Adam Serafin, Wojciech Kosmala, Thomas H Marwick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) can assess myocardial motion in non-LV chambers-including assessment of left atrial (LA) and right ventricular (RV) strain. This review seeks to highlight the diagnostic, prognostic, and clinical significance of these parameters in heart failure, atrial fibrillation (AF), diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension (PH), tricuspid regurgitation, and heart transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Impaired LA strain reflects worse LV diastolic function in individuals with and without HF, and this is associated with decreased exercise capacity...
April 22, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Roshan Bista, Mohamed Zghouzi, Manasa Jasti, Hady Lichaa, Jimmy Kerrigan, Elias Haddad, M Chadi Alraies, Timir K Paul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents a comprehensive review of coronary revascularization versus optimal medical therapy (OMT) in patients with severe ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: The REVIVED-BCIS2 trial randomized 700 patients with extensive coronary artery disease and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% and viability in more than four dysfunctional myocardial segments to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) plus OMT versus OMT alone...
April 20, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Sivaram Neppala, Jemema Rajan, Eric Yang, Ralph A DeFronzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: What is new? Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2D) individuals. Of the major risk factors for CVD, less than 10% of T2D people meet the American Diabetes Association/American Heart Association recommended goals of therapy. The present review examines how much of the absolute cardiovascular (CV) risk in type 2 diabetes patients can be explained by major CV intervention trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple long-term cardiovascular (CV) intervention trials have examined the effect of specific target-directed therapies on the MACE endpoint...
April 18, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Jean-Benoît Veillette, Marc-Antoine Carrier, Stéphane Rinfret, Julien Mercier, Jean Arsenault, Jean-Michel Paradis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Invasive cardiologists are exposed to large amounts of ionizing radiation. This review aims to summarize the main occupational risks in a radiation-exposed cardiology practice. RECENT FINDINGS: We carried out a literature review on the subject. The studies reviewed allowed us to list six main health risk categories possibly associated with radiation exposure among cardiologists: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and biochemical damages; cancers; ocular manifestations; olfaction, vascular, and neuropsychological alterations; musculoskeletal problems; and reproductive risks...
April 16, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Simone Fezzi, Sara Malakouti, Jegan Sivalingam, Jacinthe Khater, Flavio Ribichini, Bernardo Cortese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are a major global health concern. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) has been endorsed as safe and effective in the management of culprit and non-culprit lesions of ACS. However, permanent metallic implants may have drawbacks, including the need for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and the risk of long-term stent-related complications. An alternative approach using drug-coated balloons (DCBs) is gaining growing interest, having the potential of delivering therapy directly to vulnerable plaques, avoiding the need for permanent metallic implants, and potentially allowing for better long-term medical treatment...
April 15, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Suhas Babu, Paulamy Ganguly, Nandan Shettigar, C Huie Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is a rapidly growing field; however, more research is needed on the disparities affecting outcomes. With advances in medicine, a high percentage of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are advancing to adulthood, leading to an increase in the number of ACHD. This creates a pressing need to evaluate the factors, specifically the social determinants of health (SDOH) contributing to the outcomes for ACHD...
April 13, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Ashwin Roy, Max J Cumberland, Christopher O'Shea, Andrew Holmes, Manish Kalla, Katja Gehmlich, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Richard P Steeds
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fabry Disease (FD) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder characterised by multiorgan accumulation of glycosphingolipid due to deficiency in the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Cardiac sphingolipid accumulation triggers various types of arrhythmias, predominantly ventricular arrhythmia, bradyarrhythmia, and atrial fibrillation. Arrhythmia is likely the primary contributor to FD mortality with sudden cardiac death, the most frequent cardiac mode of death. Traditionally FD was seen as a storage cardiomyopathy triggering left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and ultimately, systolic dysfunction in advanced disease...
April 12, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Thomas Das, Penelope Rampersad, Joanna Ghobrial
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the unique challenges that adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients present in the intensive care unit. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies suggest that ACHD patients make up an increasing number of ICU admissions, and that their care greatly improves in centers with specialized ACHD care. Common reasons for admission include arrhythmia, hemorrhage, heart failure, and pulmonary disease. It is critical that the modern intensivist understand not only the congenital anatomy and subsequent repairs an ACHD patient has undergone, but also how that anatomy can predispose the patient to critical illness...
April 9, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Christine Chow, Jacob Doll
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Risk models for mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are underutilized in clinical practice though they may be useful during informed consent, risk mitigation planning, and risk adjustment of hospital and operator outcomes. This review analyzed contemporary risk models for in-hospital and 30-day mortality after PCI. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed eight contemporary risk models. Age, sex, hemodynamic status, acute coronary syndrome type, heart failure, and kidney disease were consistently found to be independent risk factors for mortality...
April 9, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Crosby Culp, Jon Andrews, Katherine Wang Sun, Kendall Hunter, Anne Cherry, Mihai Podgoreanu, Alina Nicoara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the fundamentals of RV-PA coupling, its non-invasive means of measurement, and contemporary understanding of RV-PA coupling in cardiac surgery, cardiac interventions, and congenital heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The need for more accessible clinical means of evaluation of RV-PA coupling has driven researchers to investigate surrogates using cardiac MRI, echocardiography, and right-sided pressure measurements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery/interventions, as well as patients with congenital heart disease...
