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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Tomohiko Fukuda, Kiyofumi Takamatsu, Takeshi Bamba, Eiichiro Fukusaki
In order to supply potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers for the processed food industry throughout the year, suppliers should provide consistent quality potatoes even after long-term storage. Despite being one of the most important foods, there is no simple way to control tuber quality and, in particular, controlling sprouting. Chemical suppression such as chlorpropham is used to inhibit sprouting, however, the regulatory status of such chemical inhibition differs in each country. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was applied to identify the applicable biomarkers for prediction of potato sprouting during long-term storage...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Sandra Budžaki, Smitha Sundaram, Marina Tišma, Volker Hessel
Biodiesel production depends to a great extent on the use of cheap raw materials, since biodiesel itself is a mass product, not a high-value product. New processing methods, such as micro-flow continuous processing combined with enzymatic catalysis, open doors to the latter. As reported here, the window of opportunity in enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production is the conversion of waste cooking oil. The main technological challenge for this is to obtain efficient immobilization of the lipase catalyst on beads...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kei Yoshida, Mika Okada, Risako Nagasaka, Hiroto Sasaki, Mai Okada, Kei Kanie, Ryuji Kato
Increasing the yield and maintaining a high quality of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is necessary for manufacturing iPSCs at the industrial scale. However, because iPSCs are delicate, it is important to evaluate their quality during processing. To examine the status of cultured iPSCs non-invasively, morphology-based iPSC colony evaluation may be an efficient technology for cellular status monitoring and analysis. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of time-course colony tracking analysis for evaluating the iPSC culture process...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Chang-Jiang Lyu, Lu Liu, Jun Huang, Wei-Rui Zhao, Sheng Hu, Le-He Mei, Shan-Jing Yao
γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) is an important chemical in pharmaceutical field. The use of lactic acid bacteria as biocatalysts for the conversion of l-monosodium glutamate (MSG) into GABA opens interesting perspectives for the production of this functional compound. In this work, an engineered GABA high-producing strain Lactobacillus brevis GadAΔC14 was constructed by overexpressing a C-terminally truncated GadA mutant, which is active in expanded pH range. After comparison with agar and κ-carrageenan, gellan gum was selected as the optimal immobilization support, and the properties of L...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Reo Iigatani, Toshihiro Ito, Fumiko Watanabe, Miyuki Nagamine, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Kengo Inoue
Electricity generation and treatment of sweet potato-shochu waste, acidic and organic-rich slurry, was examined using cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs). Among CE-MFCs with raw (73 g-chemical oxygen demand chromium CODCr /L) and different concentration of diluted sweet potato-shochu waste (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 g-CODCr /L) without pH control, the maximum power density (1.2 W/m3 ) and CODCr removal efficiency (67.4 ± 1.8%) were observed in the CE-MFCs with 10 g-CODCr /L shochu waste. The concentration of organic acid was decreased to below the quantification limits during the 9-day operation in the CE-MFC with 10 g-CODCr /L shochu waste...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Sumate Tantratian, Apinya Sae-Ngow, Chidphong Pradistsuwan, Chuenjit Prakitchaiwattana, Charida Pukahuta
Kluyveromyces marxianus is an aerobic yeast and is interested to be applied in many industries. This research was aimed to study the effect of the sterol alternative to ergosterol on the freezing stress of K. marxianus UBU1-11, a thermotolerant yeast. The 0-9 mgL-1 stigmasterol were added to the YM broth and applied for culturing. The growth of all conditions were not interfered by the addition of stigmasterol. The intra-cellular sterol content was detected in the medium with 5 mgL-1 stigmasterol and higher, where the maximum content was 0...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hyungjin Kim, Mizuki Kitamatsu, Takashi Ohtsuki
