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Current Cardiology Reports

Shinya Unai, Douglas R Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The surgical management of constrictive pericarditis has evolved from a partial pericardiectomy via a thoracotomy approach to a more extensive removal of the pericardium. This review summarizes the published studies regarding surgical management of pericardial disease, focusing on the surgical technique of radical pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Anterior phrenic to phrenic resection without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass has been performed in many centers...
February 12, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Dalia Di Nunzio, Antonino Recupero, Cesare de Gregorio, Concetta Zito, Scipione Carerj, Gianluca Di Bella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide a description of the most important echocardiographic features in systemic amyloidosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders, characterized by an extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Several imaging tests are available for the diagnosis; however, echocardiography is the cornerstone of the non-invasive imaging modality for cardiac amyloidosis. So far, little is known about the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis through imaging modalities...
February 12, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Jefferson Luis Vieira, Fábio Rocha Fernandes Távora, Maria Gyslane Vasconcelos Sobral, Glauber Gean Vasconcelos, Germana Porto Linhares Almeida, Juliana Rolim Fernandes, Laura Leite da Escóssia Marinho, Daniel Francisco de Mendonça Trompieri, João David De Souza Neto, Juan Alberto Cosquillo Mejia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chagas cardiomyopathy is a major public health disease in Latin America and, due to migration, is becoming a worldwide health and economic burden. This review sought to present the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas cardiomyopathy, as well as some specific features and principles of treatment. We also retrospectively assessed our institutional experience with mechanical circulatory support in refractory heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy over a 10-year period...
February 12, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Peter Khalil, Ghazal Kabbach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) continues to evolve, many old practices proved to be of a little benefit and other approaches established the new pillars of modern medicine. Treating ACS patients with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for a year by combining aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel) has resulted in better outcomes and is currently the standard of therapy. However, owing to the persistent activation of the coagulation cascade, patients may continue to experience recurrent ischemia and high mortality rates despite compliance with the dual antiplatelet therapy...
January 28, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Amani M Norling, Randolph S Marshall, Marykay A Pavol, George Howard, Virginia Howard, David Liebeskind, John Huston, Brajesh K Lal, Thomas G Brott, Ronald M Lazar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current literature that supports the notion that cerebral hemodynamic compromise from internal carotid artery stenosis may be a cause of vascular cognitive impairment that is amenable to treatment by revascularization. RECENT FINDINGS: Converging evidence suggests that successful carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting are associated with reversal of cognitive decline in many patients with severe but asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis...
January 19, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Anish Badjatiya, Sunil V Rao
The treatment of patients requiring anticoagulation who develop acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or require percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) must balance the reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events, stroke, and major bleeding. The development of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation has ushered in an era of potential treatment options for these complex patients. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical evidence underlying the use of DOACs for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation and ACS or PCI...
January 12, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Subrata Kar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in women who experience acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and are treated with drug-eluting stents (DES). The review also describes the role of the new-generation DES compared with the early generation. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature shows that the new-generation DES can be effective in women who present with AMI. Women with AMI may be undertreated and are underrepresented in studies of AMI...
January 10, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Thomas F Whayne, Sibu P Saha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to investigate and discuss two aspects of coronary artery disease (CAD)-genetic risk and therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC)-both of which have key importance for patients and their care but which actually receive inadequate attention. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic risk has generally been relegated to a broad association with the presence of one or more inherited cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, family history of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus...
January 10, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Amitabh Parashar, W Gregory Hundley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in cancer treatment have resulted in improved cancer-related survival and consequently an increase in the number of cancer survivors. Unfortunately, associated with this increase in cancer-related survivorship, cardiac events have occurred with increasing frequency in cancer survivors. Recognition that cancer survivors are at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity has generated interest to develop cardiac imaging techniques that identify subclinical CV disease during receipt of potentially cardiotoxic cancer treatment...
October 26, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Ron Waksman, Micaela Iantorno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on our approach for the treatment of refractory in-stent restenosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The discovery of bare metal stents over three decades ago set a milestone in the evolution of percutaneous coronary intervention, which is currently the most widely performed procedure for the treatment of symptomatic coronary disease. However, the broad utilization of stents resulted in the new phenomenon of in-stent restenosis (ISR). Over the years, there has been an increase of the incidence of ISR despite continued improvement of drug-eluting stent (DES) technology...
