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Current Oncology Reports

Harsh K Patel, Alok A Khorana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, and its management is often associated with complications including risk of recurrent VTE and bleeding. Here, we review the current data on pitfalls during anticoagulation in cancer patients and measures necessary to avoid them. RECENT FINDINGS: Although low-molecular-weight heparin monotherapy has been the standard of treatment for several years, emerging data for direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are leading to new paradigms in treatment...
February 4, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Marco Cerrano, Raphael Itzykson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The extensive genomic characterization of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) led to the identification of a vast number of potential therapeutic targets. We review relevant data that have led to recent approval of new targeted therapies in AML and discuss the most promising drugs currently in development in this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: New formulations of cytotoxic agents, namely CPX-351 and gemtuzumab ozogamicin, improve the outcome of defined subgroup of patients...
February 4, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Jerry Harb, Pen-Jen Lin, Jijun Hao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review current understanding of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling in cancer and provide updated knowledge in current clinical trials of Wnt signaling drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: Important roles of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling in cancer have been increasingly recognized. Recent clinical trials of several Wnt-signaling drugs have showed promising outcomes. In addition, some drugs that were originally approved for the treatment of other diseases have been recently found to block Wnt signaling, highlighting their potential to treat Wnt-dependent cancer...
February 4, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Sofia Genta, Maria Cristina Pirosa, Anastasios Stathis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing evidence suggests that epigenome plays a central role in cancer development making it a promising target for anticancer treatments. Here, we review two new classes of epigenome-targeting agents: the bromodomain and extraterminal domain proteins (BET) inhibitors and the enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH2) inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical research evaluating BET and EZH2 inhibitors is still at an early stage; however, both classes of drugs have demonstrated activity among different hematologic malignancies and solid tumors...
February 4, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Joanne Reid, Clare McKeaveney, Peter Martin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past two decades, advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of cancer-associated weight loss, termed "cachexia." To date, there is no proven effective intervention to completely reverse cachexia and there are no approved drug therapies to treat it. This paper will review relevant literature in relation to communicating with adolescents and young adults about cancer-associated weight loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who have cancer are a unique group of patients due to their stage of development and maturity...
February 4, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Roberta Demichelis-Gómez, Daniela Pérez-Sámano, Christianne Bourlon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the current recommendations for the use of bispecific antibodies (bsAb) in hematologic malignancies and explore the future in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Bispecific antibodies are molecules able to target two different antigen-binding sites: one towards a tumor antigen and another to activate a cytotoxic cell. Phase II/III trials on blinatumomab for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have demonstrated its efficacy for treating minimal residual disease (MRD+) and relapsed refractory (r/r) Philadelphia positive (Ph+) and negative (Ph-) ALL in adults and children...
February 4, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Munveer S Bhangoo, Darren Sigal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlight the pre-clinical development, recent clinical studies, and future directions of larotrectinib in patients with NTRK fusion-positive tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: The tropomyosin receptor kinase family, TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC, transmit extracellular signals via a variety of intracellular pathways to promote normal neuronal development. TrkA, B, and C are encoded by NTRK1, 2, and 3, respectively. NTRK chromosomal alterations, most commonly gene fusions, have been identified as driver mutations in a broad range of malignancies...
February 4, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
William Splinter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Good pain management in children, especially those at end of life, is a crucial component of palliative medicine. The current review assesses some of the new and/or innovative ways to manage pain in children. The article focuses on some recent medications/pharmaceutical options such as cannabinoids and also innovative ways to administer medication to children, such as intranasal and inhalation. RECENT FINDINGS: Current approaches to pain management now include (1) new uses of old drugs such as ketamine and lidocaine, (2) use of new drugs/medications such as cannabinoids, and (3) creative use of old technology such as atomizers, intranasal drops, and inhalation...
February 4, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Grant Steele, Tom Arneson, Dylan Zylla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the legalization of medical cannabis continues across the USA, oncology care providers will be increasingly asked to provide recommendations regarding its use in the cancer setting. In this article, we review recent literature that analyzes cannabis use specifically in patients with cancer and provide an accessible guide for clinicians, researchers, and patients. RECENT FINDINGS: We aimed to answer questions about the availability of cannabis in the USA, the trials supporting its use in the cancer setting, and the important factors to consider related to safety...
February 1, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Nonniekaye Shelburne, Naoko I Simonds, Bishow Adhikari, Michael Alley, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Eileen Dimond, Kelly Filipski, Lisa Gallicchio, Lori Minasian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular effects from cancer treatment remains a leading cause of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. The National Cancer Institute and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a Workshop in June 2018 entitled "Changing Hearts and Minds: Improving Outcomes in Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity" to highlight progress, ongoing work, and update scientific priorities since the 2013 Workshop. Here we will describe these advances and provide an overview of the research priorities identified...