The present study investigated combined biological effects of peptide and miRNA in a peptide/miRNA nanocomplex. We utilized TatBim peptide as a cell-penetrating peptide-based RNA carrier with apoptotic activity. miRNA with apoptotic activity (miR-34a) was used for complex formation to investigate the additional effects of the combination with TatBim peptide. TatBim peptide and the miRNA formed nanocomplexes (approximately 250 nm in diameter), and these complexes were efficiently internalized by cells. Despite its efficient cell internalization, apoptotic activity of the nanocomplex decreased with increasing RNA content...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hirotaka Fukuoka, Takato Kawase, Masahide Oku, Hiroya Yurimoto, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Takashi Hayakawa, Tomoyuki Nakagawa
In this work, we analyzed several genes participating in the rearrangement pathway for xylulose 5-phosphate (Xu5P) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella phaffii). P. pastoris has two set of genes for fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA1 and FBA2) and transaldolase (TAL1 and TAL2), although there are single-copy genes for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) and transketolase (TKL1), respectively. Expressions of FBP1 and TAL2 were upregulated by non-fermentative carbon sources, especially methanol was the best inducer for them, and FBA2 was induced only by methanol...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Qianqian Hou, Qiang He, Gengliang Liu, Xinyao Lu, Hong Zong, Wenqiang Chen, Bin Zhuge
Bioproduction of organic acids under low pH condition without adding inducer and neutralizer is an economical craft to decrease downstream cost. Candida glycerinogenes had higher tolerances to low pH and lactic acid than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. QRT-PCR analysis showed that four of fifteen candidates functioned as potentially acid-inducible promoters in C. glycerinogenes. In particular, PCggmt1 showed the strongest induction ability at pH 2.5. Fluorescence analysis indicated that the induction ability of PCggmt1 gradually increased as the pH decreased...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ying Liu, Guo-Min Ai, Meng-Ru Wu, Shan-Shan Li, Li-Li Miao, Zhi-Pei Liu
An efficient heterotrophic nitrifying/aerobic denitrifying strain, Photobacterium sp. NNA4 was isolated from a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). NNA4 was capable of utilizing ammonia, nitrate or nitrite as sole N-source with maximal removal rates of 12.5 mg/L/h for NH4 + N, 16.4 mg/L/h for NO3 - -N, and 4.5 mg/L/h for NO2 - -N, respectively. Optimal nitrification conditions were: sodium succinate as C-source, 30-37°C, NaCl 1-4%, pH 7.0-8.0, dissolved oxygen 5.89 mg/L, C/N > 10. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry analyses showed that N2 and N2 O were aerobic denitrification products of nitrite and nitrate...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Rong-Song Zou, Suyan Li, Le-Le Zhang, Chong Zhang, Yi-Jun Han, Ge Gao, Xiangyang Sun, Xiaoqiang Gong
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays an important role in the human respiratory chain and is widely used as medicine and dietary supplement. To improve the fermentation efficiency of CoQ10, a modified version of atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) treatment was used to mutate Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Meanwhile, Vitamin K3, a structural analog of CoQ10, was used as an inhibitor for mutant selection. In the first round of screening in 24-well plates, three mutants were obtained, with the production of CoQ10 at 311 mg/L, 307 mg/L, and 309 mg/L, which were increased from the parent's production at 265 mg/L...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kento Imai, Kazunori Shimizu, Hiroyuki Honda
Bioactive peptides have a positive impact on body functions and conditions and may influence health. However, peptides are degraded by digestive enzymes, such as pepsin in the stomach when ingested orally. In order to solve this problem, we previously focused on porous silica gel and found that by using calcined silica gel, hydrophobic and negatively charged peptides could be efficiently delivered into the intestine, because peptides adsorbed on the cavity of the silica gel could be protected from enzymatic degradation...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kenji Matsumura, Miwa Yamada, Takeshi Yamashita, Hitomi Muto, Ken-Ichi Nishiyama, Hitoshi Shimoi, Kimiyasu Isobe
We cloned a set of genes encoding alcohol oxidase from Ochrobactrum sp. AIU 033 (OcAOD), which exhibits the appropriate substrate specificity for glyoxylic acid production from glycolic acid. The set of genes for OcAOD contained two open reading frames consisting of 555-bp (aodB) and 1572-bp (aodA) nucleotides, which encode the precursor for the β-subunit and α-subunit of OcAOD, respectively. We expressed the cloned genes as an active product in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant OcAOD oxidized glycolic acid and primary alcohols with C2-C8 but not glyoxylic acid (as is the case for native OcAOD), whereas the Km and Vmax values for glycolic acid and the pH stability were higher than those of native OcAOD...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Toshitsugu Sato, Machiko Takahashi, Junji Hasegawa, Hisayuki Watanabe
