Daniel Anthony DiLeo, Tolga Gidener, Ayse Aytaman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As our population ages, the number of elderly patients with advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) will increase. In this review we explore risk factors for liver injury, noninvasive assessment of liver disease, complications of cirrhosis, and management of frailty and sarcopenia in the older patient with ACLD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple guidelines regarding ACLD have been updated over the past few years. New cutoffs for FIB-4 and NAFLD (MASLD - Metabolic Dysfunction Associated Steatotic Liver Disease) fibrosis scores for elderly patients are being validated...
November 22, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Roberta Elisa Rossi, Anita Busacca, Luca Brandaleone, Benedetta Masoni, Sara Massironi, Mirella Fraquelli, Alessandro Repici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of celiac disease (CD) has increased over the last decades in part due to better disease awareness. Small bowel ultrasound (sb US) enables dynamic assessment of the bowel; although this topic has been addressed, the use of sb US in the diagnosis and in the follow-up of CD patients is limited to a few specialized tertiary referral centers. Herein, we aimed at summarizing the available literature on this topic to better define the potential clinical implications of sb US in CD, also through a comparison with other available diagnostic techniques...
November 18, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Emily C McGowan, Roopesh Singh, David A Katzka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Compelling evidence over the past decade supports the central role of epithelial barrier dysfunction in the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The purpose of this review is to summarize the genetic, environmental, and immunologic factors driving epithelial barrier dysfunction, and how this impaired barrier can further promote the inflammatory response in EoE. RECENT FINDINGS: Common environmental exposures, such as detergents, may have a direct impact on the esophageal epithelial barrier...
November 11, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Shawn L Shah, Kerry Dunbar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and is a known precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma. While endoscopic surveillance strategies and the role for endoscopic eradication therapy have been well established, there has been much interest in identifying chemopreventive agents to disrupt or halt the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in patients with BE. RECENT FINDINGS: No pharmacological agent has held more hope in reducing the risk of neoplastic progression in BE than proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)...
November 9, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Catiele Antunes, Joshua A Sloan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiological studies can be helpful when evaluating patients with suspect esophageal disorders. From benign strictures to malignancy and motility disorders such as achalasia, imaging modalities play a significant role in diagnosis. This review explores the role of different imaging modalities in the most frequently encountered esophageal pathologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Conventional barium esophagram has long been considered the primary imaging modality of the esophagus...
November 8, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Joshua L Hudson, Todd H Baron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diseases of the gallbladder can be increasingly managed through endoscopic interventions, either serving as an alternative to or obviating the need for cholecystectomy. In this review, we aim to review the most recent data on endoscopic management of the most common gallbladder diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of lumen-opposing metal stents (LAMS) marked a major shift in gallbladder management, with transmural techniques now well studied for management of cholecystitis...
November 2, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Omar J Haque, Eve M Roth, David D Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decade, donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation has expanded in the United States due to improved surgical experience and perioperative management. Despite these advances, there remains a reluctance towards broader utilization of DCD liver allografts due to lack of standardized donation process, concern for inferior graft survival, and risk of ischemic cholangiopathy associated with temporary lack of oxygenated perfusion during withdrawal of life-supporting treatment during procurement...
October 28, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Anusha Shirwaikar Thomas, Suresh T Chari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized cancer care and work primarily by blocking CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), and/or PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1), and/or PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), thereby providing highly efficacious anti-tumor activity. However, this unmitigated immune response can also trigger immune related adverse events (irAEs) in multiple organs, with pancreatic irAEs (now referred to as type 3 Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) being infrequent...
October 17, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Louis Shekhtman, Sarah Duehren, Ohad Etzion, Scott J Cotler, Harel Dahari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis, with no FDA-approved therapy. Progress in the development of effective HDV treatments is accelerating. This review highlights how mathematical modeling is improving understanding of HDV-HBsAg-host dynamics during antiviral therapy and generating insights into the efficacy and modes of action (MOA) of new antiviral agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials with pegylated-interferon-λ, bulevertide, nucleic acid polymers, and/or lonafarnib against various steps of the HDV-life cycle have revealed new viral-kinetic patterns that were not observed under standard treatment with pegylated-interferon-α...
October 11, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Robert E Kramer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States has reached alarming levels, necessitating effective interventions such as bariatric surgery. This article reviews the current state of bariatric surgery in the adolescent population, highlighting the common complications encountered in post-bariatric patients. Furthermore, it outlines the pivotal role of endoscopy in both the prevention and management of these bariatric complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Though only a minority of eligible adolescent patients undergo bariatric surgery the number of cases continues to increase...
