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Infant and Child Development

Patricia M Pehme, Wei Zhang, Jackie Finik, Alexandra Pritchett, Jessica Buthmann, Kathryn Dana, Ke Hao, Yoko Nomura
The placenta adapts to maternal environment and its alterations may have a lasting impact on child's temperament development. Prenatal stress has been linked to both a downregulation of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene expression in the placenta and to difficult temperament. Capitalizing on an ongoing longitudinal study, we analysed data from 95 mother-child dyads to investigate whether MAOA mediates the association between prenatal stress and infant temperament. Prenatal stress was defined as exposure to Superstorm Sandy (Sandy) during pregnancy...
July 2018: Infant and Child Development
Shannon T Lipscomb, Derek R Becker, Heidemarie Laurent, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Daniel S Shaw, Misaki N Natsuaki, David Reiss, Philip A Fisher, Leslie D Leve
This study examined children's morning HPA axis activation as a moderator of links between hostile, over-reactive parenting at age 4.5 years and children's skills for success in school (higher executive function and literacy, and less externalizing behavior) at age 6. Participants included 361 adoptive families. Parenting was self-reported. HPA axis activation was measured by basal levels in morning cortisol. Executive function and literacy were assessed via standardized tasks. Externalizing behavior was reported by teachers...
July 2018: Infant and Child Development
Erika J Ruberry, Melanie R Klein, Cara J Kiff, Stephanie F Thompson, Liliana J Lengua
This study examined whether parenting moderated the association between cumulative risk and preschool children's adjustment problems, social competence and academic readiness. The sample consisted of 306 families representing the full range of income, with 29% at or near poverty and 28% lower income. Cumulative risk and observed maternal parenting behaviors were assessed when the children were 36-40 months, and teachers rated outcomes at 63-68 months. Greater cumulative risk was more strongly related to higher adjustment problems when scaffolding was low, and unrelated when it was high, suggesting a protective effect...
May 2018: Infant and Child Development
Mina Shimizu, Douglas M Teti
The present study examined differences in social criticism and maternal distress and in household, maternal, and infant characteristics between families who co-slept with their infants beyond 6 months and those who moved their infants to a separate room by 6 months. Data for infant sleeping arrangements, preferences for their sleeping arrangement choices, criticism, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and worries about infant sleep were collected from 103 European American mothers during the infant's first year...
May 2018: Infant and Child Development
Sheida Novin, Marieke G N Bos, Claire E Stevenson, Carolien Rieffe
For parents, online platforms where their children interact with others often feel like a "black box" in terms of what exactly is happening. In this study, we developed an ecologically valid online computer game in which a (computer-generated) peer teammate tried to provoke frustration, in order to examine (a) adolescents' responses and (b) how indices of self-evaluation (i.e., sense of coherence and self-esteem) and demographic variables (i.e., gender and ethnicity) matter to these responses. Like gender, being a member of a minority or majority group may influence how provocations by peers are interpreted, influencing how one responds...
March 2018: Infant and Child Development
Amanda W Joyce, Denise R Friedman, Christy D Wolfe, Martha Ann Bell
Executive attention, the attention necessary to reconcile conflict among simultaneous attentional demands, is vital to children's daily lives. This attention develops rapidly as the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal areas mature during early and middle childhood. However, the developmental course of executive attention is not uniform amongst children. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the role of individual differences in the development of executive attention by exploring the concurrent and longitudinal contributions to its development at 8 years of age...
March 2018: Infant and Child Development
Rebecca D Trupe, Jenny Macfie, Rebecca M Skadberg, Gretchen Kurdziel
Emotional availability (EA) characterizes a warm, close relationship between caregiver and child. We compared patterns (clusters) of EA on risk factors, including those for borderline personality disorder (BPD). We sampled 70 children aged 4 to 7 years from low-socioeconomic backgrounds, 51% of whose mothers had BPD. We coded filmed interactions for EA: mothers' sensitivity, structuring, non-intrusiveness, non-hostility, and children's responsiveness to, and involvement of, mothers. We additionally coded children's over -responsiveness and over -involvement...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
Ju-Hyun Song, Brenda Volling
This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and sibling interactions (i.e., positive engagement and antagonism) and parental discipline strategies (i.e., child-centred and parent-centred discipline) at 4 and 8 months in the first year of siblinghood...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
Tara M Chaplin, Melanie R Klein, Pamela M Cole, Caitlin C Turpyn
Emotion expression is a central aspect of social-emotional functioning. Theorists assert that emotion expression undergoes significant changes in the preschool period. There is, however, limited observational evidence of those changes, which may vary by interpersonal context and gender. The present longitudinal study examined developmental changes in emotion expressions from ages 3 to 5 years in 120 children from rural economically strained families. Children's facial, vocal, and postural sadness, anger, and happiness expressions were observed in frustrating tasks in 3 social contexts (a perfect circles task with an experimenter, a toy wait task with mother, a locked box task when alone)...
November 2017: Infant and Child Development
Arya Ansari
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 (ECLS-K: 2011; n = 11,000), this study examined the developmental outcomes of 5-year-old children in multi-grade classrooms (combined pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classrooms serving 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) compared with 5-year-olds attending kindergarten-only classrooms serving primarily 5-year-olds. Results from regression and propensity score analyses revealed that 5-year-old children who attended multi-grade classrooms with pre-kindergarteners made smaller gains in math and literacy skills and demonstrated less optimal executive function at the end of the school year as compared with children who attended kindergarten-only classrooms...
