Evan C Cumpston, Steven D Rhodes, Charles W Yates
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS), meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal and peripheral schwannomas, optic gliomas, and juvenile cataracts. Ongoing studies provide new insight into the role of the NF2 gene and merlin in VS tumorigenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: As NF2 tumor biology becomes increasingly understood, therapeutics targeting specific molecular pathways have been developed and evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies...
March 18, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Inderpreet Singh, Abhay Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the current knowledge about clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other outcomes, pathogenesis, postulated mechanisms of various pathologies, current knowledge gaps, possible targets of intervention, and therapeutic implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, a common age-related hematological entity known as CHIP has been identified as the independent risk factor for CVD...
March 16, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Murillo A Martins, Taysa F Silva, Caio J Fernandes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to assess the treatment options for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) based on the most robust level of evidence recommendations and suggestions based on expert opinion. RECENT FINDINGS: Several classes of anticoagulants have been studied in the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT). Since the CLOT trial, guidelines recommend the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for the treatment of this condition...
March 16, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Sheena Bhalla, David E Gerber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The AXL signaling pathway is associated with tumor growth as well as poor prognosis in cancer. Here, we highlight recent strategies for targeting AXL in the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: AXL is a key player in survival, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance in many cancers. A range of AXL-targeted therapies, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, and soluble receptors, have entered clinical development...
March 15, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Jeffrey L Jensen, Saumya Easaw, Travis Anderson, Yash Varma, Jiandong Zhang, Brian C Jensen, Catherine C Coombs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) refers to the expansion of hematopoietic stem cell clones and their cellular progeny due to somatic mutations, mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs), or copy number variants which naturally accumulate with age. CH has been linked to increased risk of blood cancers, but CH has also been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: A combination of clinical outcome studies and mouse models have offered strong evidence that CH mutations either correlate with or cause atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, aortic aneurysm, myocardial infarction, stroke, aortic stenosis, poor outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or orthotopic heart transplant, death or need of renal replacement therapy secondary to cardiogenic shock, death from cardiovascular causes at large, and enhance anthracycline cardiac toxicity...
March 15, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Dillon C Cockrell, Tracy L Rose
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy has been a standard of care in the perioperative management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer for years, but several novel therapies are under active investigation. This review aims to provide an update on recent relevant literature and a forward look at the future landscape of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients who opt for radical cystectomy. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent approval of nivolumab as adjuvant therapy established a new treatment option for high-risk patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer after radical cystectomy...
March 10, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Sam Dowthwaite, James Jackson, Marcin Dzienis, Eric Khoo, Mathew Cronin, Emily Guazzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the impact of contemporary treatment strategies on salvage outcomes in patients with recurrent human papilloma virus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV + OPSCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Secondary to HPV, changes in disease biology have impacted primary treatments and subsequent approaches to patients with recurrence. With treatment strategies more inclusive of upfront surgery, the characteristics of patients with recurrence HPV + OPSCC have been further redefined...
March 7, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Suparna C Clasen, Chunkit Fung, Howard D Sesso, Lois B Travis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Testicular cancer (TC) is the leading cancer in men between 18 and 39 years of age. Current treatment involves tumor resection followed by surveillance and/or one or more lines of cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CBCT) and/or bone marrow transplant (BMT). Ten years after treatment, CBCT has been associated with significant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heightened rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
March 3, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Oleg Gluz, Monika Graeser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical decisions for (neo)adjuvant treatment in early breast cancer (eBC) have been based mostly on clinical factors over the last decades. We have reviewed development and validation of such assays in the HR + /HER2 eBC and discuss possible future directions in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing knowledge about the biology of hormone-sensitive eBC, based on the precise and reproducible multigene expression analysis, has led to a significant change in the treatment pathways and reduction of overtreatment in particular by chemotherapy in HR + /HER2 eBC with up to 3 positive lymph nodes based on results from several retrospective-prospective trials used several genomic assays and in particular prospective trials (TAILORx, RxPonder, MINDACT, and ADAPT used OncotypeDX® and Mammaprint®)...
March 2, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Grace Guzman, Megan R Reed, Kevin Bielamowicz, Brian Koss, Analiz Rodriguez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will discuss the challenges facing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell application for solid tumors and opportunities to overcome these obstacles. In addition, this review will examine therapies that are in development for pediatric solid tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: The similar success of CAR-T cell treatment for hematological malignancies has not been observed in solid tumors because of the hostile tumor microenvironment and tumor heterogeneity...