October 3, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Lisa B Mahoney, Catharine M Walsh, Jenifer R Lightdale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Defining and measuring the quality of endoscopic care is a key component of performing gastrointestinal endoscopy in children. The purpose of this review is to discuss quality metrics for pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy and identify where additional research is needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric-specific standards and indicators were recently defined by the international Pediatric Endoscopy Quality Improvement Network (PEnQuIN) working group through a rigorous guideline consensus process...
October 2, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Martin Fisher, Jacqueline Zimmerman, Caroline Bucher, Lauren Yadlosky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a diagnostic term that was established 10 years ago to describe those patients with an eating disorder, mostly children and adolescents, who have poor nutrition that is not due to body image or weight concerns. This article reviews the diagnosis and subtypes of ARFID, as well as the medical, nutritional and psychological principles of evaluation and management of the disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past 10 years, clinicians have refined their approaches to managing the two major subtypes of ARFID: (1) those patients with a longer-term restriction in the amount and/or variety of the foods they eat, and (2) those patients with a shorter-term decrease in eating because of fear of aversive consequences such as vomiting, choking, GI symptoms or an allergic reaction to food...
September 27, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Steve Lander, Eric Lander, Michael K Gibson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common cancer affecting many regions of the world and carries significant morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review the key risk factors and their associated impact on the changing incidence and prevalence of EC subtypes within different global regions. We also highlight potential reasons for the ever-changing epidemiology of this prevalent cancer type. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a shift in incidence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma (AC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) within certain populations primarily due to an increase prevalence of primary risk factors...
November 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Abigail Samuels, Kaitlin G Whaley, Phillip Minar
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review focuses on recent advancements in anti-TNF therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), pharmacogenetics and personalized drug selection for children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). RECENT FINDINGS: Several real-world studies and one clinical trial in children have demonstrated that proactive TDM, targeting higher exposure concentrations (> 5 µg/mL), can improve disease remission rates and enhance durability of the anti-TNF biologics...
November 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Yeong Yeh Lee, Nur Sakinah Roslan, Vincent Tee, Thai Hau Koo, Yusof Shuaib Ibrahim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and esophageal cancer, may be affected by climate change. Our review describes the impact of climate change on risk factors associated with esophageal diseases and speculates how these climate-related factors impacted esophageal disorders and their management. RECENT FINDINGS: Climate change is responsible for extreme weather conditions (shifts in rainfall, floods, droughts, and forest fires) and global warming...
November 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Corrin Hepburn, Natasha von Roenn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW : Nutrition is commonly overlooked in chronic liver disease. Both obesity and malnutrition are independent risk factors of poor prognosis in cirrhosis. This review aims to summarize the current literature regarding how nutrition contributes to liver disease, how to screen patients, and what nutritional and activity recommendations can help prevent adverse outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Screening for malnutrition, obesity, and sarcopenia through ambulatory bedside methods is recommended every 8-12 weeks in high risk patients...
October 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Ysabel C Ilagan-Ying, Bubu A Banini, Albert Do, Robert Lam, Joseph K Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), formerly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is the most common chronic liver disease affecting 30% of the global population. In this article, we summarize current expert guidelines, review clinical practice implications, and provide insight into the utility of non-invasive tests (NITs). RECENT FINDINGS: The burden of MASLD is growing with the obesity epidemic, yet disease awareness and diagnosis is low...
October 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Amit Maydeo, Nagesh Kamat, Ankit Dalal, Gaurav Patil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The data on recent advances in managing chronic pancreatitis (CP) pain is limited. This review highlights the role of endotherapy and the advances in the overall management of pain in CP. RECENT FINDINGS: Of late, pancreatic biodegradable stents have been used in endotherapy with appreciable success. These include slow, medium, and fast degrading stents, which optimize the overall management of CP and could prevent the need for multiple procedures...
October 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Colby S Sharlin, Vincent A Mukkada, Philip E Putnam, Scott M Bolton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents and summarizes the existing studies on the treatment goals and options for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis utilizing rigorous peer-reviewed literature. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to traditional treatments, emerging biologic therapies continue to evolve the approach to treating pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Well defined treatment goals will aid the continued development of new therapies. Further, innovative assessment tools have changed how the clinician is able to assess the effectiveness of therapies with a trend toward less invasive options...
September 2, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Sarah Shrager Lusman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited, multisystem disease that affects the gastrointestinal system in numerous ways. This article reviews the nutritional, gastrointestinal, and hepatobiliary manifestations of cystic fibrosis with an emphasis on the effects of CFTR modulator therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The life expectancy of individuals with cystic fibrosis has increased substantially in recent years. CFTR modulator therapy improves pulmonary function and results in weight gain...
September 1, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.