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Microbes and Infection

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763764/colonic-adenoma-associated-escherichia-coli-express-specific-phenotypes
#1
Cecilia Ambrosi, Meysam Sarshar, Maria Rita Aprea, Arianna Pompilio, Giovanni Di Bonaventura, Francesco Strati, Annamaria Pronio, Mauro Nicoletti, Carlo Zagaglia, Anna Teresa Palamara, Daniela Scribano
Specific Escherichia coli strains have been associated to colorectal cancer, while no data are available on genotypic and phenotypic features of E. coli colonizing premalignant adenomatous polyps and their pathogenic potential. This study was aimed at characterizing isolates collected from polyps and adjacent tissue in comparison with those from normal mucosa. From colonoscopy biopsies, 1500 E. coli isolates were retrieved and genotyped; 272 were characterized for phylogroup and major phenotypic traits (i.e...
February 11, 2019: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763763/porphyromonas-gingivalis-promotes-the-motility-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#2
Fan Meng, Ruifeng Li, Liyu Ma, Lifang Liu, Xiaorong Lai, Dongyang Yang, Junmin Wei, Dong Ma, Zijun Li
Esophageal carcinoma, with a increasing incidence, is one of the most aggressive carcinomas in gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate an association of oral pathogens with multiple diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and gastrointestinal malignancies. Nevertheless, a causal relationship between oral pathogens and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been elucidated. Here, we found that Porphyromonas was significantly enriched in the saliva of patients with ESCC, compared with that in normal human...
February 11, 2019: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735720/endocrine-modulation-of-brucella-abortus-infected-osteocytes-function-and-osteoclastogenesis-via-modulation-of-rankl-opg
#3
Ayelén Ivana Pesce Viglietti, Guillermo Hernán Giambartolomei, María Victoria Delpino
Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most frequent complication of active disease. A large amount of cells in bone are osteocytes. Since bone remodeling process is regulated by hormones we sought to study the effect of cortisol and DHEA in B. abortus-infected osteocytes. Cortisol treatment inhibited the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-2 and RANKL in B. abortus-infected osteocytes. DHEA could reverse the inhibitory effect of cortisol on MMP-2 production. B. abortus infection inhibited connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in osteocytes...
February 5, 2019: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735719/dentin-matrix-protein-1-correlates-with-the-severity-of-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome-and-promotes-hyper-permeability-of-endothelial-cells-infected-by-hantaan-virus
#4
Dongsha Shi, Yanying Dong, Pengfei Dai, Juan Gao, Jingjing Yin, Ming Xie
Hantaviruses is the major causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, which is characterized by increased capillary permeability. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) has been shown to degrade components of the basal membrane and interendothelial junctions via matrix metalloproteinase-9. To study the changes of serum DMP1 in HFRS, we determined the concentration of DMP1 using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that serum DMP1 concentrations increased significantly, and reached peak value during the oliguric phase and in the critical group in HFRS patients...
February 5, 2019: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684684/guns-n-viruses
#5
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684683/transcriptional-profiles-of-cytokines-and-chemokines-reveal-important-pro-inflammatory-response-from-endothelial-cells-during-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#6
Hong Ge, Christina M Farris, Min Tong, Alice Maina, Allen L Richards
Endothelial cells (EC) are key targets during Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Knowledge of the pro-inflammatory response against O. tsutsugamushi by ECs is limited. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pro-inflammatory transcriptional response during the first 24 hours of infection of the human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line with O. tsutsugamushi Karp by examining five-time points. The transcriptional profiles of 84 genes including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and TNF receptor superfamily genes were studied using a RT-PCR array...
January 23, 2019: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677519/inhibition-of-antigen-presentation-by-brucella-many-more-than-many-ways
#7
REVIEW
Paula Barrionuevo, Guillermo H Giambartolomei
Brucella infection activates the immune system and favors the differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. To persist during a long time inside macrophages evading immune surveillance of these T cells the pathogen must exploit different evasion strategies. We review the mechanisms whereby Brucella, through TLR signaling, inhibits MHC class I and II antigen presentation, allowing infected macrophages to become effective niches for Brucella survival.
January 21, 2019: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668989/tableasymptomatic-dengue-virus-cases-in-misiones-argentina-a-seroprevalence-study-in-the-university-population
#8
Cristian Alberto Ferri, María Mercedes Formichela, José Ricardo Valdez, Ivana Magalí Rocío Medina, Graciela Viviana Dusse, Graciela Noemí Malvasi, Pedro Darío Zapata, Elba Cristina Malarczuk
Dengue infection may be asymptomatic and may produce the typical symptoms of a benign illness or serious hemorrhagic and often fatal symptoms. Asymptomatic cases are statistically relevant and quite variable depending on the geographic area under study. However, there are no reports of asymptomatic population infected by the dengue virus in Misiones. In this study, 288 samples were analyzed, and the IgG anti dengue antibodies detected accounted for 6.6% of cases, while 89% corresponded to individuals who lived with people diagnosed or suspected of having contracted dengue, p= <0...
