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Luis A Videla
Liver preconditioning (PC) refers to the development of an enhanced tolerance to injuring stimuli. For example, the protection from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in the liver that is obtained by previous maneuvers triggering beneficial molecular and functional changes. Recently, we have assessed the PC effects of thyroid hormone (T3; single dose of 0.1 mg/kg) and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs; daily doses of 450 mg/kg for 7 days) that abrogate IR injury to the liver. This feature is also achieved by a combined T3 and the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) using a reduced period of supplementation of the FA (daily doses of 300 mg/kg for 3 days) and half of the T3 dosage (0...
May 15, 2019: IUBMB Life
Svetlana Tamkovich, Pavel Laktionov
Cell-surface-bound extracellular DNA (csbDNA) is present on the outer membrane of blood cells, including both red blood cells and leukocytes. Although less well characterized than cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma and serum, leukocyte and red blood cell csbDNA form a considerable fraction of the blood extracellular nucleic acids pool, with typically at least comparable amount of DNA occurring bound to the outer surface of cells as compared with circulating free DNA in plasma. The cellular origin of csbDNA is not clear; however, as with cfDNA, in patients with cancer a proportion is derived from the tumor, thus making it potentially a useful source of DNA for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring...
May 15, 2019: IUBMB Life
Gadamsetty Jaya Alekhya Sita, Motati Gowthami, Gadiparthi Srikanth, M Murali Krishna, Kokkiligadda Rama Sireesha, Mounika Sajjarao, Kandru Nagarjuna, Mukkamulla Nagarjuna, Gopala Krishna Chinnaboina, Anurag Mishra, Nagaraja SreeHarsha
For the development of renal diseases, oxidative stress (OS) is reasoned to be one of the risk factors. For the treatment or prevention of the renal disease, the use of antioxidants could be a hopeful therapeutic mediation as they retard or block the oxidative reaction along with the inflammatory process. Luteolin (Lut) is a plant flavonoid, a pharmacologically active component normally found in glycosylated forms in basic perilla leaf, green pepper, celery, seed, honeysuckle bloom, and chamomile blossom; it exhibits antioxidant activity...
May 15, 2019: IUBMB Life
Sina Mohagheghi, Bita Geramizadeh, Saman Nikeghbalian, Iraj Khodadadi, Jamshid Karimi, Zohreh Khajehahmadi, Farideh Gharekhanloo, Heidar Tavilani
Numerous investigations have been performed on the role of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) pathway in the development of chronic liver diseases (CLDs); however, they failed to explain the underlying mechanism of its pathogenesis, suggesting that other alternative pathways might have been overlooked. The involvement of yes-associated protein1 (YAP1) has been attributed to liver fibrosis; yet, the precise function of this protein has not been fully understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the activity of the YAP1 pathway in human liver cirrhosis (regardless of its causality) and its correlation with the TGF-β1 and sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathways...
May 14, 2019: IUBMB Life
Zohreh Khajehahmadi, Sina Mohagheghi, Saman Nikeghbalian, Bita Geramizadeh, Iraj Khodadadi, Jamshid Karimi, Mohammad Ebrahim Ghaffari, Heidar Tavilani
The conversion of simple steatosis into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has attracted many attentions in recent years. The role of the hedgehog (HH) pathway in the regulation of lipogenesis has been addressed in the literature. This study aimed to investigate the levels of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) and Indian hedgehog (IHH) ligands and the correlation of these ligands with levels of proteins involved in the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) pathway, as well as the evaluation of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) expression in human simple steatosis, NASH cirrhosis, and controls...
May 14, 2019: IUBMB Life
Anthony Gobert, Mathieu Bruggeman, Philippe Giegé
Transfer RNAs require essential maturation steps to become functional. Among them, RNase P removes 5' leader sequences of pre-tRNAs. Although RNase P was long thought to occur universally as ribonucleoproteins, different types of protein-only RNase P enzymes were discovered in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Interestingly, all these enzymes belong to the super-group of PilT N-terminal-like nucleases (PIN)-like ribonucleases. This wide family of enzymes can be subdivided into major subgroups. Here, we review recent studies at both functional and mechanistic levels on three PIN-like ribonucleases groups containing enzymes connected to tRNA maturation and/or translation regulation...
