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Evolution & Development

Phillip L Davidson, J Will Thompson, Matthew W Foster, M Arthur Moseley, Maria Byrne, Gregory A Wray
A dramatic life history switch that has evolved numerous times in marine invertebrates is the transition from planktotrophic (feeding) to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding) larval development-an evolutionary tradeoff with many important developmental and ecological consequences. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis for this switch, we performed untargeted lipidomic and proteomic liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on eggs and larvae from three sea urchin species: the lecithotroph Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the closely related planktotroph Heliocidaris tuberculata, and the distantly related planktotroph Lytechinus variegatus...
May 17, 2019: Evolution & Development
Fumihiro Ito, Tomotaka Matsumoto, Tatsumi Hirata
Morphological transformations can be generated by evolutionary changes in the sequence of developmental events. In this study, we examined the evolutionary dynamics of the developmental sequence on a macroevolutionary scale in teleosts. Using the information from previous reports describing the development of 31 species, we extracted the developmental sequences of 19 landmark events involving the formation of phylogenetically conserved body parts; we then inferred ancestral developmental sequences by two different parsimony-based methods-event-pairing and continuous analysis...
April 18, 2019: Evolution & Development
Olivier Hamant, Ramray Bhat, Vidyanand Nanjundiah, Stuart A Newman
Genetic heterogeneity and homogeneity are associated with distinct sets of adaptive advantages and bottlenecks, both in developmental biology and population genetics. Whereas populations of individuals are usually genetically heterogeneous, most multicellular metazoans are genetically homogeneous. Observing that resource scarcity fuels genetic heterogeneity in populations, we propose that monoclonal development is compatible with the resource-rich and stable internal environments that complex multicellular bodies offer...
March 25, 2019: Evolution & Development
Andran Abramjan, Petra Frýdlová, Jitka Jančúchová-Lásková, Petra Suchomelová, Eva Landová, Eduard Yavruyan, Daniel Frynta
Parthenogenetic species are usually considered to be short-lived due to the accumulation of adverse mutations, lack of genetic variability, and inability to adapt to changing environment. If so, one may expect that the phenotype of clonal organisms may reflect such genetic and/or environmental stress. To test this hypothesis, we compared the developmental stability of bisexual and parthenogenetic lizards of the genus Darevskia. We assessed asymmetries in three meristic traits: ventral, preanal, and supratemporal scales...
March 18, 2019: Evolution & Development
Marina Prisco, Luigi Rosati, Marisa Agnese, Serena Aceto, Piero Andreuccetti, Salvatore Valiante
To evaluate the involvement of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/receptors system in the control of testis activity, we have investigated the expression and localization of PACAP and the distribution of its receptors in the testis of mature samples of quail Coturnix coturnix, and we have performed a phylogenetic analysis of PACAP in birds. Using histological, molecular, and bioinformatics tools, we demonstrated that (a) PACAP messenger RNA shows a high sequence identity with that reported in other birds studied so far and in other vertebrates...
February 21, 2019: Evolution & Development
Emma Sherratt, Felicity J Coutts, Arne R Rasmussen, Kate L Sanders
Snakes exhibit a diverse array of body shapes despite their characteristically simplified morphology. The most extreme shape changes along the precloacal axis are seen in fully aquatic sea snakes (Hydrophiinae): "microcephalic" sea snakes have tiny heads and dramatically reduced forebody girths that can be less than a third of the hindbody girth. This morphology has evolved repeatedly in sea snakes that specialize in hunting eels in burrows, but its developmental basis has not previously been examined...
February 21, 2019: Evolution & Development
Armin P Moczek, Jonathan J Henry, Maria Byrne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2019: Evolution & Development
David A Gold, Clive Long Fung Lau, Holly Fuong, Gregory Kao, Volker Hartenstein, David K Jacobs
Stinging cells called cnidocytes are a defining trait of the cnidarians (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and their relatives). In hydrozoan cnidarians such as Hydra, cnidocytes develop from interstitial stem cells set aside in the ectoderm. It is less clear how cnidocytes develop outside the Hydrozoa, as other cnidarians appear to lack interstitial stem cells. We addressed this question by studying cnidogenesis in the moon jellyfish (Aurelia) through the visualization of minicollagen-a protein associated with cnidocyte development-as well as transmission electron microscopy...
March 2019: Evolution & Development
I-Chen Kimberly Chen, Brandon M Satinsky, Gregory J Velicer, Yuen-Tsu Nicco Yu
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) control bacterial gene expression involved in a wide range of important cellular processes. In the highly social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, the sRNA Pxr prevents multicellular fruiting-body development when nutrients are abundant. Pxr was discovered from the evolution of a developmentally defective strain (OC) into a developmentally proficient strain (PX). In OC, Pxr is constitutively expressed and blocks development even during starvation. In PX, one mutation deactivates Pxr allowing development to proceed...
February 14, 2019: Evolution & Development
Sammi Ali, Sarah A Signor, Konstantin Kozlov, Sergey V Nuzhdin
Robustness in development allows for the accumulation of genetically based variation in expression. However, this variation is usually examined in response to large perturbations, and examination of this variation has been limited to being spatial, or quantitative, but because of technical restrictions not both. Here we bridge these gaps by investigating replicated quantitative spatial gene expression using rigorous statistical models, in different genotypes, sexes, and species (Drosophila melanogaster and D...