January 30, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Michael Tveden Gundesen, Thomas Lund, Hanne E H Moeller, Niels Abildgaard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss current topics on the definition of plasma cell leukemia and the distinction between plasma cell leukemia and multiple myeloma. Moreover, we review the latest literature on how to treat plasma cell leukemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Plasma cell leukemia is clinically and genetically distinct from multiple myeloma. Plasma cell leukemia is defined by the observation in blood of more than 20% clonal plasma cells by differential count of the leucocytes or by counting more than 2 × 109 per liter circulating clonal plasma cells...
January 28, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Daniel Rayson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Jaleh Fallah, Brian I Rini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, the importance of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway in tumorigenesis and cancer treatment outcomes will be discussed. The outcomes of phase II and III clinical trials of direct HIF inhibitors in the treatment of cancer will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIF signaling pathway is activated by tumor-induced hypoxia or by inactivating mutations of the VHL gene. HIF is a transcription factor which regulates the expression of genes involved in adjusting mechanisms to hypoxia such as angiogenesis or apoptosis as well as tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis...
January 22, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Costantine Albany, Kenneth Kesler, Clint Cary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to educate medical oncologists on the management of patients with residual germ cell tumors and the role of surgical resection after platinum-based chemotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with non-seminomatous testicular cancer and residual enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes > 1 cm following induction chemotherapy with normal tumor markers should undergo a post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection...
January 21, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Ibrahim Aldoss, Samer K Khaled, Elizabeth Budde, Anthony S Stein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T cell-based therapies (blinatumomab and CAR T cell therapy) have produced unprecedented responses in relapsed and refractory (r/r) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) but is accompanied with significant toxicities, of which one of the most common and serious is cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Here we will review the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of CRS. RECENT FINDINGS: Efforts have been initiated to define and grade cytokine release syndrome (CRS), to identify patients at risk, to describe biomarkers that predict onset and severity, to understand the pathophysiology, and to prevent and treat severe cases to reduce T cell immunotherapy-related morbidity and mortality...
January 21, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Mayanne M T Zhu, Amanda R Dancsok, Torsten O Nielsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent clinical development of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: IDO-1 alters tryptophan metabolism in a manner enhancing T-regulatory cell activity, but pre-clinical data show that its role in tumorigenesis is context-dependent on host and tumor interaction, highlighting some challenges in understanding the molecular oncology of this enzymatic drug target. Because results from phase I/II trials of IDO-1 inhibitor monotherapy have been disappointing, current clinical trials employ IDO-1 inhibitors in combination strategies with other immunotherapy agents or with chemotherapy ± radiation...
January 18, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Benjamin A Weinberg, John L Marshall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent rise of young individuals under age 50 with colorectal cancer (CRC) is a startling trend in need of greater focus and research. The etiology of young-onset CRC is unexplained as efforts to blame obesity or diabetes as causative factors are simplistic and inadequate. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe the epidemiologic shifts of CRC incidence and mortality across age groups as well as the differences in clinicopathologic, molecular, treatment, and survival characteristics between young and older patients...
January 18, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Ciara L Freeman, Laurie Sehn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since its initial approval in 1997, rituximab has revolutionized the treatment of CD20-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. Now, over two decades later, second-generation molecules are emerging that may have key biological advantages compared to rituximab, as well as biosimilars that may be more cost-effective. Clinicians, health policy makers, and payers will now need to critically appraise the available evidence for these competitors and decide which anti-CD20 to use...
November 27, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Ayesha R Sheikh, Hassan Yameen, Kevan Hartshorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rectal cancer is predominantly a disease of older adults but current guidelines do not incorporate the associated specific challenges leading to wide variation in the delivery of cancer care to this subset of population. Here, we will review the current data available regarding the management of rectal cancer in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: The greatest challenge arises in the management of stage II/III disease as it involves tri-modality treatment that can be harder to tolerate by frail older patients...
November 20, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, Patrick A Ott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are only effective in a subset of patients. Here, we will review the rationale and data supporting the combination of PD-1 pathway inhibition with recombinant cytokines and neoantigen-based cancer vaccines that can potentially increase the number of patients who will benefit from immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The safety and tolerability of new interleukin(IL)-2 formulations, IL-15 super agonist, and PEGylated IL-10 have been evaluated in early phase clinical trials with promising efficacy data, both as monotherapy and in combination with ICI...
November 15, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
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