May 8, 2019: IUBMB Life
Li-Na Zhang, Tong Xin, Mo Chen, Peng Gao
Most deaths due to lung cancer are a result of metastatic progression. One major problem in treating patients with lung cancer is either the inherent or acquired resistance to chemotherapy. Role of tumor microenvironment in disease progression and resistance to chemotherapy is being increasingly appreciated and reported for various cancers. Hence, the objective of the current study was to define the lung cancer tumor microenvironment. Biopsy tissue specimens and blood samples were collected from stage I-IV lung patients (n = 53)...
May 8, 2019: IUBMB Life
Lalima G Ahuja, Susan S Taylor, Alexandr P Kornev
The intricacies of allosteric regulation of protein kinases continue to engage the research community. Allostery, or control from a distance, is seen as a fundamental biomolecular mechanism for proteins. From the traditional methods of conformational selection and induced fit, the field has grown to include the role of protein motions in defining a dynamics-based allosteric approach. Harnessing of these continuous motions in the protein to exert allosteric effects can be defined by a "violin" model that focuses on distributions of protein vibrations as opposed to concerted pathways...
May 7, 2019: IUBMB Life
Alexandra C Newton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2019: IUBMB Life
Susan S Taylor, Hiruy S Meharena, Alexandr P Kornev
Eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) regulate almost every biological process and have evolved to be dynamic molecular switches; this is in stark contrast to metabolic enzymes, which have evolved to be efficient catalysts. In particular, the highly conserved active site of every EPK is dynamically and transiently assembled by a process that is highly regulated and unique for every protein kinase. We review here the essential features of the kinase core, focusing on the conserved motifs and residues that are embedded in every kinase...
May 6, 2019: IUBMB Life
Yi Zhang, Lu Song, Jiazhen Li, Yan Zhang, Xinchang Lu, Bin Zhang
Indirubin is widely used as the active component of "Dangui Luhui Wan" in ancient China. However, its effects against the osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary malignancy, are still unknown. In our present study, we investigated the effects of the Indirubin-3'-monoxime (I3M), a derivative of indirubin with better water solubility, against the OS cells. We found I3M inhibited OS cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays showed that I3M could not only induce OS cell apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner but also regulate the cell cycle distribution...
May 3, 2019: IUBMB Life
Devan Diwanji, Tarjani Thaker, Natalia Jura
Intercellular communication governs complex physiological processes ranging from growth and development to the maintenance of cellular and organ homeostasis. In nearly all metazoans, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are central players in these diverse and fundamental signaling processes. Aberrant RTK signaling is at the root of many developmental diseases and cancers and it remains a key focus of targeted therapies, several of which have achieved considerable success in patients. These therapeutic advances in targeting RTKs have been propelled by numerous genetic, biochemical, and structural studies detailing the functions and molecular mechanisms of regulation and activation of RTKs...
May 2, 2019: IUBMB Life
Kosuke Takeya, Iris Kathol, Cindy Sutherland, Xuemei Wang, Rodger Loutzenhiser, Michael P Walsh
Vascular smooth muscle cells of the renal afferent arteriole are unusual in that they must be able to contract very rapidly in response to a sudden increase in systemic blood pressure in order to protect the downstream glomerular capillaries from catastrophic damage. We showed that this could be accounted for, in part, by exclusive expression, at the protein level, of the "fast" (B) isoforms of smooth muscle myosin II heavy chains in the afferent arteriole, in contrast to other vascular smooth muscle cells such as the rat aorta and efferent arteriole which express exclusively the "slow" (A) isoforms (Shiraishi et al...
