Lauren E Parker, Leonie M Kurzlechner, Andrew P Landstrom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital heart disease includes a wide variety of structural cardiac defects, the most severe of which are single ventricle defects (SVD). These patients suffer from significant morbidity and mortality; however, our understanding of the developmental etiology of these conditions is limited. Model organisms offer a window into normal and abnormal cardiogenesis yet often fail to recapitulate complex congenital heart defects seen in patients. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients with single-ventricle defects opens the door to studying SVD in patient-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) in a variety of different contexts, including organoids and chamber-specific cardiomyocytes...
March 17, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Lorenzo R Sewanan, Kevin J Clerkin, Nathan R Tucker, Emily J Tsai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac consequences occur in both acute COVID-19 and post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). Here, we highlight the current understanding about COVID-19 cardiac effects, based upon clinical, imaging, autopsy, and molecular studies. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 cardiac effects are heterogeneous. Multiple, concurrent cardiac histopathologic findings have been detected on autopsies of COVID-19 non-survivors. Microthrombi and cardiomyocyte necrosis are commonly detected...
March 10, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Sharon Y Lee, Emily C Gathright, Wen-Chih Wu, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With growing scientific and public interest in the health benefits of mindfulness, clinicians increasingly face questions and solicitations for advice from patients about the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this clinician-focused review, we aim to revisit empirical studies on MBIs for CVD with the purpose of informing clinicians' decisions on how to provide recommendations consistent with updated scientific findings to patients interested in MBIs...
March 2, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Perry Elliott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to briefly summarise the clinical approach to disease notation for cardiomyopathies and to highlight its limitations with respect to the integration of new knowledge about aetiology. RECENT FINDINGS: The paper uses the recently advocated concept of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy as an example of the limitations of current classification systems. At present, there is no single classification system that meets the needs of all potential users, whether they are basic scientists, clinicians, patients or families...
February 28, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Karly A Murphy, Gail L Daumit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Addressing cardiometabolic risk factors in persons with serious mental illness requires early screening and proactive medical management in both medical and mental health settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for persons with serious mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, much of which is driven by a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and tobacco use. We summarize barriers and recent approaches to screening and treatment for metabolic cardiovascular risk factors within physical health and specialty mental health settings...
February 27, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Mohit Pahuja, Charan Yerasi, Phillip H Lam, Hayder Hashim, Itsik Ben-Dor, Nelson L Bernardo, Lowell F Satler, Farooq H Sheikh, Samer S Najjar, Ezequiel J Molina, Ron Waksman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a complex clinical entity that continues to carry a high risk of mortality. The landscape of CS management has changed with the advent of several temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices designed to provide hemodynamic support. It remains challenging to understand the role of different temporary MCS devices in patients with CS, as many of these patients are critically ill, requiring complex care with multiple MCS device options...
February 27, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Loba Alam, Alaa Mabrouk Salem Omar, Krishna K Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has played a central role in the non-invasive evaluation of patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. In this review, we discuss the key differences and advantages of positron emission tomography (PET) MPI over SPECT MPI as it relates to the diagnosis, prognosis, as well as clinical decision-making in patients with suspected CAD. RECENT FINDINGS: Stress-induced perfusion abnormalities on SPECT help estimate presence, extent, and location of ischemia and flow-limiting obstructive CAD, help with risk stratification, and serve as a gatekeeper to identify patients who will benefit from downstream revascularization versus medical management...
February 24, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Fares Alahdab, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we explore the development of digital PET scanners and describe the mechanism by which they work. We dive into some technical details on what differentiates a digital PET from a conventional PET scanner and how such differences lead to better imaging characteristics. Additionally, we summarize the available evidence on the improvements in the images acquired by digital PET as well as the remaining pitfalls. Finally, we report the comparative studies available on how digital PET compares to conventional PET, particularly in the quantification of coronary blood flow...
February 24, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Chris Anthony, Emmanuel Akintoye, Tom Wang, Allan Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the echo Doppler parameters that form the cornerstone for the evaluation of diastolic function as per the guideline documents of the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). In addition, the individual Doppler-based parameters will be explored, with commentary on the rationale behind their use and the multi-parametric approach to the assessment of diastolic dysfunction (DD) using echocardiography...
February 23, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Brendan L Eck, Michael Yim, Jesse I Hamilton, Gastao José Lima da Cruz, Xiaojuan Li, Scott D Flamm, W H Wilson Tang, Claudia Prieto, Nicole Seiberlich, Deborah H Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac magnetic resonance fingerprinting (cMRF) has developed as a technique for rapid, multi-parametric tissue property mapping that has potential to both improve cardiac MRI exam efficiency and expand the information captured. In this review, we describe the cMRF technique, summarize technical developments and in vivo reports, and highlight potential clinical applications. RECENT FINDINGS: Technical developments in cMRF continue to progress rapidly, including motion compensated reconstruction, additional tissue property quantification, signal time course analysis, and synthetic LGE image generation...
