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Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy

Shearwood McClelland, Kristina D Woodhouse, Jerry J Jaboin, Richard C Zellars
Background: Among the most competitive medical subspecialties, representation of underrepresented minorities (African-American race and/or Hispanic ethnicity) among resident trainees has historically been low compared to their United States Census general population representation. Research productivity and dual degree status may impact residency applicant competitiveness. To date, such an analysis has yet to be performed in Radiation Oncology. Methods: A list of radiation oncology residents from the graduating class of 2022 was obtained through internet searches...
May 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Shearwood McClelland, Timur Mitin, Charles R Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Jay A Messer, Ekim Ekinci, Tejal A Patel, Bin S Teh
Background: Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors represent a new class of targeted therapy options for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) human epidermal growth factor 2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer. There are currently no published prospective data on the safety of use of radiation treatment with palbociclib. Case: We describe the case of a patient with metastatic breast cancer who received radiation treatment to a metastatic supraclavicular lymph node to planned 60 Gy in 30 fractions while on palbociclib, a selective inhibitor of CDK4/6...
May 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Jesus Gerardo Gutiérrez, Armando Felix, Alberto López, Teodoro Rivera
Aim: The objective of this study is to explore the use of volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) to perform total marrow irradiation (TMI) and compare its results to the standard TBI technique in the Mexican public health system. Background: The standard total body irradiation (TBI) technique is used with chemotherapy as a method of a pre-transplant conditioning of the bone marrow. In this technique, the whole body of the patient is considered to be PTV and irradiated generating toxicities and raising concerns about possible development of radio-induced tumors...
May 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Ramiz Abu-Hijlih, Sara Mheid, Fawzi Abuhijla, Wafa Asha, Issa Mohamad, Abdullah Alrashdan, Samer Alheet, Haitham Kana'an, Mohammad Abd Al-Raheem, Abdelatif Almousa
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate tumor volume changes during preoperative radiotherapy and to assess the role of adaptive radiation. Background: Contemporary neoadjuvant radiotherapy utilizes image guidance for precise treatment delivery. Moreover, it may depict changes in tumor size and shape. Materials and methods: Between 2016 and 2018, 23 patients aged ≥18 years with soft tissue sarcoma were treated with neoadjuvant radiation followed by surgical resection...
May 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Anna Kowalik, E Konstanty, Tomasz Piotrowski, Malgorzata Skórska, Julian Malicki
Background: The calculation and measurement on the surface of the skin presents a significant dosimetric problem because of numerous factors which have an influence on the dose distribution in this region. Aim: The overall aim of this study was to check the agreement between doses measured with thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) during tomotherapy photon beam irradiation of the skin area of a solid water cylindrical phantom with doses calculated with Hi-Art treatment planning system (TPS)...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Iva Bratova, Petr Paluska, Jakub Grepl, Petra Sykorova, Jan Jansa, Miroslav Hodek, Igor Sirak, Milan Vosmik, Jiri Petera
Aim: To evaluate calculation of treatment plans based on synthetic-CT (sCT) images generated from MRI. Background: Because of better soft tissue contrast, MR images are used in addition to CT images for radiotherapy planning. However, registration of CT and MR images or repositioning between scanning sessions introduce systematic errors, hence suggestions for MRI-only therapy. The lack of information on electron density necessary for dose calculation leads to sCT (synthetic CT) generation...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Gustavo Pozo, Maria Angeles Pérez-Escutia, Ana Ruíz, Alejandro Ferrando, Ana Milanés, Eduardo Cabello, Raul Díaz, Alejandro Prado, Jose Fermin Pérez-Regadera
Owing to predictable or unpredictable causes, interruptions may arise during therapy. On average, the extension of fractionated radiotherapy treatments is prone to be delayed by several weeks and interruptions can come up extending overall treatment time (OTT). Clonogenic cells of aggressive tumors might benefit from this situation, modifying local control (LC). Preserving treatment quality in radiotherapy is an essential issue for the treatment outcome, and our institution is increasingly concerned about this line of work...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Tsubasa Enosaki, Fumika Hosono, Kiyoshi Yamada, Yasushi Nagata
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of image quality under various imaging parameters (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 kV at 200 mA and 10 ms/63, 80, 100, 160, 200, 250, and 320 mA at 120 kV and 10 ms) and the diameter of the fiducial marker (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.10 mm) on the correlation modeling error for dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) in the Vero4DRT system. Each fiducial marker was inserted into the center of the 30 × 30 × 10 cm3 water-equivalent phantom. A programmable respiratory motion table was used to simulate breathing-induced organ motion, with an amplitude of ±20 mm and a breathing cycle of 4 s...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Alejandro Prado, Ángel Gaitán, Mario Leonor, Marta Manzano, Eduardo Cabello, Raúl Díaz, Alejandro Ferrando, Ana Milanés, Gustavo Pozo
Aim: To assess the performance of the monitor unit (MU) Objective tool in Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) utilizing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for rectal cancer. Background: Eclipse VMAT planning module includes a tool to control the number of MUs delivered: the MU Objective tool. This tool could be utilized to reduce the total number of MUs in rectal cancer treatments. Materials and methods: 20 rectal cancer patients were retrospectively studied using VMAT and the MU Objective tool...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Marta Barrado, Idoia Blanco-Luquin, Paola Andrea Navarrete, Ignacio Visus, David Guerrero-Setas, David Escors, Grazyna Kochan, Fernando Arias
