Yanzi Zhou, Lihua Guo, Tingting Xiao, Yunbo Chen, Tao Lv, Yuan Wang, Shuntian Zhang, Hongliu Cai, Xiaohui Chi, Xiaoyang Kong, Kai Zhou, Ping Shen, Yonghong Xiao
Gut microbiota dysbiosis increases the susceptibility to Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we monitored C. difficile colonization (CDC) patients from no CDC status (CDN) to CDC status (CDCp) and CDI patients from asymptomatic status before CDI (PRECDI), CDI status (ONCDI), to asymptomatic status after CDI (POSTCDI). Based on metagenomic sequencing, we aimed to investigate the interaction pattern between gut microbiota and C. difficile. There was no significant difference of microbiota diversity between CDN and CDCp...
June 8, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Boris Nikonenko, Nadezhda Logunova, Anna Egorova, Marina Kapina, Natalia Sterzhanova, Irina Bocharova, Elena Kondratieva, Olga Riabova, Lyudmila Semyonova, Vadim Makarov
Host heterogeneity in pulmonary tuberculosis leads to varied responses to infection and drug treatment. The present portfolio of anti-TB drugs needs to be boosted with new drugs and drug regimens. Macozinone, a clinical-stage molecule targeting the essential enzyme, DprE1, represents an attractive option. Mice (I/St, B6, (AKRxI/St)F1, B6.I-100 and B6.I-139) genetically diverse susceptibility to M. tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv infection were subjected to aerosol- or intravenous infection to determine the efficacy of macozinone (MCZ)...
June 7, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Jimena Alvarez Hayes, Bruno Blancá, Juan Pablo Gorgojo, Carlos Baroli, Mariela Del Carmen Carrica, Maria Eugenia Rodriguez
Neutrophils constitute the primary defense against bacterial infections, yet certain pathogens express virulence factors that enable them to subvert neutrophils-mediated killing. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have emerged as a secretory system through which bacteria deliver virulence factors to host cells. OMVs from B. pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, are loaded with most of bacterial virulence factors, including CyaA, which plays a key role in B. pertussis evasion of neutrophils bactericidal activity...
June 5, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Hitoshi Tsugawa, Shogo Tsubaki, Rika Tanaka, Sho Nashimoto, Jin Imai, Juntaro Matsuzaki, Katsuto Hozumi
Pathobionts are commensal intestinal microbiota capable of causing systemic infections under specific conditions, such as environmental changes or aging. However, it is unclear how pathobionts are recognized by the intestinal mucosal immune system under physiological conditions. This study demonstrates that the gut pathobiont Klebsiella pneumoniae causes injury to the epithelium and translocates to the liver in specific pathogen-free mice treated with clodronate-liposomes that depleted macrophages. In the clodronate-liposome-treated mice, indigenous classical K...
June 5, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Ling Zhang, Miaotian Cai, Xin Zhang, Sitong Wang, Lijun Pang, Xue Chen, Caopei Zheng, Yuqing Sun, Ying Liang, Shan Guo, Feili Wei, Yulin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The lung microbiota of patients with pulmonary diseases is disrupted and impacts the immunity. The microbiological and immune landscape of the lungs in patients with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains poorly understood. METHODS: Multi-omics analysis and machine learning were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to explore interaction between the lung microbiota and host immunity in PCP. Then we constructed a diagnostic model using differential genes with LASSO regression and validated by qPCR...
June 5, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Magdy El-Salhy, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
The long-term effects of the transplant dose, its administration route and repeated faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the outcomes of FMT for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are unknown. This study included 171 patients (125 females and 46 males): 90 g of donor feces was administered into the large intestine (LI) in 58, into the small intestine (SI) in 57, and into the SI twice (repeated SI) in 56. The patients provided a fecal sample and completed five questionnaires at the baseline and at 2 years after FMT...
June 4, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Ming Lei, Yanheng Tan, Jingyi Ke, Mengqi Wang, Zeyang He, Guangshuo Ou, Haijun Tu, Weihong Tan
Pathogen avoidance is a crucial and evolutionarily conserved behavior that enhances survival by preventing infection in diverse species, including Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This behavior relies on multiple chemosensory neurons equipped with cilia that are exposed to the external environment. However, the specific role of neuronal cilia in pathogen avoidance has not been completely elucidated. Herein, we discovered that osm-3(p802) mutants, which lack chemosensory neuronal cilia, exhibit slower avoidance of the pathogen P...