February 28, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Grace Kong, Emma Boehm, Owen Prall, William K Murray, Richard W Tothill, Michael Michael
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastroenteropancreatic NEN (GEP-NEN) are group of malignancies with significant clinical, anatomical and molecular heterogeneity. High-grade GEP-NEN in particular present unique management challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: In the current era, multidisciplinary management with access to a combination of functional imaging and targeted molecular profiling can provide important disease characterisation, guide individualised management and improve patient outcome...
February 24, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Peter Taber, Julie S Armin, Gabriela Orozco, Guilherme Del Fiol, Jennifer Erdrich, Kensaku Kawamoto, Sonoo Thadaney Israni
PURPOSE FOR REVIEW: This perspective piece has two goals: first, to describe issues related to artificial intelligence-based applications for cancer control as they may impact health inequities or disparities; and second, to report on a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of artificial intelligence-based tools for cancer control to ascertain the extent to which discussions of justice, equity, diversity, inclusion, or health disparities manifest in syntheses of the field's best evidence...
February 22, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Nikhil Yegya-Raman, Eva Berlin, Steven J Feigenberg, Bonnie Ky, Lova Sun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with lung cancer often have concomitant cardiovascular comorbidities and receive potentially cardiotoxic therapies. As oncologic outcomes improve, the relative impact of cardiovascular disease on lung cancer survivors is expected to increase. This review summarizes cardiovascular toxicities observed after treatment for lung cancer, as well as recommended risk mitigation strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of cardiovascular events may be observed after surgery, radiation therapy (RT), and systemic therapy...
February 22, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Nicolas Magne, Nicolas Milhade, Paul Sargos, Wafa Bouleftour
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to gather the current state of the literature about therapeutic approaches and management of oligometastatic renal cell carcinoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) studies gained attention and offered a promising outcome alone or in association with antineoplastic drugs especially in oligometastatic renal cell carcinoma. If one can consider evidence-based medicine as the sole therapeutic option, many unresolved questions are still pending...
February 18, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Rebecca Bystrom, Mark J Levis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) mutations. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent European Leukemia Net (ELN2022) recommendations re-classified AML with FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) as intermediate risk regardless of Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) co-mutation or the FLT3 allelic ratio. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is now recommended for all eligible patients with FLT3-ITD AML...
February 18, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Reshma R Nair, Zachery Halford, William F Towers, Lauren D Breite, Keith Cooper, Samarth P Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a paucity of evidence for managing perioperative anticoagulation in patients with cancer. This review aims to provide clinicians who provide care for patients with cancer an overview of the available information and strategies needed to provide optimal care in a perioperative setting. RECENT FINDINGS: There is new evidence available around the management of perioperative anticoagulation in patients with cancer. The new literature and guidance were analyzed and summarized in this review...
February 18, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Anna Luíza Damaceno Araújo, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Luiz Paulo Kowalski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this overview is to appraise the evidence on salivary biomarkers for H&N cancer diagnosis. The acronym PICOS was used to develop the eligibility criteria and the focused review question: are liquid biopsies (saliva biomarkers) reliable for cancer detection in H&N cancer patients? Electronic database search encompassed PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and LILACS. Risk of Bias (RoB) was assessed through AMSTAR 2. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 20 SRs were included...
February 15, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
E C van Dalen, J M Leerink, L C M Kremer, E A M Feijen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer patients are at risk for treatment-related myocardial dysfunction and heart failure during or after treatment. Risk prediction models have the potential to play an important role in identifying patients at high or low risk in order to take appropriate measures. Here, we review their current role. RECENT FINDINGS: More and more risk prediction models are currently being developed. Unfortunately, they vary widely in their ability to identify patients and survivors at risk for myocardial dysfunction or heart failure, from very poor to strong...
February 14, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Angela Damato, Michele Ghidini, Lorenzo Dottorini, Gianluca Tomasello, Alessandro Iaculli, Antonio Ghidini, Andrea Luciani, Fausto Petrelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has evolved and become more personalized during the past several years. For example, depotentiation/reduced duration of systemic therapies has proven to be beneficial in both advanced and early stages of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: In particular, recent randomized studies of stage III and high-risk stage II CRC showed that a shorter duration (3 months), when compared to the historical 6-month comparator, provides nearly similar overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)...
February 13, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
Mariam Saad, Ahmad A Tarhini
PURPOSEOF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current state of neoadjuvant immunotherapy and targeted therapy for locoregionally advanced melanoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Melanoma systemic therapy has witnessed major advances with the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecularly targeted therapy that have been translated into the neoadjuvant setting in managing locoregionally advanced disease. PD1 blockade as monotherapy and combined with CTLA4 blockade or LAG3 inhibition has demonstrated major improvements in reducing the risk of relapse and death that were associated with high pathologic response rates...
February 13, 2023: Current Oncology Reports
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