May 2, 2019: IUBMB Life
Weiling Xu, Peihong Gao, Yan Zhang, Li Piao, Dong Dong
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by joint pain, stiffness, and function degeneration with high incidence. Recent studies have been inspired based on the association between microRNAs (miRs) and therapeutic research of OA. Hence, the present study evaluates the effects of miR-138 on chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in mice with OA by binding to NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK2). Appropriate dataset was selected from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and differentially expressed genes and potential miRNAs that could regulate NEK2 were explored...
April 29, 2019: IUBMB Life
Jianping Bi, Wusheng Cai, Teng Ma, Aiwei Deng, Ping Ma, Ye Han, Chunbiao Lou, Leilei Wu
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common age-related disorder. Chondrocytes in joint tissue play a critical role in normal articular cartilage function and tissue homeostasis. Local inflammatory cytokine-induced chondrocyte senescence contributes to the development and progression of OA. Various dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Here, we report a novel pharmacological role of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in chondrocyte senescence. Our data indicate that DPP-4 is an inducible factor responsive to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) treatment in chondrocytes...
April 26, 2019: IUBMB Life
Zhaowei Meng, Michiko Matsuse, Vladimir Saenko, Shunichi Yamashita, Peng Ren, Xiangqian Zheng, Qiang Jia, Jian Tan, Ning Li, Wei Zheng, Li Zhao, Norisato Mitsutake
Genetic mutations play important roles in not only development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) but also determination of its properties. The radioactive iodine refractory (RAIR) state is a harbinger of poor outcomes for PTC. We used various statistical models to investigate the significance of TERT promoter, BRAF, and RAS mutations in distinguishing the RAIR state and their associations with 131 I uptake. Mutations were examined in primary lesions of 33 RAIR cases and 34 age- and sex-matched 131 I-treated cases with disease-free status...
April 26, 2019: IUBMB Life
Muhammad Torequl Islam, S M Neamul Kabir Zihad, Md Shamim Rahman, Nazifa Sifat, Md Roich Khan, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Razina Rouf
In this article, we have summarized the biological sources and pharmacological activities of agathisflavone along with molecular docking studies to correlate the interaction of this biflavonoid and biomacromolecules involving in its biological effects observed in database-oriented scientific reports. For this, an up-to-date (from 1991 to October 2018) search was done on the databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, The American Chemical Society,, and Google Scholar databases...
April 25, 2019: IUBMB Life
Jamshid Tabeshpour, Sara Banaeeyeh, Farhad Eisvand, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin, an orange-yellow lipophilic polyphenolic molecule, is the active component of Curcuma longa, which is extensively used as a spice in most of the Asian countries. This natural compound is able to interact with a large number of molecular structures like proteins, enzymes, lipids, DNA, RNA, transporter molecules, and ion channels. It has been reported to possess several biological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiangiogenic, antimutagenic, and antiplatelet aggregation properties...
April 25, 2019: IUBMB Life
Shi-Hai Zhang, Hui-Mei Wu, Shuai Li, Mu-Zi Wang, Lei Fang, Rong-Yu Liu
Melatonin is one of the main hormones that regulate biological rhythms and have immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidation functions. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of melatonin on the autophagy, apoptosis, and inflammatory reaction of macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) stimulated by nanosilica. SiO2 (100 mg/mL, 10-20 nm) was used to stimulate RAW264.7 cells at different time points (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hr). Melatonin (200 μM) was added to SiO2 -stimulated macrophages at 12 hr...
April 24, 2019: IUBMB Life
Lei Fu, Xiaoyu Fu, Juan Mo, Xiaomei Li, Ronghua Li, Shifang Peng
The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which miR-146a-5p mediated autophagy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of miR-146a-5p and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and HBV DNA and RNA. The protein expression levels of XIAP, IκB-α, murine double minute 2 oncoprotein (MDM2) and p53, the phosphorylation of p65, and the conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II were detected by Western blotting...
April 24, 2019: IUBMB Life
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