June 4, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Joseph J Mackel, Casey L Goltz, Emily Guo, David A Rosen
At present there is no approved vaccine for prevention of infection by the opportunistic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp); success in treating these infections is increasingly challenged by the spread of antibiotic resistance. Preclinical investigation of adaptive immunity elicited by lung infection with live classical Kp may reveal host mechanisms of protection against this pathogen. Here, we utilize multiple virulent classical Kp strains to demonstrate that following lung infection, surviving wild-type mice develop protective immunity against both homologous and heterologous (heterotypic) reinfection...
May 28, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Qi Wang, Xiaomeng Tang, Wenying Qiao, Lina Sun, Han Shi, Dexi Chen, Bin Xu, Yanmin Liu, Juan Zhao, Chunyang Huang, Ronghua Jin
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is associated closely with the gut microbiota. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of the gut microbiota after the progress of PBC to cirrhosis. METHOD: This study focuses on utilizing the 16S rRNA gene sequencing method to screen for differences in gut microbiota in PBC patients who progress to cirrhosis. Then, we divided the data into training and verification sets and used seven different machine learning (ML) models to validate them respectively, calculating and comparing the accuracy, F1 score, precision, and recall, and screening the dominant intestinal flora affecting PBC cirrhosis...
May 24, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Nishant Nandanwar, Joy E Gibson, Michael N Neely
Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab) infection can be deadly in patients with chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis (CF). In vitro and in vivo, Mab may adopt a smooth (S) or rough (R) morphotype, the latter linked to more severe disease conditions. In vitro studies revealed differences in pathogenicity and immune response to S and R morphotypes. We propose that in vivo both morphotypes exist and may transiently switch depending on the environment, having important pathogenic and immunologic consequences. This can be modeled by morphotypic S and R variants of Mab selected based on in vitro growth conditions...
May 21, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Arbildi Paula, Muniz-Lagos Ana Clara, Fernández Eugenia, Giorgi Rosina, Wiater Kai, Mourglia-Ettlin Gustavo, Fernández Verónica
Cystic echinococcosis, a zoonosis caused by cestodes belonging to the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) genetic complex, affects humans and diverse livestock species. Although a veterinary vaccine exhibiting high levels of antibody-mediated protection has successfully reached the market, the large genetic diversity among parasite isolates and their particular host preferences, makes still necessary the search for novel vaccine candidates. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute attractive targets for immunoprophylaxis due to their outstanding relevance in helminth detoxification processes, against both exogenous and endogenous stressors...
May 20, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Xiuzhu Geng, Xiaohui Ding, Yuanmei Zhu, Huihui Chong, Yuxian He
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly improved the survival of HIV-infected individuals, but long-term treatment can cause side-effects and drug resistance; thus, the development of new antivirals is of importance. We previously identified an M-T hook structure and accordingly designed short-peptide fusion inhibitor 2P23, which mainly targets the gp41 pocket site and displays potent, broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity. In this study, we continuingly characterized the amino acid sequences of peptide and lipopeptide-based inhibitors containing the M-T hook residues...
May 20, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Justyna Śmiałek-Bartyzel, Monika Bzowska, Paweł Mak
Aureocin A53 is a peptide bacteriocin produced by an opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus strain A53. The spatial structure of aureocin, unlike its amino acid sequence, is similar to the bacteriocin BacSp222, which was recently found to have the ability to induce the inflammatory response in the host cells. The presented research aimed to verify such properties also for aureocin A53. We demonstrated that the synthetic aureocin has slight cytotoxic activity towards murine monocytic-macrophage cells. This molecule was also able to activate murine P388...
May 20, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Umaru Barrie, Katherine Floyd, Arani Datta, Dawn M Wetzel
The obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania binds several receptors to trigger uptake by phagocytic cells, ultimately resulting in visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. A series of signaling pathways in host cells, which are critical for establishment and persistence of infection, are activated during Leishmania internalization. Thus, preventing Leishmania uptake by phagocytes could be a novel therapeutic strategy for leishmaniasis. However, the host cellular machinery mediating promastigote and amastigote uptake is not well understood...