February 18, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Nicolas Sayegh, Juliet Yirerong, Neeraj Agarwal, Daniel Addison, Michael Fradley, Jorge Cortes, Neal L Weintraub, Nazish Sayed, Girindra Raval, Avirup Guha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a detailed overview of cardiovascular adverse events associated with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors across different tumor types. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite an undeniable survival advantage of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with hematologic or solid malignancies, the accompanying off-target cardiovascular adverse events can be life-threatening. In patients with B cell malignancies, the use of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been associated with atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, as well as hypertension...
February 16, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Darae Ko, John A Bostrom, Saadia Qazi, Daniel B Kramer, Dae Hyun Kim, Ariela R Orkaby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of the narrative review is to provide an overview of the epidemiology of frailty in cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality and discuss applications of frailty in cardiovascular care of older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Frailty is highly prevalent in older adults with cardiovascular disease and is a robust, independent predictor of cardiovascular death. There is a growing interest in using frailty to inform management of cardiovascular disease either through pre- or post-treatment prognostication or by delineating treatment heterogeneity in which frailty serves to distinguish patients with differential harms or benefits from a given therapy...
February 16, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Pouya Joolharzadeh, Mario Rodriguez, Raja Zaghlol, Lauren N Pedersen, Jesus Jimenez, Carmen Bergom, Joshua D Mitchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following significant advancements in cancer therapeutics and survival, the risk of cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity (CTRC) is increasingly recognized. With ongoing efforts to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in cancer patients and survivors, cardiac biomarkers have been studied for both risk stratification and monitoring during and after therapy to detect subclinical disease. This article will review the utility for biomarker use throughout the cancer care continuum...
February 15, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Leo Marcoff, Linda D Gillam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current management of patients with newly diagnosed aortic stenosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent developments include detection of early myocardial dysfunction using serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels and global longitudinal strain, as well as ongoing trials of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in asymptomatic patients and patients with moderate aortic stenosis complicated by symptoms or left ventricular systolic dysfunction...
February 14, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Mohammed El-Azrak, Charmake Darar, Mohammed Boutaybi, Noha El Ouafi, Zakaria Bazid
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early repolarization syndrome (ERS), once thought to be innocuous, has now been shown to be responsible for ventricular arrythmias and sudden cardiac death occurrence. This review will help the clinician to identify the patients who are most at risk for arrhythmias, so that they can adopt a preventive or secondary treatment approach, either of which is still poorly defined. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients at high risk are found to be particularly young men, with a personal or family history of syncope or sudden death, who have an inferolateral ER on the electrocardiogram, more elevated J-point, longer J-wave duration and wider J angle, a horizontal or descending ST segment, lower T/R ratio, and small and/or inverted waves...
February 10, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Rida Shahid, Justin Jin, Kyle Hope, Hari Tunuguntla, Shahnawaz Amdani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While there have now been a variety of large reviews on adult pericarditis, this detailed review specifically focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of pediatric pericarditis. We have tried to highlight most pediatric studies conducted on this topic, with special inclusion of important adult studies that have shaped our understanding of and management for acute and recurrent pericarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: We find that the etiology of pediatric pericarditis differs from adult patients with pericarditis and has evolved over the years...
February 7, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Mugdha Joshi, Diana Patricia Melo, David Ouyang, Piotr J Slomka, Michelle C Williams, Damini Dey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we aim to summarize state-of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) approaches applied to cardiovascular CT and their future implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that deep learning networks can be applied for rapid automated segmentation of coronary plaque from coronary CT angiography, with AI-enabled measurement of total plaque volume predicting future heart attack. AI has also been applied to automate assessment of coronary artery calcium on cardiac and ungated chest CT and to automate the measurement of epicardial fat...
January 28, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Nabila Laskar, Sveeta Badiani, Thomas Treibel, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, Guy Lloyd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There have been several advances in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease (VHD) over the last decade. These have been reflected in the latest European and North American guidelines, although both contain significant similarities and differences. In this review, we highlight the important overlaps and variations between the updated guidelines and their previous versions to help guide the general cardiologist. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been extensive revision on the use of percutaneous treatments, the indications for intervention in asymptomatic VHD, and perioperative bridging therapies...
January 28, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Richard Ro, Daniel Bamira, Samuel Bernard, Alan Vainrib, Homam Ibrahim, Cezar Staniloae, Mathew R Williams, Muhamed Saric
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Percutaneous structural interventions have provided patients with an effective therapeutic option, and its growth has been aided by echocardiography. We describe the vital role that transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) plays in screening patients prior to their procedure. RECENT FINDINGS: A multimodality imaging approach is employed by the valve team, but TEE plays a unique role in diagnosis and planning. Utilization of all TEE views and features such as biplane, 3D imaging, and multiplanar reconstruction ensures accurate assessment of the structural lesion of interest...
January 21, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
Renée P Bullock-Palmer, Erin D Michos, Dianna Gaballa, Ron Blankstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2023: Current Cardiology Reports
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