February 12, 2019: Evolution & Development
Pablo Peréz-Mesa, Harold Suárez-Baron, Barbara A Ambrose, Favio González, Natalia Pabón-Mora
Floral identity MADS-box A, B, C, D, E, and AGL6 class genes are predominantly single copy in Magnoliids, and predate the whole genome duplication (WGD) events in monocots and eudicots. By comparison with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the expression patterns of B-, C-, and D-class genes in stamen, carpel, and ovules are conserved in Aristolochia fimbriata, whereas A-, E-class, and AGL6 genes have different expression patterns. Nevertheless, the interactions of these proteins that act through multimeric complexes remain poorly known in early divergent angiosperms...
February 8, 2019: Evolution & Development
Mark E Olson
Forty years ago, Gould and Lewontin used the metaphor of a building's "spandrels" to highlight that organismal traits could be the inevitable consequence of organismal construction, with no alternative configurations possible. Because adaptation by natural selection requires variation, regarding a trait incapable of variation as an adaptation could be a serious error. Gould and Lewontin's exhortation spurred biologists' efforts to investigate biases and limitations in development in their studies of adaptation, a major methodological advance...
January 8, 2019: Evolution & Development
Junpei Shinji, Hiroki Gotoh, Hiroshi Miyanishi, Mark D Lavine, Laura Corley Lavine
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, comprising over 80% of total animal species, have evolved regenerative abilities, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating this process. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling mediates a diverse set of essential processes in animals and is a good candidate pathway for regulation of regeneration in arthropods. In this study we investigated the role of activin signaling, a TGF-β superfamily pathway, in limb regeneration in the crayfish. We identified and cloned a downstream transcription factor in the activin pathway, Smox, and characterized its function with regard to other elements of the activin signaling pathway...
December 26, 2018: Evolution & Development
Samantha V Beck, Katja Räsänen, Ehsan P Ahi, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason, Zophonías O Jónsson, Camille A Leblanc
Gene expression during development shapes the phenotypes of individuals. Although embryonic gene expression can have lasting effects on developmental trajectories, few studies consider the role of maternal effects, such as egg size, on gene expression. Using qPCR, we characterize relative expression of 14 growth and/or skeletal promoting genes across embryonic development in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We test to what extent their relative expression is correlated with egg size and size at early life-stages within the study population...
November 26, 2018: Evolution & Development
Craig Albertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Eduardo Moreno, Maša Lenuzzi, Christian Rödelsperger, Neel Prabh, Hanh Witte, Waltraud Roeseler, Metta Riebesell, Ralf J Sommer
Cilia are complex organelles involved in sensory perception and motility with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins being essential for cilia assembly and function, but little is known about cilia in an evo-devo context. For example, recent comparisons revealed conservation and divergence of IFT components in the regulation of social feeding behaviors between the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. Here, we focus on the P. pacificus RFX transcription factor daf-19, the master regulator of ciliogenesis in C...
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Logan E March, Rachel M Smaby, Emily V W Setton, Prashant P Sharma
The transcription factors spineless (ss) and tiptop/teashirt (tio/tsh) have been shown to be selectors of distal appendage identity in an insect, but it is unknown how they regulate one another. Here, we examined the regulatory relationships between these two determinants in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus faciatus, using maternal RNA interference (RNAi). We show that Ofas-ss RNAi embryos bear distally transformed antennal buds with heterogeneous Ofas-tio/tsh expression domains comparable to wild type legs. In the reciprocal experiment, Ofas-tio/tsh RNAi embryos bear distally transformed walking limb buds with ectopic expression of Ofas-ss in the distal leg primordia...
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Cynthia Dick, Jeff Arendt, David N Reznick, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Examining the association between trait variation and development is crucial for understanding the evolution of phenotypic differences. Male guppy ornamental caudal fin coloration is one trait that shows a striking degree of variation within and between guppy populations. Males initially have no caudal fin coloration, then gradually develop it as they reach sexual maturity. For males, there is a trade-off between female preference for caudal fin coloration and increased visibility to predators. This trade-off may reach unique endpoints in males from different predation regimes...
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Paul Lukas, Lennart Olsson
The acquisition of a movable jaw and a jaw joint are key events in gnathostome evolution. Jaws are derived from the neural crest derived pharyngeal skeleton and the transition from jawless to jawed vertebrates consists of major morphological changes, which must have a genetic foundation. Recent studies on the effects of bapx1 knockdown in fish and chicken indicate that bapx1 has acquired such a role in primary jaw joint development during vertebrate evolution, but evidence from amphibians is missing so far...
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Takayuki Onai
In bilaterians, animal/vegetal axial (A/V) patterning is a fundamental early developmental event for establishment of animal/vegetal polarity and following specification of the germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm), of which the evolutionary origin is enigmatic. Understanding A/V axial patterning in a basal animal from each phylum would help to reconstruct the ancestral state of germ layer specification in bilaterians and thus, the evolution of mesoderm, the third intermediate cell layer. Herein, data show that the canonical Wnt/β-catenin (cWnt) and Notch signaling pathways control mesoderm specification from the early endomesoderm in the basal chordate amphioxus...
October 4, 2018: Evolution & Development
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