May 17, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Christie Mitri, François Philippart, Emmanuelle Sacco, Stéphane Legriel, Nathalie Rousselet, Gabrielle Dupuis, Benoît Colsch, Harriet Corvol, Lhousseine Touqui, Olivier Tabary
CONTEXT: The changes in host membrane phospholipids are crucial in airway infection pathogenesis. Phospholipase A2 hydrolyzes host cell membranes, producing lyso-phospholipids and free fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA), which contributes significantly to lung inflammation. AIM: Follow these changes and their evolution from day 1, day 3 to day 7 in airway aspirates of 89 patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome and examine whether they correlate with the severity of the disease...
May 15, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Peijie Qu, Xinyu Li, Weihuang Liu, Fangting Zhou, Xiaoxu Xu, Jun Tang, Mengmeng Sun, Junli Li, Haifeng Li, Yunlin Han, Chengjun Hu, Yueshan Lei, Qin Pan, Lingjun Zhan
The blockade of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway has been clinically used in cancer immunotherapy, while its effects on infectious diseases remain elusive. Roles of PD-L1 signaling in the macrophage-mediated innate immune defense against M.tb is unclear. In this study, the outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in wild-type (WT) mice treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy and macrophage-specific Pdl1-knockout (Pdl1ΔΜΦ ) mice were compared. Treatment with anti-PD-L1 or anti-PD-1 benefited protection against M...
May 8, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Tingting Lian, Weijia Zhang, Haoran Su, Qing Yu, Hongxin Zhang, Qingcui Zou, Haowei Chen, Wenjing Xiong, Nan Zhang, Ke Wang, Ling Zhao, Zhen F Fu, Min Cui
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a group of heterologous populations of immature bone marrow cells consisting of progenitor cells of macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes. Recent studies have revealed that the accumulation of MDSCs in the mouse spleen plays a pivotal role in suppressing the immune response following JEV infection. However, the mechanisms by which JEV induces MDSCs are poorly understood. Here, it was found that JEV infection induces mitochondrial damage and the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which further leads to the activation of TLR9...
May 7, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Jae-Hun Ahn, Do-Hyeon Jung, Dong-Yeon Kim, Tae-Sung Lee, Yeong-Jun Kim, Yun-Ji Lee, In-Su Seo, Wan-Gyu Kim, Young Jin Cho, Sung Jae Shin, Jong-Hwan Park
Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB), a non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM), causes chronic pulmonary inflammation in humans. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that triggers IL-1β maturation and pyroptosis through the cleavage of caspase-1. In this study, we investigated the roles of NLRP3 and IL-1β in the host's defense against MAB. The IL-1β production by MAB was completely abolished in NLRP3, but not NLRC4, deficient macrophages. The NLRP3 inflammasome components, which are ASC and caspase-1 were also found to be essential for IL-1β production in response to MAB...
May 7, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Xue-Yao Yang, Jing-Shu Huang, Qing-Long Gong, Jin-Mei Sun, Yan-Jin Li, Bing Liu, Yu-Meng Zhang, Chun-Wei Shi, Gui-Lian Yang, Wen-Tao Yang, Chun-Feng Wang
The widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in humans poses a serious threat to public health security, and a growing number of studies have discovered that SARS-CoV-2 infection in wildlife and mutate over time. This article mainly reports the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in wildlife. The pooled prevalence of the 29 included articles was calculated by us using a random effects model (22.9%) with a high heterogeneity (I2 =98.7%, p=0.00). Subgroup analysis and univariate regression analysis found potential risk factors contributing to heterogeneity were country, wildlife species, sample type, longitude, and precipitation...
May 7, 2024: Microbes and Infection
Ronza Najjar-Debbiny, Ofra Barnett-Griness, Anat Arbel, Shai Cohen, Gabriel Weber, Maisam Amar, Rabah Yassin, Inbal Greenfeld, Shereen Shehadeh, Walid Saliba
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) poses healthcare challenges and morbidity. Preventing recurrence with prophylactic oral CDI antibiotics lack consensus. METHODS: We used data from the largest healthcare provider in Israel to identify all adults aged 18 years or older diagnosed with a first episode of CDI (Index CDI) between February 2018 and December 2022 and subsequently received a non-CDI antibiotic within 2-8 weeks. Patients who received a concurrent prophylactic CDI antibiotic constituted the CDI prophylaxis group...
May 6, 2024: Microbes and Infection
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