January 19, 2019: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590174/tctgcttat-attact-tggattactcat-gataatgct
#9
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
Article highlight based on "AIM2 senses Brucella abortus DNA in dendritic cells to induce IL-1β secretion, pyroptosis and resistance to bacterial infection in mice" by Miriam Maria Silva Costa Franco et al.
December 24, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30580014/cognate-t-and-b-cell-interaction-and-association-of-follicular-helper-t-cells-with-b-cell-responses-in-vibrio-cholerae-o1-infected-bangladeshi-adults
#10
Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rubel Hoq, Lazina Hossain, Anik Paul, Ashraful Islam Khan, Fahima Chowdhury, Jason B Harris, Edward T Ryan, Stephen B Calderwood, Ana A Weil, Firdausi Qadri
Vibrio cholerae O1 can cause life threatening diarrheal disease if left untreated. T cells can play critical roles in inducing B cell mediated immunity. As the mechanism of T cell dependent B cell maturation is not well established, we hypothesized that a specific population of T (follicular helper T, Tfh)) cells, are involved in B cell maturation following cholera. We found flowcytometrically that V. cholerae infection induces significant increases in circulating Tfh cells expressing B cell maturation associated protein CD40L early in disease...
December 20, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30580013/pertactin-deficient-bordetella-pertussis-isolates-in-poland-a-country-with-whole-cell-pertussis-primary-vaccination
#11
Maciej Polak, Aleksandra Anna Zasada, Ewa Mosiej, Katarzyna Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Lucjan Witkowski, Magdalena Rzeczkowska, Katarzyna Piekarska, Anna Lutyńska
The introduction of pertussis vaccination in the 1950s resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of disease. However, since the 1990s many highly vaccinated countries have observed the re-emergence of the disease. One of the causes of this phenomenon might be related to the adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to vaccination. The purpose of the presented study was an investigation of the emergence and spread of vaccine antigen-deficient B. pertussis isolates in Poland and genomic characterization of the currently circulating pathogen population using PFGE, MLVA and MAST...
December 20, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30528899/immunobiology-of-monocytes-and-macrophages-during-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#12
REVIEW
Mads Lausen, Gunna Christiansen, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk Poulsen, Svend Birkelund
Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between C. trachomatis and monocytes/macrophages.
December 7, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30529325/hepatitis-e-virus-is-not-detected-in-association-with-neurological-disorders-among-brazilian-children
#13
LETTER
Lucas Nobrega Morgado, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Fernanda Marcicano Burlandy, Edson Elias da Silva, Jaquelline Pereira da Silva, Claudia Lamarca Vitral
Hepatitis E virus is increasingly being associated with idiopathic neurological disease. We tested 325 stool samples from Brazilian children presenting acute flaccid paralysis or Guillain-Barré syndrome using a broadly reactive and sensitive Reverse-transcription Polymerase chain reaction. Hepatitis E genome was not detected in any of the samples tested. Our results suggest that hepatitis E virus does not seem to be associated as the etiologic agent of acute flaccid paralysis and Guillain-Barré syndrome cases occurred in Brazilian children during the period of investigation (2010-2012)...
December 6, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30447395/targeting-the-r-domain-of-coagulase-by-active-vaccination-protects-mice-against-lethal-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#14
Mengying Qian, Taoran Zhao, Ruihua Li, Qiaoling Yang, Rui Yu, Ying Yin, Xiaodong Zai, Yaohui Li, Jun Zhang, Junjie Xu, Wei Chen
Coagulase (Coa) secreted by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with the establishment of staphylococcal disease, which activates host prothrombin and generates fibrin shields. The R domain of Coa, consisting of several conserved repeats, is important in immune evasion during S. aureus infection. However, previous research showed that the Coa R domain induced very weak specific antibody responses. In this study, we constructed a new R domain, CoaR6, consisting of 6 repeats that occur most frequently in clinical isolates...
