Benjamin Clement, Kara De Felice, Anita Afzali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the elderly requires special attention to treatment efficacy while considering drug safety, other medical comorbidities, and the patients' risk for treatment related adverse events. In this article, we reviewed the indications and safety of the newer IBD therapies in the older IBD patient beyond anti-TNF agents, thiopurines, and corticosteroids. RECENT FINDINGS: Vedolizumab, ustekinumab, and risankizumab have favorable side effect profiles with regards to infections and malignancy...
May 25, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Janice Cheong, Adam Faye, Aasma Shaukat
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Our national guidelines regarding screening and surveillance for colorectal cancer recommend individualized discussions with patients 75-85 years of age. This review explores the complex decision-making that surrounds these discussions. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite updated guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and surveillance, the guidance for patients 75 years of age or older remains unchanged. Studies exploring the risks to colonoscopy in this population, patient preferences, life expectancy calculators and additional studies in the subpopulation of inflammatory bowel disease patients provide points of consideration to aid in individualized discussions...
May 23, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Shervin Shafa, John E Carroll
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to review and assess the appropriateness of eradication of nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus is a known predictor for the development of esophageal cancer, and is currently the best marker in aiding the decision making regarding treatment options. Current data supports endoscopic eradication therapy for most patients with dysplastic Barrett's. The controversy, however, lies in the management of nondysplastic Barrett's and when to recommend ablation versus ongoing surveillance...
May 19, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Lavanya Viswanathan, Satish Sc Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disaccharidase deficiency in adults causes carbohydrate malabsorption, resulting in symptoms which significantly overlap with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of disaccharidase deficiency within the context of recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Disaccharidase deficiency in adults is more common than previously thought, which includes lactase, sucrase, maltase and isomaltase enzymes. Deficiency in disaccharidases, which are produced by the intestinal brush border, will interfere with the breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates and may result in abdominal pain, gas, bloating and diarrhea...
May 18, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Nabil M Mansour
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field in gastrointestinal endoscopy, and its potential applications are virtually endless, with studies demonstrating use of AI for early gastric cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, Barrett's esophagus, capsule endoscopy, as well as other areas in gastroenterology. Much of the early studies and applications of AI in gastroenterology have revolved around colonoscopy, particularly with regards to real-time polyp detection and characterization...
May 2, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Hugh J Freeman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A distinctive, possibly "novel" form of a segmental inflammatory colonic disease process associated with diverticular disease (so-called SCAD or segmental-colitis-associated-diverticulosis) is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Although this phenotype of inflammatory colonic disease was initially recognized decades ago, mainly in the elderly, recent evidence from long term natural history studies along with meta-analyses confirms that its clinical course is usually benign and drug-responsive...
May 2, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Yun Yan, Dhanush Shimoga, Amol Sharma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parkinson's disease and diabetes affect an increasing proportion of the aging global population. Both conditions extensively affect gastrointestinal (GI) motility with similar and differing clinical symptoms. Nonetheless, GI symptoms in Parkinson's disease and diabetes pose significant morbidity and impairment of quality of life. Their pathophysiology is poorly understood, and therefore, effective treatment options are lacking. RECENT FINDINGS: Parkinson's disease patients have oropharyngeal dysphagia and constipation...
April 17, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Foong Way David Tai, Mark McAlindon, Reena Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a non-invasive, wireless capsule endoscope. In this article, we review its current applications, compare its performance with optical colonoscopy (OC) and alternative imaging modalities like CT colonography (CTC), and highlight developments that may increase potential future use. RECENT FINDINGS: By comparison to OC both CCE and CTC have a good sensitivity and specificity in detecting colonic polyps. CCE is more sensitive in detecting sub centimetre polyps...
April 6, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Yan Jiang, Edy Soffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated overview on use of electrostimulation in gastrointestinal motility disorders and obesity, with a focus on gastric electrical stimulation, vagal nerve stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies on gastric electrical stimulation for chronic vomiting showed a decrease in frequency of vomiting, but without significant improvement in quality of life. Percutaneous vagal nerve stimulation shows some promise for both symptoms of gastroparesis and IBS...
March 3, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Katie L Bower, Danielle M Shilling, Sara L Bonnes, Apeksha Shah, Christy M Lawson, Bryan R Collier, Phyllis B Whitehead
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide an evidence-based resource to inform ethically sound recommendations regarding end of life nutrition therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: • Some patients with a reasonable performance status can temporarily benefit from medically administered nutrition and hydration(MANH) at the end of life. • MANH is contraindicated in advanced dementia. • MANH eventually becomes nonbeneficial or harmful in terms of survival, function, and comfort for all patients at end of life...
