Osman Mohamed Elfadil, Saketh R Velapati, Janki Patel, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteral nutrition (EN) therapy can provide vital nutrition support for patients with various medical conditions as long as it is indicated and supported by ethical reasoning. This review seeks to offer a detailed account of the history of EN development, highlighting key milestones and recent advances in the field. Additionally, it covers common complications associated with EN and their management. RECENT FINDINGS: After years of research and development, we have reached newer generations of enteral feeding formulations, more options for enteral tubes and connectors, and a better understanding of EN therapy challenges...
May 24, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Dinesh Jothimani, Mohamed Rela, Patrick S Kamath
PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: Aging is a process of physiological slowing, reduced regenerative capacity and inability to maintain cellular homeostasis. World Health Organisation declared the commencement of population aging globally, largely attributed to improvement in the healthcare system with early diagnosis and effective clinical management. Liver ages similar to other organs, with reduction in size and blood flow. In this review we aim to evaluate the effect of aging in liver disease...
May 23, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Amit Maydeo, Nagesh Kamat, Gaurav Patil, Ankit Dalal, Amol Vadgaonkar, Sanil Parekh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Third space endoscopy (TSE) offers diverse treatment options for a variety of conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and motility disorders. Accuracy and precise dissection have helped treat complex conventional surgeries with TSE. Despite over a decade of its presence, difficult situations are routinely encountered. RECENT FINDINGS: The first challenging situation is decision-making (before the procedure), the second is tackling procedure-induced pulmonary / insufflation-related adverse events and intra-operative complications (during the procedure), and the third is post-operative complications and morbidity (post-procedure)...
May 14, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Nagesh Kamat, Amit Maydeo, Gaurav Patil, Ankit Dalal, Amol Vadgaonkar, Sanil Parekh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The data on preventive measures for managing obesity prior to surgery is limited. This review highlights the role of stopgap measures for managing obesity before surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Body weight regulation to achieve sustainable weight loss is a gradual process. Regular aerobic exercises, transformative yoga and restrained eating can contribute to a calorie deficit. Behavioural strategies aim to raise awareness, set goals, manage stress, and support adherence to healthier lifestyles...
May 9, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Lea Ann Chen, Kaitlyn Boyle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growing evidence supports the contribution of age in the composition and function of the gut microbiome, with specific findings associated with health in old age and longevity. RECENT FINDINGS: Current studies have associated certain microbiota, such as Butyricimonas, Akkermansia, and Odoribacter, with healthy aging and the ability to survive into extreme old age. Furthermore, emerging clinical and pre-clinical research have shown promising mechanisms for restoring a healthy microbiome in elderly populations through various interventions such as fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), dietary interventions, and exercise programs...
April 20, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Irene Sonu, Sun Jung Oh, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last few decades, there have been remarkable strides in endoscopy and radiological imaging that have advanced gastroenterology. However, the management of neurogastroenterological disorders has lagged behind, in part handicapped by the use of catheter-based manometry that is both non-physiological and uncomfortable. The advent of capsule technology has been a game changer for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. RECENT FINDINGS: Here, we discuss several capsule devices that are available or under investigation...
April 17, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Christy M Lawson, Chris Jones, Michael Herman, Cecilia Kim, Elizabeth Mannino, Endashaw Omer, Carlas Venegas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review evaluates the current literature on ileus, impaired gastrointestinal transit (IGT), and acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) and its impact on multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Ileus is often under recognized in critically ill patients and is associated with significant morbidity and is potentially a marker of disease severity as seen in other organs like kidneys (ATN).
April 1, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Laura Bach, Marcelo F Vela
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO), defined manometrically by impaired esophagogastric junction relaxation (EGJ) with preserved peristalsis, can be artifactual, due to secondary etiologies (mechanical, medication-induced), or a true motility disorder. The purpose of this review is to go over the evolving approach to diagnosing and treating clinically relevant EGJOO. RECENT FINDINGS: Timed barium esophagram (TBE) and the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) are useful to identify clinically relevant EGJOO that merits lower esophageal sphincter (LES) directed therapies...
March 28, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Marvin M Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize key integrative approaches to managing common gastrointestinal conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Lifestyle interventions like diet, exercise, and stress reduction impact the gut microbiome and gastrointestinal symptoms. Evidence supports mind-body therapies, herbs, certain supplements, and other modalities as complimentary approaches, when appropriate, for common conditions like irritable bowel syndrome or gastroesophageal reflux disease...
March 12, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Hareem Syed, Ahmed Nadeem, David Gardinier, Kendra Weekley, Dovid Ribakow, Stephen Lupe, Shubha Bhat, Stefan Holubar, Benjamin L Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) undergoing surgery is complex and optimization of modifiable factors perioperatively can improve outcomes. This review focuses on the perioperative management of CD patients undergoing surgery, emphasizing the need for a multi-disciplinary approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Research highlights the benefits of a comprehensive strategy, involving nutritional optimization, psychological assessment, and addressing septic complications before surgery...
