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Euro Surveillance

Kati Räisänen, Irma Koivula, Heikki Ilmavirta, Santeri Puranen, Teemu Kallonen, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jari Jalava
In December 2018, a ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI)-resistant KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated in Finland. CAZ-AVI resistance was observed 34 days after CAZ-AVI treatment in a trauma patient transferred from a hospital in Greece who had been colonised with blaKPC-2 -producing K. pneumoniae ST39, and later developed a bloodstream infection. The CAZ-AVI-resistant strain contained a novel 15 amino acid insertion in the KPC-2 protein causing structural changes proximal to the KPC-2 active site...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance
Marita Jw van de Laar, Arnold Bosman, Anastasia Pharris, Emmi Andersson, Lambert Assoumou, Eva Ay, Norbert Bannert, Barbara Bartmeyer, Melissa Brady, Marie-Laure Chaix, Diane Descamps, Kenny Dauwe, Jannik Fonager, Andrea Hauser, Maja Lunar, Maria Mezei, Martha Neary, Mario Poljak, Ard van Sighem, Chris Verhofstede, Andrew J Amato-Gauci, Eeva K Broberg
BackgroundA steady increase in HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) has been demonstrated globally in individuals initiating first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). To support effective use of ART and prevent spread of HIVDR, monitoring is essential.AimWe piloted a surveillance system for transmitted HIVDR to assess the feasibility of implementation at the European level.MethodAll 31 countries in the European Union and European Economic Area were invited to retrospectively submit data on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV in 2015 who were tested for antiviral susceptibility before ART, either as case-based or as aggregate data...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance
Sebastian Thole, Daniela Kalhoefer, Maria An der Heiden, Doris Nordmann, Inka Daniels-Haardt, Annette Jurke
When a person with contagious measles has travelled by aircraft, European guidelines recommend contact tracing of passengers and crew within 5 days of exposure for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and within 12 days of exposure for informing passengers and crew, in order to prevent further transmissions. To be effective, contact tracing requires prompt diagnosis, immediate notification of public health authorities and rapid availability of passenger contact data. We report two events of contact tracing initiated in Germany after two individuals with measles travelled on three international flights...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance
Daniel Ward, Nicklas Myrthue Thorsen, Morten Frisch, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Anders Hviid
BackgroundSuspected adverse events (AE) after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines include postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and symptoms including headache and orthostatic intolerance.AimWe aimed to identify phenotypes of AEs after HPV vaccination, defined as patterns of AE terms (signs, symptoms, diagnoses), and to evaluate if identified phenotypes reflected previously suspected symptomatology or heightened public concerns over HPV vaccine safety since 1 January 2015...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance
Mari Morgan, Vicky Watts, David Allen, Daniele Curtis, Amir Kirolos, Neil Macdonald, Ellie Maslen, Deb Morgan, Ayoub Saei, James Sedgwick, Janet Stevenson, Deborah Turbitt, Roberto Vivancos, Catriona Waugh, Chris Williams, Valerie Decraene
During October and November 2016, over 1,000 customers and staff reported gastroenteritis after eating at all 23 branches of a restaurant group in the United Kingdom. The outbreak coincided with a new menu launch and norovirus was identified as the causative agent. We conducted four retrospective cohort studies; one among all restaurant staff and three in customers at four branches. We investigated the dishes consumed, reviewed recipes, interviewed chefs and inspected restaurants to identify common ingredients and preparation methods for implicated dishes...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Alies van Lier, Brechje de Gier, Scott A McDonald, Marie-Josée J Mangen, Maarten van Wijhe, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, Hans van Vliet, Hester E de Melker
IntroductionEstimating burden of disease (BoD) is an essential first step in the decision-making process on introducing new vaccines into national immunisation programmes (NIPs). For varicella, a common vaccine-preventable disease, BoD in the Netherlands was unknown.AimTo assess national varicella BoD and compare it to BoD of other vaccine-preventable diseases before their introduction in the NIP.MethodsIn this health estimates reporting study, BoD was expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using methodology from the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)-project...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance
Daniela Jacob, Kristin Köppen, Aleksandar Radonić, Berit Haldemann, Philipp Zanger, Klaus Heuner, Roland Grunow
BackgroundIn 2016, an uncommon outbreak of oropharyngeal tularaemia involving six human cases occurred in Germany, caused by drinking contaminated fresh must after a grape harvest.AimWe describe the details of laboratory investigations leading to identification of the outbreak strain, its characterisation by next generation sequencing (NGS) and the finding of the possible source of contamination.MethodsWe incubated wine samples in different media and on agar plates. NGS was performed on DNA isolated from young wine, sweet reserve and an outbreak case's lymph node...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance
Alexandra Dangel, Anja Berger, Ute Messelhäußer, Regina Konrad, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Nikolaus Ackermann, Andreas Sing
BackgroundIn 2017, a food-borne Salmonella Agona outbreak caused by infant milk products from a French supplier occurred in Europe. Simultaneously, S. Agona was detected in animal feed samples in Bavaria.AimUsing next generation sequencing (NGS) and three data analysis methods, this study's objectives were to verify clonality of the Bavarian feed strains, rule out their connection to the outbreak, explore the genetic diversity of Bavarian S. Agona isolates from 1993 to 2018 and compare the analysis approaches employed, for practicality and ability to delineate outbreaks caused by the genetically monomorphic Agona serovar...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance
Sally Cutler, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Aleksandar Potkonjak, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Hervé Zeller
Background Borrelia miyamotoi clusters phylogenetically among relapsing fever borreliae, but is transmitted by hard ticks. Recent recognition as a human pathogen has intensified research into its ecology and pathogenic potential.AimsWe aimed to provide a timely critical integrative evaluation of our knowledge on B. miyamotoi , to assess its public health relevance and guide future research.MethodsThis narrative review used peer-reviewed literature in English from January 1994 to December 2018.Results Borrelia miyamotoi occurs in the world's northern hemisphere where it co-circulates with B...
May 2019: Euro Surveillance
Xanthi D Andrianou, Martina Del Manso, Antonino Bella, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Melissa Baggieri, Maria Cristina Rota, Patrizio Pezzotti, Antonietta Filia
BackgroundMeasles is still endemic in Italy and outbreaks are frequent. From 2016 to 2018, more than 7,000 measles cases were reported to the national integrated measles and rubella surveillance system, the largest outbreak since implementation of this system.AimWe aimed to describe the characteristics and spatiotemporal distribution of measles cases in Italy and explore determinants of incidence at municipality level.MethodsWe performed a retrospective observational study, mapping by municipalityall measles cases reported to the national surveillance system with symptom onset between 1 September 2016 and 31 July 2018...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Nicklas Sundell, Leif Dotevall, Martina Sansone, Maria Andersson, Magnus Lindh, Thomas Wahlberg, Tobias Tyrberg, Johan Westin, Jan-Åke Liljeqvist, Tomas Bergström, Marie Studahl, Lars-Magnus Andersson
In an outbreak of measles in Gothenburg, Sweden, breakthrough infections (i.e. infections in individuals with a history of vaccination) were common. The objective of this study was to compare measles RNA levels between naïve (i.e. primary) and breakthrough infections. We also propose a fast provisional classification of breakthrough infections. Medical records were reviewed and real-time PCR-positive samples genotyped. Cases were classified as naïve, breakthrough or vaccine infections. We compared clinical symptoms and measles RNA cycle threshold (Ct) values between breakthrough and naïve infections...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Julia Bitzegeio, Shannon Majowicz, Dorothea Matysiak-Klose, Daniel Sagebiel, Dirk Werber
BackgroundMeasles elimination is based on 95% coverage with two doses of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV2), high vaccine effectiveness (VE) and life-long vaccine-induced immunity. Longitudinal analysis of antibody titres suggests existence of waning immunity, but the relevance at the population-level is unknown.AimWe sought to assess presence of waning immunity by estimating MCV2 VE in different age groups (2-5, 6-15, 16-23, 24-30 and 31-42 years) in Berlin.MethodsWe conducted a systematic literature review on vaccination coverage and applied the screening-method using data from a large measles outbreak (2014/15) in Berlin...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Juli Treacy, Claire Jenkins, Karthik Paranthaman, Frieda Jorgensen, Doris Mueller-Doblies, Muna Anjum, Lukeki Kaindama, Hassan Hartman, Miranda Kirchner, Therese Carson, Ishani Kar-Purkayastha
An outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 occurred on the Isle of Wight between August and October 2017. Of the seven cases linked to the outbreak, five were identified through the statutory notification process and two were identified through national surveillance of whole genome sequencing data. Enhanced surveillance questionnaires established a common link to a farm, and link to the likely food vehicle, raw drinking milk (RDM). Microbiological investigations, including PCR, identified the presence of STEC O157:H7 in samples of RDM...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Antonio Lozano-Leon, Carlos Garcia-Omil, Jacobo Dalama, Rafael Rodriguez-Souto, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona
Nineteen Salmonella strains were isolated from 5,907 randomly selected mussel samples during a monitoring programme for the presence of Salmonella in shellfish in Galicia, north-west Spain (2012-16). Serovars, sequence type and antimicrobial resistance genes were determined through genome sequencing. Presence of the mcr -1 gene in one strain belonging to serovar Rissen and ST-469 was identified. The mcr -1 gene had not been isolated previously in environmental Salmonella isolated from mussels in Spain.
