Liesbeth Vanherp, Jennifer Poelmans, Kristof Govaerts, Amy Hillen, Katrien Lagrou, Greetje Vande Velde, Uwe Himmelreich
In cerebral cryptococcomas caused by Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii, the density of fungal cells within lesions can contribute to the overall brain fungal burden. In cultures, cell density is inversely related to the size of the cryptococcal capsule, a dynamic polysaccharide layer surrounding the cell. Methods to investigate cell density or related capsule size within fungal lesions of a living host are currently unavailable, precluding in vivo studies on longitudinal changes. Here, we assessed whether intravital microscopy and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques (diffusion MRI and MR relaxometry) would enable non-invasive investigation of fungal cell density in cerebral cryptococcomas in mice...
March 18, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Shakuntala Surender Kumar Saraswati, Ankush Kumar Rana, Aayushi Singh, Vandana Anang, Aarti Singh, Krishnamurthy Natarajan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis attenuates many defence responses from alveolar macrophages to create a niche at sites of infection in the human lung. Levels of Heat Shock Proteins have been reported to increase many folds in the serum of active TB patients than in latently infected individuals. Here we investigated the regulation of key defence responses by HSPs during mycobacterial infection. We show that infection of macrophages with M. bovis BCG induces higher expression of HSP-27 and HSP-70. Inhibiting HSP-27 and HSP-70 prior to mycobacterial infection leads to a significant decrease in mycobacterial growth inside macrophages...
March 15, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Ting Gao, Minghui Feng, Zixu Wang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: Insufficient sleep was considered as a substantial cause of obesity. The present study further explored the mechanism whereby sleep restriction (SR)-mediated intestinal dysbiosis induced metabolic disorder and ultimately lead to obesity in mice and the improvement effect of butyrate exerting on it. METHODS: A continuous 3 months SR mouse model with or without butyrate supplementation and fecal microbiota transplantation to explore the key role of intestinal microbiota in butyrate improving inflammatory response in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and fatty acid oxidation dysfunction in brown adipose tissue (BAT), further ameliorating SR-induced obesity...
March 9, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Xiongqi Ding, Xiali Fu, Daniel Euphrasie, Agnes Ferroni, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Alain Charbit, Mathieu Coureuil, Anne Jamet
Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant pathogen in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) in France and, around 80 % of them harbored S. aureus in their lungs. This study investigated virulence and antimicrobial resistance-associated genes and within-host evolution polymorphisms in 14 S. aureus persistent clones from 14 chronically infected CF children. For each of the 14 patients, we compared genomes of two isogenic sequential isolates separated by 2-9 years. All isolates were methicillin-sensitive and harbored the immune evasion gene cluster, whereas half of them harbored the enterotoxin gene cluster...
March 3, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Thales Alves de Melo Fernandes, Samuel Cota Teixeira, Tássia Rafaela Costa, Alessandra Monteiro Rosini, Guilherme de Souza, Lorena Polloni, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues Ávila
One-third of the world's population is estimated to be affected by toxoplasmosis. Pregnancy-related T. gondii infection can cause vertical transmission, infect the fetus, and cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and fetal death. The current study showed that both human trophoblast cells (BeWo lineage) and human explant villous were resistant to T. gondii infection after incubation with BjussuLAAO-II, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops jararacussu. Almost 90% of the parasite's ability to proliferate in BeWo cells was decreased by the toxin at 1...
March 2, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Elúzia Castro Peres Emidio, Junya de Lacorte Singulani, Gustavo José Cota Freitas, Marliete Carvalho da Costa, Ludmila Gouveia-Eufrasio, Paulo Henrique Fonseca do Carmo, Silvia Helena Sousa Pietra Pedroso, Camila Bernardo de Brito, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Noelly Queiroz Ribeiro, Lorena Vívien Neves de Oliveira, Monique Ferreira Silva, Tatiane Alves Paixão, Daniele da Glória de Souza, Daniel Assis Santos
Prior infections can provide protection or enhance susceptibility to a subsequent infection through microorganism's interaction or host immunomodulation. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Cryptococcus gattii (CG) cause lungs infection, but it is unclear how they interact in vivo. This study aimed to study the effects of the primary SA lung infection on secondary cryptococcosis caused by CG in a murine model. The mice's survival, fungal burden, behavior, immune cells, cytokines, and chemokines were quantified to evaluate murine cryptococcosis under the influence of a previous SA infection...