Aim: To evaluate the radiopotentiation of enzalutamide in human prostate cancer cells. Background: While radiotherapy is the first line of treatment for prostate cancer, androgen blockade therapies are demonstrating significant survival benefit as monotherapies. As androgen blockade can cause cell death by apoptosis, it is likely that androgen blockade will potentiate the cytotoxic activities of radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Here, we tested the potential synergistic effects of these two treatments over two human metastatic prostate cancer cells by real-time cell analysis (RTCA), androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells (Lymph Node Carcinoma of the Prostate) and androgen-independent PC-3...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Osamu Tanaka, Kensaku Seike, Takuya Taniguchi, Kousei Ono, Masayuki Matsuo
Aim and background: The change in the prostate size for radiotherapy has not yet been elucidated. The coverage of radiation dose is affected by changes in the prostate size. We evaluated the changes in the prostate, rectum, and bladder wall sizes during IMRT of fraction 2 Gy/day using MRI. Materials and methods: Twenty-four patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. MRI was performed at three time points. While the initial MRI was performed before the start of radiotherapy (RT), the second MRI was performed at 38 Gy (range: 36-40 Gy), which represented the halfway point of the RT course...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Nadine Wong Yuzhen, Sarah Barrett
Aim: To review the literature on auto-contouring methods of lung tumour volumes on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Background: Manual delineation of lung tumour on 4DCT has been the gold standard in clinical practice. However, it is resource intensive due to the high volume of data which results in longer contouring duration and uncertainties in defining target. Auto-contouring may present as an attractive alternative by decreasing manual inputs required, thus improving the contouring process...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Peter A S Johnstone, Susan Peneguy, Timothy N Showalter, James B Yu
Aim: Describe the Value proposition for radiotherapy (RT) in the United States. Background: In the United States since 2005, two forces have worked to decrease RT cost per patient: Federal changes in reimbursement and hypofractionation of treatment courses. We theorize that these have driven stable reimbursement in the context of increasing technology of intensity modulation (IMRT) and image guidance (IGRT). This phenomenon provides increasing Value of the discipline to patients and systems...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Mohandass Palanisamy, Khanna David, Manigandan Durai, Narendra Bhalla, Abhishek Puri
Aim: To study the dosimetric impact of statistical uncertainty (SU) per plan on Monte Carlo (MC) calculation in Monaco™ treatment planning system (TPS) during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for three different clinical cases. Background: During MC calculation SU is an important factor to decide dose calculation accuracy and calculation time. It is necessary to evaluate optimal acceptance of SU for quality plan with reduced calculation time. Materials and methods: Three different clinical cases as the lung, larynx, and prostate treated using VMAT technique were chosen...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Patrycja Czerwińska, Sylwia Mazurek, Iga Kołodziejczak, Maciej Wiznerowicz
Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from normal somatic cells could be utilized to study tumorigenesis through overexpression of specific oncogenes, downregulation of tumor suppressors and dysregulation of other factors thought to promote tumorigenesis. Therefore, effective approaches that provide direct modifications of induced pluripotent stem cell genome are extremely needed. Emerging strategies are expected to provide the ability to more effectively introduce diverse genetic alterations, from as small as single-nucleotide modifications to whole gene amplification or deletion, all with a high degree of target specificity...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Fawzi Abuhijla, Abdellatif Al-Mousa, Ramiz Abuhijlih, Lubna Hammoudeh, Khalid Dibs, Adhoob Al-Hammadi, Taher Abuhejleh, Jamal Khader
Background: Respiratory gated CT simulation (4D-simulation) has been evolved to estimate the internal body motion. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of tumor volume and location on the planning target volume (PTV) for primary lung tumor when 4D simulation is used. Methods: Patients who underwent CT simulation for primary lung cancer radiotherapy between 2012 and 2016 using a 3D- (free breathing) and 4D- (respiratory gated) technique were reviewed. For each patient, gross tumor volume (GTV) was contoured in a free breathing scan (3D-GTV), and 4D-simulation scans (4D-GTV)...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Gustavo Nader Marta, Jessica Barrett, Gustavo José Martiniano Porfirio, Ana Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco, José Luiz Barbosa Bevilacqua, Philip Poortmans, Rachel Riera
Aim: This systematic review was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) techniques for the treatment of breast cancer patients. Background: Numerous (APBI) techniques are available for clinical practice. Methods and materials: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of APBI versus whole breast irradiation (WBI). The data from APBI studies were extracted for the analyses. Indirect comparisons were used to compare different APBI techniques...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Georgina Fröhlich, Kinga Dóra Kovács, Tibor Major, Csaba Polgár
Aim and background: To investigate the feasibility of in vivo rectal dosimetry in image-guided adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer. Materials and methods: Error of measurement of dose rate in a semiconductor diode probe was investigated depending on the distance and angle in water, and on temperature in a polymethyl methacrylate phantom using an Ir-192 source. Furthermore, the difference between the measured and calculated dose was analysed in the interstitial brachytherapy of 30 cervix cancer patients...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Jakub Dalibor Rybka
Melanoma is responsible for the majority of deaths related to skin cancer. Worryingly, prognoses show an increasing number of melanoma cases each year worldwide. Radiotherapy, which is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, has proved to be useful but insufficient in melanoma management due to exceptionally high radioresistance of melanoma cells. This problem could be overcome by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) used as heat mediators in magnetic hyperthermia, which not only enhance radiosensitivity, but also enable precise targeting by exploitation of their magnetic properties...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
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