeutic approach) and of epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the expression of genes involved in SpA pathogenesis...
October 29, 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Surabhi Agarwal Khanna, John W Nance, Sally A Suliman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Fabian Lötscher, Roxana Pop, Pascal Seitz, Mike Recher, Luca Seitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a comprehensive review of drugs and neoplastic, infectious, autoinflammatory, and immunodeficiency diseases causing medium- to large-vessel vasculitis in adults with emphasis on information essential for the initial diagnostic process. RECENT FINDINGS: Entities with medium- to large-vessel vasculitis as clinical manifestations have been described recently (e.g., adenosine deaminase-2 deficiency, VEXAS-Syndrome), and vasculitis in established autoinflammatory or immunodeficiency diseases is increasingly being identified...
October 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Hoi Ki Joshua Tam, Philip C Robinson, Peter Nash
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis belong to a family of rheumatological diseases that lead to painful joint inflammation that impacts on patient function and quality of life. Recent studies have shown that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 is involved in the inflammatory joint changes in spondyloarthritides. We will review the pathophysiology of IL-17 and review the biological therapies targeting IL-17. RECENT FINDINGS: IL-17 is produced and released from T cells and is dependent on multiple upstream cytokines, which include IL-23...
October 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Luca Seitz, Pascal Seitz, Roxana Pop, Fabian Lötscher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a comprehensive overview of the spectrum of large and medium vessel vasculitis in adults with primary vasculitides, arthritides, connective tissue, and fibroinflammatory diseases as well as vasculitis mimics, for an efficient differential diagnosis and initial diagnostic approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging has had a tremendous impact on the diagnosis of medium to large vessel vasculitis, now often replacing histopathologic confirmation and identifying new disease manifestations (e...
September 27, 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Chiara Marvisi, Francesco Muratore, Chiara Cabassi, Elena Galli, Luigi Boiardi, Simonetta Piana, Maria Cecilia Mengoli, Carlo Salvarani, Alberto Cavazza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the histologic findings of vasculitis, and to give some practical considerations on biopsy samples. RECENT FINDINGS: The larger use of imaging and the discoveries of serological markers in the diagnosis of vasculitis have increased the clinical recognition of these entities. Nevertheless, biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis in most cases. So far, biopsies are also useful to obtain information about prognosis and to guide a more specific treatment...
September 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Brian Wu, Akihiro Nakamura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pathological roles of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) have recently been demonstrated in spondyloarthritis (SpA) preclinical models, identifying MIF as a new treatment target for SpA. However, the specific contribution of MIF and therapeutic potential of MIF-targeted therapies to various tissue types affected by SpA are not well delineated. RECENT FINDINGS: MIF and its cognate receptor CD74 are extensively involved in the pathogenesis of SpA including inflammation in the spine, joint, eyes, skin, and gut...
September 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Shangzhu Zhang, Linyi Peng, Qingyang Li, Jinwei Zhao, Dong Xu, Jiuliang Zhao, Qian Wang, Mengtao Li, Wen Zhang, Xinping Tian, Jinmei Su, Xiaofeng Zeng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to emphasize interesting and important new findings with a focus on the spectrum of spondyloarthritis (SpA) in China. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the investigation of SpA epidemiology, the exploration of genetic and environmental risk factors, the identification of clinical features, and the updating of treatment protocols in the Chinese population. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in China is 0...
August 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
Kelly Sun, Jolene H Fisher, Christian Pagnoux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological findings, and treatment approaches for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis-associated interstitial lung disease (AAV-ILD) with a focus on literature published in the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there is no validated definition of AAV-ILD, which contributes to some of the heterogeneity seen in study results, there has been an increasing number of publications in recent years on this topic...
August 2022: Current Rheumatology Reports
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