February 24, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Weitian Li, Zixu Wang, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Yaoxing Chen
Insufficient sleep is regarded as a disruptor of circadian rhythm, and it also contributes to the occurrence of intestinal diseases. The physiological functions of the gut depend on the normal circadian rhythm of the intestinal microbiota. However, how lack of sleep affects intestinal circadian homeostasis is unclear. Therefore, we subjected mice to sleep restriction and found that chronic sleep loss disrupts the pattern of colonic microbial communities and reduces the proportion of gut microbiota with a circadian rhythm, with concomitant changes in the peak phase of the KEGG pathway...
February 18, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Min-Kyung Joo, Xiaoyang Ma, Jong-Wook Yoo, Yoon-Jung Shin, Hyo-Jong Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim
The genus Enterococcus is commonly overpopulated in patients with depression compared to healthy control in the feces. Therefore, we isolated Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus mundtii from the feces of patients with comorbid inflammatory bowel disease with depression and examined their roles in depression in vivo and in vitro. Of these Enterococci, E. mundtii NK1516 most potently induced NF-κB-activated TNF-α and IL-6 expression in BV2 microglia cells...
February 7, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Orlando Flores-Maldonado, Gloria M González, Juan F Enríquez-Bañuelos, Ángel Andrade, Rogelio Treviño-Rangel, Miguel A Becerril-García
Neurocandidiasis is a fungal infection that primarily affects neonates, which is associated with 70% case fatality rates, while pediatric patients who survive infection often have long-term neurological sequelae, making it a clinical requirement to understand the pathogenesis of neonatal neurocandidiasis. Currently, the brain regions to C. albicans invasion during the neonatal period are not characterized. In this study, 0-day-old mice were infected with C. albicans intravenously to determine dissemination and invasion into the brain at different times post-infection by fungal burden assay and histopathological analysis, additionally cellular death and microglial activation were evaluated by flow cytometry...
February 7, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Aswathy Reghunath, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Shouri Kushal, Akhilesh Kumar Pandey
The increased prevalence of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is quite possibly the direst and most difficult task for the early diagnosis and treatment. A rapid, reliable, and inexpensive diagnostic method is the need of the hour. The current study on crystal violet decolorization assay explores the possibility to develop a rapid and simple detection method to detect multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates by comparing the results with the traditional liquid culture drug susceptibility testing method based on their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value...
February 1, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Qianhui Ma, Zhaoxuan Zhu, Yue Liu, Jia Wang, Zihao Pan, Huochun Yao, Jiale Ma
Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is now recognized as an urgent threat to public health since the emergence of multidrug-resistant and hypervirulent isolates. We identified a hypervirulent K2 isolate from the milk samples possibly associated with an infection incident in children, which raised the alarm to the zoonotic potential of bovine mastitis Kp as a foodborne pathogen. Subsequently, numerous K1, K2, K3, K5, K54 and K57 strains were identified from mastitis milk samples, and showed high pathogenicity in infected mouse...
January 28, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Mikaël de Lorenzi-Tognon, Etienne Ruppé, Jacques Schrenzel
Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referring to the application of metagenomic sequencing of clinical samples to obtain clinically relevant information for the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases, has been rapidly evolving these last years. Following this trend, we held the seventh International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg7) in Geneva in October 2022. During the two-day conference, cutting-edge advances and new discoveries using CMg were presented which we summarize in the present paper...
January 28, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Marie-Esther N'Dri, Tatyana Almeida Tavella, Ludivine Royer, Florian Dupuy, Laurianne Bedault, Frédérique Verdier, Catherine Lavazec
To persist in the blood circulation and to be available for mosquitoes, Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes modify the deformability and the permeability of their erythrocyte host via cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway. Cyclic nucleotide levels are tightly controlled by phosphodiesterases (PDE), however in Plasmodium these proteins are poorly characterized. Here, we characterize the P. falciparum phosphodiesterase delta (PfPDEδ) and we investigate its role in the cAMP signaling-mediated regulation of gametocyte-infected erythrocyte mechanical properties...
January 25, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Guan-Hong Wu, Kuo-Ming Lee, Chia-Yu Kao, Shin-Ru Shih
The mechanisms underlying tissue-specific replication of enteroviruses are currently unclear. Although enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are both common pathogens that cause hand-foot-mouth disease, they display quite different neurotropic properties. Herein, we characterized the role of the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in determining neurovirulence using an oral inoculation model of EV-A71. The receptor transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mice developed neurological symptoms after being infected with a mouse-adapted EV-A71 strain (MP4) via different administrative routes...