March 2, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Richard J Gilbert, Jamila H Siamwala, Vivek Kumar, Christopher C Thompson, Scott A Shikora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastroparesis is a chronic disorder characterized by a constellation of foregut symptoms, including postprandial nausea, vomiting, distension, epigastric pain, and regurgitation in the absence of gastric outlet obstruction. Despite considerable research over the past decades, there remains to be only nominal understanding of disease classification, diagnostic criteria, pathogenesis, and preferred therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: We critically reassess current approaches for disease identification and stratification, theories of causation, and treatment for gastroparesis...
April 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Jennifer Claytor, Pushkar Kumar, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Manasi Agrawal, Ryan C Ungaro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Crohn's Disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can lead to progressive damage to the gastrointestinal tract and significant disability. Early, "top-down" biologic therapy is recommended in moderate-to-severe CD to induce remission and to prevent hospitalization and complications. However, an estimated 20-30% of patients with CD have a mild disease course and may not garner sufficient benefit from expensive, immunosuppressing agents to justify their risks...
March 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Shyam Vedantam, Erica Graff, Nabiha Shabbir Khakoo, Nidah Shabbir Khakoo, Michelle Pearlman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights effects of dietary interventions on the gut microbiome and gastrointestinal symptoms in those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). RECENT FINDINGS: It is hypothesized that gut dysbiosis factors into the pathophysiology of IBS. Various diets that influence the microbiome and intestinal physiology may have therapeutic properties. At present, data suggests that implementation of personalized dietary interventions have a mixed, but overall positive effect on the gut microbiome and IBS symptoms...
February 10, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Sonali Palchaudhuri, Brigid Mccreary, Jessica Davis, Brenna Mcginnis, Susan Nyberg, Manpreet S Mundi, Angela Pham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While the use of enteral nutrition (EN) has increased, and more medical centers have developed inpatient programs to address the unique needs of these patients, our collective experience at a few large institutions indicates that there is very little systemic support for patients after discharge. Here, we discuss what we have observed to be some of the barriers to providing outpatient follow up care, summarize the impact we have seen on patients, and propose some possible solutions...
February 3, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Christopher J Lee, Sarah K McGill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergies are typically not considered as a cause of gastrointestinal (GI) distress without additional allergic symptoms, apart from celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis. However, recent reports of patients with alpha-gal syndrome who presented with GI-only symptoms like abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea challenge this paradigm. Alpha-gal syndrome is an IgE-mediated allergy characterized by delayed reactions after eating mammalian meat or mammalian-derived products that contain galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal)...
January 27, 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Keelin Flannery Roche, Katie L Bower, Bryan Collier, Dustin Neel, Laura Esry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to analyze the evidence regarding the appropriateness of PEG placement in the following clinical situations: short bowel syndrome, head and neck cancer, dementia and palliative use in malignant bowel obstruction. RECENT FINDINGS: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are placed for a variety of clinical indications by numerous different specialties. First described in 1980, PEG tubes are now the dominant method of enteral access...
January 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Shahrose Rahman, Kristin Trone, Caleb Kelly, Andrea Stroud, Robert Martindale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of dietary fiber. This occurs through a combination of the physiochemical properties of fiber and through microbial fermentation that occurs in the colon which result in the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The purpose of this review is to highlight the physiochemical properties of fiber that result in the range of physiologic effects and to review the literature on the health benefits of acetate, propionate, and butyrate...
January 2023: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Senthilkumar Sankararaman, Kimberly Noriega, Sujithra Velayuthan, Thomas Sferra, Robert Martindale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Gut microbiota intimately influence host energy metabolism, and immune response. Studies indicate a prominent role of gut dysbiosis in propagating inflammation that is associated with the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This article will review the current literature on gut microbiome and its impact on obesity and obesity-related disorders...
December 5, 2022: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Bryant W Megna, Byron P Vaughn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To outline the development, rationale, and practical use of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic drug monitoring is traditionally discussed in terms of a proactive or reactive approach. However, these terms are not always consistently defined and can be confusing when translating research to clinical practice. Personalized approaches incorporating clinical context and precision medicine are emerging...
December 2022: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Laura C Sahyoun, Jill K J Gaidos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) rises, gastroenterologists are more commonly facing management of the disease in women of childbearing age. This coincides with the development of new IBD therapies whose use in pregnancy must be considered. RECENT FINDINGS: This review provides updated recommendations for newer biologic agents and small molecules that have been approved for IBD treatment since the previous guidelines were published...
December 2022: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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