October 22, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Peter Tajti, Iosif Xenogiannis, Dimitris Karmpaliotis, Khaldoon Alaswad, Farouc A Jaffer, M Nicholas Burke, Imre Ungi, Emmanouil S Brilakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize novel techniques and developments in chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). RECENT FINDINGS: Using an algorithmic, step-by-step approach can help overcome several complex CTO lesions subsets, such as proximal cap ambiguity, ostial location, in-stent occlusion, bifurcations, balloon uncrossable and undilatable lesions. Similarly, an algorithmic approach can help prevent and optimally treat CTO PCI-related complication, such as perforation, radiation, and contrast-induced nephropathy...
October 22, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Matthew E Dilsizian, Eliot L Siegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An understanding of the basics concepts of deep learning can be helpful in not only understanding the potential applications of this technique but also in critically reviewing literature in which neural networks are utilized for analysis and modeling. RECENT FINDINGS: The term "deep learning" has been applied to a subset of machine learning that utilizes a "neural network" and is often used interchangeably with "artificial intelligence...
October 18, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Lane B Benes, Daniel J Brandt, Eric J Brandt, Michael H Davidson
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize advances in genomic medicine and anticipated future directions to improve cardiovascular risk reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Mendelian randomization and genome-wide association studies have given significant insights into the role of genetics in dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD), with over 160 gene loci found to be associated with coronary artery disease to date. This has enabled the creation of genetic risk scores that have demonstrated improved risk prediction when added to clinical markers of CVD risk...
October 17, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Chrishan J Nalliah, Prashanthan Sanders, Jonathan M Kalman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in humans, affecting more than 33 million people globally. Its association with complex, resource intensive medical conditions such as stroke, heart failure and dementia have had profound impacts across existing health care structures. The global prevalence of AF has enjoyed significant growth despite significant improvement in our armamentarium for arrhythmia treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Efforts aimed at curtailing the incidence, prevalence, or progression of AF have prompted re-evaluation of traditional frameworks for understanding and managing this debilitating disease...
October 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Xavier Trudel, Chantal Brisson, Mahée Gilbert-Ouimet, Alain Milot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychosocial stressors at work from the demand-latitude and effort-reward imbalance models are adverse exposures affecting about 20-25% of workers in industrialized countries. This review aims to summarize evidence on the effect of these stressors on blood pressure (BP). RECENT FINDINGS: Three systematic reviews have recently documented the effect of these psychosocial stressors at work on BP. Among exposed workers, statistically significant BP increases ranging from 1...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Thomas E Kraynak, Anna L Marsland, Peter J Gianaros
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses brain circuits that are engaged by negative emotions and possibly linked to cardiovascular disease risk. It describes recent human brain imaging studies that relate activity in these brain circuits to emotional processes, peripheral physiology, preclinical pathophysiology, as well as clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Negative emotions and the regulation of negative emotions reliably engage several brain regions that cross-sectional and longitudinal brain imaging studies have associated with CVD risk markers and outcomes...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Rajesh Gupta, Dylan D Fortman, Daniel R Morgenstern, Christopher J Cooper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute pulmonary embolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA and throughout the world. This review will summarize recent developments in short- and long-term mortality risk assessment after an acute pulmonary embolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent guidelines have emphasized risk stratification of acute PE patients on the basis of blood pressure, right ventricular size, and biomarker status. Ongoing work is testing various acute treatment strategies for improvement of symptom burden, length of stay, quality of life, and possibly mortality risk reduction...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Haider J Warraich, Jamal S Rana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia in patients with T2DM confers significant additional risk of adverse outcomes to patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). These patients carry residual risk of adverse outcomes despite optimal management with conventional therapy such as lifestyle changes and statin therapy. The role of both nonstatin monotherapy in statin-intolerant patients and combination therapy with statins in patients with high risk of CVD events has been well studied. We sought to review the role of newer therapies in risk reduction in these patients...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Matthew W Sherwood, Amit N Vora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to describe the current evidence and consensus recommendations around antiplatelet and anticoagulant management in three common clinical scenarios in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR): (1) recent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) preceding TAVR, (2) atrial fibrillation (AF) management in patients undergoing TAVR, and (3) bioprosthetic valve thrombosis management in TAVR. RECENT FINDINGS: Several small clinical trials have evaluated the use of single vs...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Kunal Bhatia, Madihah Hepburn, Endrit Ziu, Farhan Siddiq, Adnan I Qureshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to discuss the recent advances in surgical management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), safety and efficacy of minimally invasive surgical techniques, and the existing evidence supporting their use. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer surgical techniques, collectively referred to as minimally invasive surgery (MIS), have been evaluated and studied in management of ICH. Stereotactic evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage using aspiration-irrigation technique has showed significant reductions in the hematoma volume with minimal intra-operative bleeding...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
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