November 2017: Infant and Child Development
Katarina Guttmannova, Karl G Hill, Jennifer A Bailey, Lacey Hartigan, Candice M Small, J David Hawkins
This study examined whether parental alcohol use in adolescence, adulthood, and, for mothers, during pregnancy was related to their young children's functioning in terms of their on-time development as indicated by the number of developmental areas in which children experienced delay. Observed parenting practices and family socioeconomic status were tested as potential explanatory mechanisms of these links. Data came from the surveys and videotaped observations of a community sample of 123 biological parents and their 1-5 year old children followed longitudinally...
September 2017: Infant and Child Development
Esther Leerkes, Jin Qu
The purpose of this paper was to examine the reliability, stability, and convergent and predictive validity of the newly developed Maternal Responsiveness Questionnaire (MRQ). Participants were 224 first-time mothers. Mothers completed the MRQ when their infants were 6 and 14 months old. Convergent validity was examined in relation to mother-reported personality, depressive symptoms, and emotion socialization practices and observed maternal sensitivity. Predictive validity was examined in relation to mother-reported child behavior problems and social competence, infant attachment security assessed via the Strange Situation, and observed child dysregulation...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
Jaccoline E van 't Noordende, M Chiel J M Volman, Paul P M Leseman, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number-space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory-motor interaction with the environment. In line with this assumption, it was investigated if counting and adding/subtracting direction in young children is related to the hand they use during task performance. Forty-eight 3.5-year-old children completed a block adding, subtracting and counting task...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
Heqing Huang, Yanjie Su, Jian Jin
The critical role of the second year of life in the development of empathy is well accepted by psychologists. However, the developmental trends of the different components of empathy and the potential factors underlying these components during this critical period remain unclear. Eighty-four Chinese toddlers in the second year of life participated in the present study. Empathy-related responses were observed during three simulated procedures performed by each child's primary caregiver, the experimenter and a baby doll...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
Rebecca P Newland, Keith A Crnic
Despite the compelling nature of goodness of fit, empirical support has lagged for this construct. The present study examined an interactional approach to measuring goodness of fit and prospectively explored associations with mother-child relationship quality, child behavior problems, and parenting stress across the preschool period. In addition, as goodness of fit might be particularly important for children at developmental risk, the presence of early developmental delay was considered as a moderator of goodness of fit processes...
March 2017: Infant and Child Development
Erika Lunkenheimer, Christine J Kemp, Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Pamela M Cole, Erin C Albrecht
Researchers have argued for more dynamic and contextually relevant measures of regulatory processes in interpersonal interactions. In response, we introduce and examine the effectiveness of a new task, the Parent-Child Challenge Task, designed to assess the self-regulation and coregulation of affect, goal-directed behavior, and physiology in parents and their preschoolers in response to an experimental perturbation. Concurrent and predictive validity was examined via relations with children's externalizing behaviors...
January 2017: Infant and Child Development
Kristin M Johnson, Rebecca J Woods
The development of object individuation, a fundamental ability that supports identification and discrimination of objects across discrete encounters, has been examined extensively by researchers. There are significant advancements in infants' ability to individuate objects during the first year-and-a-half. Experimental work has established a timeline of object individuation abilities and revealed some mechanisms underlying this ability, however, the influence of adult assistance during object exploration has not yet been explored...
September 2016: Infant and Child Development
Emily C Merz, Susan H Landry, Tricia A Zucker, Marcia A Barnes, Michael Assel, Heather B Taylor, Christopher J Lonigan, Beth M Phillips, Jeanine Clancy-Menchetti, Nancy Eisenberg, Tracy L Spinrad, Carlos Valiente, Jill de Villiers, The School Readiness Research Consortium
This study examined longitudinal associations between specific parenting factors and delay inhibition in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. At Time 1, parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age = 3.21 years; N = 247) participated in a videotaped parent-child free play session, and children completed delay inhibition tasks (gift delay-wrap, gift delay-bow, and snack delay tasks). Three months later, at Time 2, children completed the same set of tasks. Parental responsiveness was coded from the parent-child free play sessions, and parental directive language was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions...
September 2016: Infant and Child Development
Stuart Marcovitch, Melissa W Clearfield, Margaret Swingler, Susan D Calkins, Martha Ann Bell
In the first year of life, the ability to search for hidden objects is an indicator of object permanence and, when multiple locations are involved, executive function (i.e. inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory). The current study was designed to examine attentional predictors of search in 5-month-old infants (as measured by the looking A-not-B task), and whether levels of maternal education moderated the effect of the predictors. Specifically, in a separate task, the infants were shown a unique puppet, and we measured the percentage of time attending to the puppet, as well as the length of the longest look (i...
July 2016: Infant and Child Development
Arianna M Gard, Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
We examined the longitudinal associations between prenatal tobacco smoke exposure (PSE) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom domains in adolescence and young adulthood. A sample of girls with ADHD combined presentation (N=93), ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation (N=47), and matched comparisons (N= 88) was assessed prospectively. Symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), inattention (IA), and oppositionality (oppositional defiant disorder) were measured via multiple informants 5 (M age =14 years; retention rate =92%) and 10 years (M age =20 years; retention rate =95%) following childhood ascertainment...
July 2016: Infant and Child Development
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