April 6, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Mengyao Yu, Nabila Bouatia-Naji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increases in the availability of genetic data and advances in the tools and methods for their analyses have enabled well-powered genetic association studies that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the genetic factors underlying both rare and common valve diseases. Valvular heart diseases, such as congenital valve malformations and degenerative valve lesions, increase the risk of heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death. In this review, we provide an updated overview of our current understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying valvular heart diseases...
April 6, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Michael Cutrone, Sarah Cotter, Madhav Swaminathan, Sharon McCartney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a concise overview of key recommendations, with a specific focus on common challenges faced by intraoperative echocardiographers when dealing with frequently encountered valvular pathologies and mechanical circulatory support. It offers valuable insights for medical practitioners in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: The American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) have released updated comprehensive guidelines for the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for the assessment of cardiac structures and implanted devices to help guide intraoperative decision-making...
April 4, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Robert S Zhang, Brittany N Weber, Diego Araiza-Garaygordobil, Michael S Garshick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Targeting traditional cardiovascular risk factors is effective in reducing recurrent cardiovascular events, yet the presence of residual cardiovascular risk due to underlying systemic inflammation is a largely unaddressed opportunity. This review aims to comprehensively assess the evolving role of colchicine as a therapeutic approach targeting residual inflammatory risk in the context of those with coronary artery disease (CAD). RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammation plays a significant role in promoting atherosclerosis, and targeting anti-inflammatory pathways has the potential to decrease cardiovascular events...
April 4, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Pallavi Dubey, Sireesha Reddy, Kunal Sharma, Sarah Johnson, Ghislain Hardy, Alok Kumar Dwivedi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It has been associated with metabolic, reproductive, and psychiatric disorders. Despite its association with insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, the association between PCOS and CVD outcomes has been conflicting. This review reports the updated evidence between PCOS, insulin resistance, and CVD events. RECENT FINDINGS: IR is highly prevalent occurring in 50 to 95% of general and obese PCOS women...
April 3, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Alan De la Rosa, Kedzie Arrington, Rohan Desai, Prakrati C Acharya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The polypill strategy, originally developed to improve medication adherence, has demonstrated efficacy in improving baseline systolic blood pressures and cholesterol levels in multiple clinical trials. However, the long-term clinical impact of improved major cardiovascular events (MACE) outcomes by the polypill remains uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent trials with long-term follow-up, which included minority groups and people with low socioeconomic status, have shown non-inferiority with no difference in adverse effects rates for the secondary prevention of MACE...
April 1, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Jyoti Maddhesiya, Bhagyalaxmi Mohapatra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most frequently occurring birth defect. Majority of the earlier reviews focussed on the association of genetic factors with CHD. A few epidemiological studies provide convincing evidence for environmental factors in the causation of CHD. Although the multifactorial theory of gene-environment interaction is the prevailing explanation, explicit understanding of the biological mechanism(s) involved, remains obscure. Nonetheless, integration of all the information into one platform would enable us to better understand the collective risk implicated in CHD development...
March 28, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Robert S Zhang, Richard Ro, Daniel Bamira, Alan Vainrib, Lily Zhang, Ambika C Nayar, Muhamed Saric, Samuel Bernard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although rare, the development of mechanical complications following an acute myocardial infarction is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Here, we review the clinical features, diagnostic strategy, and treatment options for each of the mechanical complications, with a focus on the role of echocardiography. RECENT FINDINGS: The growth of percutaneous structural interventions worldwide has given rise to new non-surgical options for management of mechanical complications...
March 25, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Justin A Charles, Nilofer Khan Habibullah, Saul Bautista, Brenda Davis, Shivam Joshi, Sarah C Hull
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension results in significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditures. Fortunately, it is largely preventable and treatable by implementing dietary interventions, though these remain underutilized. Here, we aim to explore the role of healthy dietary patterns in hypertension management and describe approaches for busy clinicians to address nutrition effectively and efficiently with patients. RECENT FINDINGS: DASH, Mediterranean, vegetarian, and vegan diets that include minimally processed, plant-based foods as core elements have consistently shown positive effects on hypertension...
March 25, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
Mujtaba Saeed, Akila Bersali, Amr Darwish, Fatima Qamar, Dimitrios Maragiannis, Kinan Carlos El-Tallawi, Maan Malahfji, Dipan J Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as a valuable imaging modality for the assessment of aortic regurgitation (AR). In this review, we discuss the assessment of AR severity, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and tissue characterization by CMR while highlighting the latest studies and addressing future research needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have further established CMR-based thresholds of AR severity and LV remodeling that are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, and lower than current guideline criteria...
March 22, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
D Dziadosz, L Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz, P Wejner-Mik, M Budnik, B Brzezińska, P Duchnowski, K Golińska-Grzybała, K Jaworski, I Jedliński, M Kamela, J Kasprzak, M Kowalczyk-Domagała, K Kurnicka, D Kustrzycka-Kratochwil, K Mickiewicz, O Możeńska, Z Oko-Sarnowska, M Plewka, A Polewczyk, B Uziębło-Życzkowska, K Wierzbowska-Drabik, R Wachnicka-Truty, E Wołoszyn-Horák, P Szymański, A Gackowski, K Mizia-Stec
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize currently available data on the topic of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and its correlation to the occurrence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. To assess the prognostic value of several diagnostic methods such as transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, cardiac computed tomography, electrocardiography, and electrophysiology concerning arrhythmic episodes. To explore intra and extracellular biochemistry of the cardiovascular system and its biomarkers as diagnostic tools to predict rhythm disturbances in the MVP population...
March 20, 2024: Current Cardiology Reports
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