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Johanna J Young, Denis Coulombier, Dragoslav Domanović, European Union West Nile Fever Working Group, Hervé Zeller, Céline M Gossner
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is notifiable in humans and equids in the European Union (EU). An area where a human case is detected is considered affected until the end of the mosquito transmission season (week 48) and blood safety measures have to be implemented. We used human and equine case notifications between 2013 and 2017 to define the WNV distribution in the EU and to investigate the relevance of using equine cases as a complementary trigger for blood safety measures. Adding areas with equine cases to the definition of an affected area would have a major impact on blood safety measures...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Danuta M Skowronski, Siobhan Leir, Gaston De Serres, Michelle Murti, James A Dickinson, Anne-Luise Winter, Romy Olsha, Matthew A Croxen, Steven J Drews, Hugues Charest, Christine Martineau, Suzana Sabaiduc, Nathalie Bastien, Yan Li, Martin Petric, Agatha Jassem, Mel Krajden, Jonathan B Gubbay
IntroductionFindings from the community-based Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) suggest children were more affected by the 2018/19 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic.AimTo compare the age distribution of A(H1N1)pdm09 cases in 2018/19 to prior seasonal influenza epidemics in Canada.MethodsThe age distribution of unvaccinated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases and test-negative controls were compared across A(H1N1)pdm09-dominant epidemics in 2018/19, 2015/16 and 2013/14 and with the general population of SPSN provinces...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Kristi Rüütel, Liis Lemsalu, Sirly Lätt, Jevgenia Epštein, On Behalf Of OptTEST By HiE
BackgroundStudies of missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of HIV have shown that patients with undiagnosed HIV often present to healthcare settings numerous times before eventually receiving their diagnosis.AimThe aim of the study was to assess missed opportunities for HIV testing among people newly diagnosed with HIV.MethodsIn this observational retrospective study, we collected data from the Estonian Health Board on new HIV cases in people aged 16-49 years diagnosed in 2014-15 and from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund database for treatment invoices on their contacts with healthcare services in the 2 years preceding diagnosis...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Annette Jurke, Inka Daniels-Haardt, Welmoed Silvis, Matthijs S Berends, Corinna Glasner, Karsten Becker, Robin Köck, Alex W Friedrich
IntroductionMeticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections.AimWe describe MRSA colonisation/infection and bacteraemia rate trends in Dutch-German border region hospitals (NL-DE-BRH) in 2012-16.MethodsAll 42 NL-DE BRH (8 NL-BRH, 34 DE-BRH) within the cross-border network EurSafety Health-net provided surveillance data (on average ca 620,000 annual hospital admissions, of these 68.0% in Germany). Guidelines defining risk for MRSA colonisation/infection were reviewed...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
Giovanni Ianiro, Roberto Micolano, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Gaia Scavia, Marina Monini, RotaNet-Italy Study Group
IntroductionGroup A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children, causing ca 250,000 deaths worldwide, mainly in low-income countries. Two proteins, VP7 (glycoprotein, G genotype) and VP4 (protease-sensitive protein, P genotype), are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. Although 36 G types and 51 P types are presently known, most RVA infections in humans worldwide are related to five G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8].AimThis study aimed to characterise the RVA strains circulating in Italy in the pre-vaccination era, to define the trends of circulation of genotypes in the Italian paediatric population...
April 2019: Euro Surveillance
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