February 29, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Mehwish Ahmed, Molly L Stone, Ryan W Stidham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial intelligence (AI) is quickly demonstrating the ability to address problems and challenges in the care of IBD. This review with commentary will highlight today's advancements in AI applications for IBD in image analysis, understanding text, and replicating clinical knowledge and experience. RECENT FINDINGS: Advancements in machine learning methods, availability of high-performance computing, and increasing digitization of medical data are providing opportunities for AI to assist in IBD care...
May 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Matthew J Hamilton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is a clinical disorder that may explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) type symptoms as well as other allergic symptoms experienced by an individual. The diagnosis and treatment of MCAS with specific focus on gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Although biomarkers for MCAS remain elusive, testing for baseline serum tryptase will distinguish the type of mast cell disorder and urine tests for mast cell mediator metabolites may support the diagnosis...
April 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Alison Pletch, Anne Lidor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: GERD after bariatric surgery is an ongoing concern for bariatric surgeons and their patients. This paper reviews the association of persistent or de novo GERD after multiple types of bariatric surgery, and focuses on the work up and management of GERD after SG. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent large, multicenter randomized clinical trials have shown stronger associations between SG and GERD compared to RYGB. A large group of internationally recognized bariatric surgeons collaborated on 72 consensus statements to help guide the bariatric community on the subject of redo surgeries after SG, including as it pertains to GERD...
April 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
George Triadafilopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is very common in the general population and poses a large societal socio-economic burden. In this article, we review the evidence supporting non-ablative radiofrequency treatment (Stretta) for the endoscopic management of GERD and we compare it to pharmacologic and other minimally invasive and surgical interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are a key therapy for GERD. For patients without associated significant sliding hiatal hernia, who have inadequate relief of their reflux symptoms, Stretta and other endoscopic therapies, such as transoral fundoplication (TIF), may improve symptoms and GERD-related quality of life...
February 23, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Malek Ayoub, Shivani Mattay, Andres J Yarur, Parakkal Deepak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is challenging; thus, the need for newer therapeutic options with an oral route of administration has led to the development of novel small molecules drugs (SMDs). We aim to highlight the most common Adverse events (AEs) associated with SMDs and recommendations on monitoring for AEs before and during treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: SMDs, such as Tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor, have been associated with laboratory abnormalities, infections, and risk of thromboembolic events...
February 14, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Ofer Fass, Benjamin D Rogers, C Prakash Gyawali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial intelligence (AI) is a broad term that pertains to a computer's ability to mimic and sometimes surpass human intelligence in interpretation of large datasets. The adoption of AI in gastrointestinal motility has been slower compared to other areas such as polyp detection and interpretation of histopathology. RECENT FINDINGS: Within esophageal physiologic testing, AI can automate interpretation of image-based tests, especially high resolution manometry (HRM) and functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) studies...
February 7, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Konstantinos Ekmektzoglou, Theodore Rokkas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CoronaVirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively influenced the management of multiple conditions in regards to the gastroenterology patient. An equivalent change in the management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related diseases was reported, as practically no eradication treatment was offered during most of the pandemic. Given the scarcity of published data, we performed a literature review trying to elucidate the effect of COVID-19 on H. pylori treatment...
February 2, 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Noa Krugliak Cleveland, Joƫlle St-Pierre, Amelia Kellar, David T Rubin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intestinal ultrasound (IUS) is a non-invasive, accurate, and well-tolerated tool that provides real-time assessment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity and is therefore an ideal monitoring tool. This review describes the evolving role of IUS in each phase of clinical management of IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that IUS is an excellent tool for the assessment of suspected IBD, with a very high negative predictive value...
February 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Salam P Bachour, Benjamin H Click
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite advances in therapeutics, a significant portion of patients with Crohn's disease still require surgical management. In this article, we present updates to the natural history, prognostication and postoperative monitoring, and novel therapeutics in the prevention and treatment of postoperative Crohn's disease recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical risk factors have been associated with higher rates of postoperative recurrence (POR), and in recent studies demonstrate an increased cumulative risk with presence of additional risk factors...
February 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Alsiddig Elmahdi, Mohamed Eisa, Robert Martindale, Endashaw Omer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review available literature on management of persistent ostomy following PEG tube removal. We will discuss the incidence of persistent gastrocutaneous fistula (GCF) following PEG tube removal, risk factors for their development, and management strategies that have been proposed and their efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of over the scope clips (OTSC) have evolved recently in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, and fistula closures...
February 2024: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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