Tyrosinase is an industrially useful enzyme, however, it causes gill browning of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies during preservation. In this study, we constructed two vectors, pChG-gTs and pChG-gTa, expressing sense and antisense tyrosinase gene of L. edodes, respectively, using promoters derived from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. The host strain SR-1 of L. edodes was selected because of its fast growth, high protoplast yield, and high regeneration rate. Upon transformation of the host strain SR-1 with the pChG-gTs vector, a clone with 3...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Rambabu Krishnamoorthy, Bharath Govindan, Fawzi Banat, Velu Sagadevan, Monash Purushothaman, Pau Loke Show
Phosphoric acid impregnated activated carbon from date pits (DPAC) was prepared through single step activation. Prepared DPAC was studied for its structural, elemental, chemical, surface and crystal nature. Adsorption ability of the DPAC was assessed through divalent lead ions separation studies. Effect of adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH, operating temperature and initial feed concentration on lead removal by DPAC was studied. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacity of 101.35 mg/g was attained for a contact time of 30 min and pH of 6 at 30°C...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Theerisara Phathanathavorn, Kallayanee Naloka, Minenosuke Matsutani, Toshiharu Yakushi, Kazunobu Matsushita, Gunjana Theeragool
A low-nutrient adapted strain, Acetobacter pasteurianus G-40, was successfully obtained by repetitive cultivation of A. pasteurianus 7E-13 under selective pressure. The adapted strain could grow well and produce 3.45-fold higher amounts of acetic acid than 7E-13 in jasmine rice wine containing 6% ethanol at 37 °C in a shaking flask. The G-40 strain also exhibited higher amounts of acetic acid (5.16%) in 2-L jar fermentor compared with 7E-13, where the bio-conversion yield to acetic acid from ethanol was 71% and 55...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Shizu Fukuda, Yuko Kawasaki, Shingo Izawa
Since cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) has not only bactericidal activity but also fungicidal activity without toxic residues and thermal damage, it is considered as an alternative method for sterilization of fungi on the surfaces of perishable foodstuffs and human bodies. Aureobasidium pullulans is a ubiquitous yeast-like fungus and called black yeast because it produces melanin, a dark biological pigment. It is well known that various melanized fungi show hyper-resistance to extreme stress conditions including high levels of radioactivity...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ruth Nyanduko Okongo, Adarsh Kumar Puri, Zhengxiang Wang, Suren Singh, Kugen Permaul
Microbial chitinases (EC are known to hydrolyse the chitinous gut epithelium of insects and cell walls of many fungi. In this study, seven chitinases from different bacteria and fungi were produced, characterized and their biocontrol abilities against graminaceous stem borers Eldana saccharina, Chilo partellus and Sesamia calamistis were assessed. All chitinases were stable over broad ranges of pH and temperature, however, recombinant fungal chitinases were more acid-stable than the bacterial counterparts...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Eri Shuzui, Mee-Hae Kim, Keisuke Azuma, Yukako Fujinaga, Masahiro Kino-Oka
Applications of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) culture are impaired by problems with long term maintenance of pluripotency. In this study, we report that exposure to botulinum hemagglutinin (HA), an E-cadherin function-blocking agent, suppressed deviation from an undifferentiated state in hiPSC colonies. Time-lapse imaging of live cells revealed that cells in central regions of colonies moved slowly and underwent a morphological change to a cobblestone-like shape via interaction between contacting cells, forming dense, multiple layers...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Akinori Oda, Ryota Takamiya, Rin Kaneko, Haruna Yoshida, Yuta Yanagita, Hatsumi Sekiguchi, Yoshihito Nobe, Kazuaki Muramatsu
During the manufacture of cell- and tissue-based products, such as engineered cartilage for autologous chondrocyte implantation, maximizing the number of cells isolated from donor tissue substantially improves the productivity of these products. The method used for agitating tissues with digestive fluid and enzymes can considerably affect both the quality and quantity of isolated cells. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a rotation/revolution-type agitator for chondrocyte isolation following the enzymatic digestion of rat costal cartilage...
January 12, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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