January 25, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Ushasi Bhaumik, Prolay Halder, Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Soumalya Banerjee, Suhrid Maiti, Shanta Dutta, Hemanta Koley
In today's world and mostly in low and middle income countries, S. flexneri and S. sonnei remains the major causative agent of clinical bacillary dysentery. Based on contemporary epidemiology, a tetravalent Outer Membrane Vesicle (OMVs) based immunogen was formulated using the most commonly circulating Shigella strains, namely, S. flexneri 2a, S. flexneri 3a, S. flexneri 6 and S. sonnei I, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized in a prime-boost-boost manner. Tetravalent Shigella OMVs immunogen induced significant and persistent serum and mucosal antibodies against OMVs, Outer Membrane Proteins (OMPs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)...
January 22, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Ting Huang, Zheng Lv, Kai Cui, Xinrong Wang, Xiuyue Zhang, Bisong Yue, Yiwen Chu, Kelei Zhao
Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes) is a versatile and ingenious bacterium that causes severe suppurative injuries in lots of economically important ruminants. The underlying pathogenesis of T. pyogenes infection remains poorly understood. In the current study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of mouse blood tissue infected with T. pyogenes. A total of 36.73 G clean data were collected, and 136 differentially expressed genes were obtained in the infection group compared to the control group. In addition, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cblb exhibited significant upregulation in the infection groups compared to the control group...
January 19, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Isabel Hodl, Clarissa Sallegger, Patrick Forstner, Nazanin Sareban, Martina Moritz, Barbara Dreo, Eduard Schulz, Angelika Lackner, Barbara Kleinhappl, Stefan Hatzl, Florentine Moazedi-Fürst, Thomas Seifert-Held, Bettina Heschl, Michael Khalil, Christian Enzinger, Hildegard Greinix, Martin H Stradner, Ivo Steinmetz, Peter Schlenke, Johannes Fessler
B-cell depleting therapies result in diminished humoral immunity following vaccination against COVID-19, but our understanding on the impact on cellular immune responses is limited. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of cellular immunity following mRNA vaccination in patients receiving B-cell depleting therapy using ELISpot assay and flow cytometry. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain antibody assays were performed to elucidate B-cell responses. To complement our cellular analysis, we performed immunophenotyping for T- and B-cell subsets...
January 18, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Khristine Kaith S Lloren, Vijayakumar Jawalagatti, Chamith Hewawaduge, Chandran Sivasankar, Ji-Young Park, John Hwa Lee
Since the emergence of the pandemic COVID19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the development of vaccines has been the prime strategy to control the disease transmission. Most of the developed vaccines target the spike protein, however, the emerging variants have alterations, particularly at the same region which may pose resistance to neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we explored the variable and conserved regions of SARS-CoV-2 as a potential inclusion in a multiple-target vaccine with the exploitation of Salmonella-based vector for oral mRNA vaccine against Delta and Omicron variants...
January 16, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Yining Zheng, Guoyan Wang, Rongnuo Li, Huijun Geng, Xinjian Lei, Lei Chen, Shengru Wu, Junhu Yao, Lu Deng
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the main causative pathogen of diarrhea. It causes acute watery diarrhea that leads to rapid dehydration and prostration within hours. ETEC is still an important cause of neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. However, the mechanism underlying ETEC-induced diarrhea is not yet clear. In this study, we investigated these mechanisms and found that the mTORC1 pathway plays a role in the host response to ETEC F4 infection. Specifically, we found that ETEC F4 treatment significantly repressed mTORC1 activity as well as cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis and regulated the expression of diarrhea-related genes via the promotion of PKA-mediated phosphorylation of SIN1, which plays a critical role in the assembly of mTORC2...
January 12, 2023: Microbes and Infection
Miao Lu, Dongsheng Zhou, Siyan Xie, Yumeng Wang, Liyan Jiang, Wen Wang, Weiping Jiang, Qiuling Zhou, Caifeng Wang, Chanjun Zheng, Di Huang, Hualing Yang, Lina Gong, Huoying Chen, Kun Li
Three Orientia tsutsugamushi genotypic groups belonging to two prototypes (Gilliam and Karp) were identified in scrub typhus patients from Guangxi, Southwest China. Fever, headache, pneumonia, fatigue, chill, and anorexia were the most common clinical signs. Frequent recombination was observed for their 47-kDa gene compared to 56-kDa and 16S genes. Furthermore, patients infected with the Gilliam prototype represent a much higher proportion of pneumonia (6/6, 100%) than those infected with the Karp prototype (4/8, 50%) (p-value=0...
January 5, 2023: Microbes and Infection
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