November 14, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30445130/a-proteomics-approach-for-the-identification-of-species-specific-immunogenic-proteins-in-the-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex
#15
Mathis Steindor, Vanesa Nkwouano, Anja Stefanski, Kai Stuehler, Thomas Richard Ioerger, David Bogumil, Marc Jacobsen, Colin Rae Mackenzie, Rainer Kalscheuer
The Mycobacterium abscessus complex can cause fatal pulmonary disease, especially in cystic fibrosis patients. Diagnosing M. abscessus complex pulmonary disease is challenging. Immunologic assays specific for M. abscessus are not available. In this study seven clinical M. abscessus complex strains and the M. abscessus reference strain ATCC19977 were used to find species-specific proteins for their use in immune assays. Six strains showed rough and smooth colony morphotypes simultaneously, two strains only showed rough mophotypes, resulting in 14 separate isolates...
November 13, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30439507/acinetobacter-baumannii-outer-membrane-protein-34-elicits-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-mitochondria-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-in-raw264-7-macrophages
#16
Zhiyuan An, Jianrong Su
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a Gram-negative bacterium, which acts as an opportunistic pathogen and causes hospital-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia by infecting the alveoli of epithelial cells and macrophages. Evidence reveals that A. baumannii outer membrane protein 34 (Omp34) elicits cellular immune responses and inflammation. The innate immunity NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome exerts critical function against pneumonia caused by A. baumannii infection, however, the role of Omp34 in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its corresponding regulatory mechanism are not clearly elucidated...
November 13, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30419351/insights-into-streptococcus-agalactiae-pi-2b-pilus-biosynthesis-and-role-in-adherence-to-host-cells
#17
Bruno Périchon, Julie Guignot, Noémi Szili, Cherry Gao, Claire Poyart, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Shaynoor Dramsi
The core PI-2b pilus present in "hypervirulent" ST-17 S. agalactiae strains consists of three pilin subunits (Spb1, Ap1 and Ap2) assembled by sortase SrtC1 and cell-wall anchored by Srt2. Spb1 was shown to be the major pilin and Ap2 the anchor pilin. Ap1 is a putative adhesin. Two additional genes, orf and lep, are part of this operon. The contribution of Lep and Ap1 to the biogenesis of the PI-2b pilus was investigated. Concerning the role of PI-2b, we found that higher PI-2b expression resulted in higher adherence to human brain endothelial cells and higher phagocytosis by human THP1 macrophages...
November 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30389463/evaluation-of-monocyte-subsets-and-markers-of-activation-in-leprosy-reactions
#18
Mayume Shibuya, Giovana Bergheme, Sara Passos, Ivonete Queiroz, Jamile Rêgo, Lucas P Carvalho, Paulo R L Machado
Understanding host immune pathways associated with tissue damage during reactions are of upmost importance to the development of immune intervention strategies. The participation of monocytes in leprosy reactions was evaluated by determining the frequency of monocyte subsets and the degree of cellular activation through the expression of MHCII and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, CD86. Leprosy subjects with or without reactions were included in this cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell were isolated and stained ex vivo to determine monocyte subsets and the degree of cellular activation by flow cytometry...
October 31, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30385304/salivary-calculi-microbiota-new-insights-into-microbial-networks-and-pathogens-reservoir
#19
Roberta De Grandi, Pasquale Capaccio, Alessandro Bidossi, Marta Bottagisio, Lorenzo Drago, Sara Torretta, Lorenzo Pignataro, Elena De Vecchi
Sialolithiasis represents the most common disorders of salivary glands in middle-aged patients. It has been hypothesized that the retrograde migration of bacteria from the oral cavity to gland ducts may facilitate the formation of stones. Thus, in the present study, a microbiome characterization of salivary calculi was performed to evaluate the abundance and the potential correlations between microorganisms constituting the salivary calculi microbiota. Our data supported the presence of a core microbiota of sialoliths constituted principally by Streptococcus spp...
October 30, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30385305/human-leukocyte-antigen-associated-gag-and-nef-polymorphisms-in-hiv-1-subtype-a-e-infected-individuals-in-vietnam
#20
Naofumi Takahashi, Saori Matsuoka, Tam Tran Thi Minh, Hien Pham Ba, Taeko K Naruse, Akinori Kimura, Teiichiro Shiino, Ai Kawana-Tachikawa, Koichi Ishikawa, Tetsuro Matano, Lan Anh Nguyen Thi
Numbers of HLA-associated polymorphisms have been reported on HIV-1 subtypes B and C, but few on other subtypes. Here, we analyzed HLA-associated gag and nef polymorphisms in HIV-1 subtype A/E prevalent in Vietnam. We determined HLA-A, B and C genotypes in 179 HIV-1-infected Vietnamese by next generation sequencing and analyzed proviral genome sequences in 144 of them, showing that 142 of the 144 were subtype A/E. Analysis revealed HLA-associated subtype A/E gag and nef polymorphisms at nineteen residues including those newly determined...
October 29, 2018: Microbes and Infection
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