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Neural Plasticity

Charles A Nelson, Charles H Zeanah, Nathan A Fox
Experience plays an essential role in building brain architecture after birth. The question we address in this paper is what happens to brain and behavior when a young child is deprived of key experiences during critical periods of brain development. We focus in particular on the consequences of institutional rearing, with implication for the tens of millions of children around the world who from an early age experience profound psychosocial deprivation. Evidence is clear that deprivation can lead to a host of both short- and long-term consequences, including perturbations in brain structure and function, changes at cellular and molecular levels, and a plethora of psychological and behavioral impairments...
2019: Neural Plasticity
Emanuela Inguaggiato, Nadia Bolognini, Simona Fiori, Giovanni Cioni
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging tool to improve upper limb motor functions after stroke acquired in adulthood; however, there is a paucity of reports on its efficacy for upper limb motor rehabilitation in congenital or early-acquired stroke. In this pilot study we have explored, for the first time, the immediate effects, and their short-term persistence, of a single application of anodal tDCS on chronic upper limb motor disorders in children and young individuals with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (UCP)...
2019: Neural Plasticity
Shuai Wang, Zhen-Zhen Ma, Ye-Chen Lu, Jia-Jia Wu, Xu-Yun Hua, Mou-Xiong Zheng, Jian-Guang Xu
Objective: Neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury remains an increasingly prevalent and intractable disease due to inadequacy of satisfactory treatment strategies. A detailed mapping of cortical regions concerning the brain plasticity was the first step of therapeutic intervention. However, the specific mapping research of brachial plexus pain was limited. We aimed to provide some localization information about the brain plasticity changes after brachial plexus pain in this preliminary study...
2019: Neural Plasticity
Xiaozheng Liu, Yunhai Tu, Yirou Zang, Aiqin Wu, Zhongwei Guo, Jiawei He
Depressive symptoms are common in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who have an increased risk of dementia. It is currently unclear whether the pattern of spontaneous brain activity in patients with MCI differs between subjects with and without depressive symptoms. The current study sought to investigate the features of spontaneous brain activity in MCI patients with depressive symptoms (D-MCI) using coherence regional homogeneity (CReHo) analysis with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI)...
2019: Neural Plasticity
Eliane C Miotto, Alana X Batista, Sharon S Simon, Benjamin M Hampstead
Background: Previous reviews have generally reported cognitive//behavioral improvements after cognitively oriented treatments (COTs) in persons with MCI. However, comparatively little is known about the neural mechanisms associated with such cognitive improvement. Objective: The primary aim of the current review was to examine neurophysiological changes measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and possible cognitive changes following COTs in those with MCI ...
2018: Neural Plasticity
De Giglio Laura, Tommasin Silvia, Petsas Nikolaos, Pantano Patrizia
Neuroplasticity, which is the ability of the brain to adapt to internal and external environmental changes, physiologically occurs during growth and in response to damage. The brain's response to damage is of particular interest in multiple sclerosis, a chronic disease characterized by inflammatory and neurodegenerative damage to the central nervous system. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a tool that allows functional changes related to the disease and to its evolution to be studied in vivo. Several studies have shown that abnormal brain recruitment during the execution of a task starts in the early phases of multiple sclerosis...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Lena Hübner, Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Acute bouts of exercise have been shown to improve fine motor control performance and to facilitate motor memory consolidation processes in young adults. Exercise effects might be reflected in EEG task-related power (TRPow) decreases in the beta band (13-30 Hz) as an indicator of active motor processing. This study aimed to investigate those effects in healthy older adults. Thirty-eight participants (65-74 years of age) were assigned to an experimental (EG, acute exercise) or a control group (CG, rest). Fine motor control was assessed using a precision grip force modulation (FM) task...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Anna Lardone, Marianna Liparoti, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Rosaria Rucco, Francesca Jacini, Arianna Polverino, Roberta Minino, Matteo Pesoli, Fabio Baselice, Antonietta Sorriso, Giampaolo Ferraioli, Giuseppe Sorrentino, Laura Mandolesi
It has been suggested that the practice of meditation is associated to neuroplasticity phenomena, reducing age-related brain degeneration and improving cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the brain connectivity changes in meditators. In the present work, we aim to describe the possible long-term effects of meditation on the brain networks. To this aim, we used magnetoencephalography to study functional resting-state brain networks in Vipassana meditators. We observed topological modifications in the brain network in meditators compared to controls...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Lauran Cole, Sean P Dukelow, Adrianna Giuffre, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Megan J Metzler, Adam Kirton
Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) enhances motor learning in adults. We have demonstrated that anodal tDCS and high-definition (HD) tDCS of the motor cortex can enhance motor skill acquisition in children, but behavioral mechanisms remain unknown. Robotics can objectively quantify complex sensorimotor functions to better understand mechanisms of motor learning. We aimed to characterize changes in sensorimotor function induced by tDCS and HD-tDCS paired motor learning in children within an interventional trial...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Josefine Andin, Peter Fransson, Jerker Rönnberg, Mary Rudner
Congenital deafness is often compensated by early sign language use leading to typical language development with corresponding neural underpinnings. However, deaf individuals are frequently reported to have poorer numerical abilities than hearing individuals and it is not known whether the underlying neuronal networks differ between groups. In the present study, adult deaf signers and hearing nonsigners performed a digit and letter order tasks, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found the neuronal networks recruited in the two tasks to be generally similar across groups, with significant activation in the dorsal visual stream for the letter order task, suggesting letter identification and position encoding...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Manuel Teichert, Jürgen Bolz
On our way through a town, the things we see can make us change the way we go. The things that we hear can make us stop or walk on, or the things we feel can cause us to wear a warm jacket or just a t-shirt. All these behaviors are mediated by highly complex processing mechanisms in our brain and reflect responses to many important sensory inputs. The mammalian cerebral cortex, which processes the sensory information, consists of largely specialized sensory areas mainly receiving information from their corresponding sensory modalities...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Lynne Murray, Laura Bozicevic, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Kyla Vaillancourt, Louise Dalton, Tim Goodacre, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Sarah Bicknell, Peter Cooper, Alan Stein, Leonardo De Pascalis
Parent-infant social interactions start early in development, with infants showing active communicative expressions by just two months. A key question is how this social capacity develops. Maternal mirroring of infant expressions is considered an important, intuitive, parenting response, but evidence is sparse in the first two months concerning the conditions under which mirroring occurs and its developmental sequelae, including in clinical samples where the infant's social expressiveness may be affected. We investigated these questions by comparing the development of mother-infant interactions between a sample where the infant had cleft lip and a normal, unaffected, comparison sample...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Renjie Chai, Geng-Lin Li, Jian Wang, Hai Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neural Plasticity
Amanda Crider, Talisha Davis, Anthony O Ahmed, Lin Mei, Anilkumar Pillai
Impairments in social behavior are highly implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies indicate a role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in altering social behavior, but the underlying mechanism is not known. In the present study, we examined the role of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a calcium-dependent enzyme known to be induced following ER stress, in social behavior in mice. ER stress induced by tunicamycin administration increased TG2 protein levels in the mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Gaétan Ickx, Samar M Hatem, Inmaculada Riquelme, Kathleen M Friel, Camille Henne, Rodrigo Araneda, Andrew M Gordon, Yannick Bleyenheuft
Aim: This observational study aimed at assessing the prevalence of visuospatial attention deficits in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP), taking into consideration the affected hemibody and the localization of the brain lesion. Method: Seventy-five children with USCP were assessed with four visuospatial attention tests: star cancellation, Ogden figure copy, line bisection, and proprioceptive pointing. Results: A majority (64%) of children with USCP presented a deficit in at least one test compared to the reference values...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Tonya L Rich, Samuel Nemanich, Mo Chen, Kathleen Friel, Timothy Feyma, Linda Krach, Tanjila Nawshin, Gregg Meekins, Bernadette T Gillick
Objective: We investigated the preliminary efficacy of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with bimanual training in children and young adults with unilateral cerebral palsy based on the principle of exaggerated interhemispheric inhibition (IHI). Methods: Eight participants with corticospinal tract (CST) connectivity from the lesioned hemisphere participated in an open-label study of 10 sessions of cathodal tDCS to the nonlesioned hemisphere (20 minutes) concurrently with bimanual, goal-directed training (120 minutes)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Aprinda Indahlastari, Aditya K Kasinadhuni, Christopher Saar, Kevin Castellano, Bakir Mousa, Munish Chauhan, Thomas H Mareci, Rosalind J Sadleir
Background: Phosphene generation is an objective physical measure of potential transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) biological side effects. Interpretations from phosphene analysis can serve as a first step in understanding underlying mechanisms of tACS in healthy human subjects and assist validation of computational models. Objective/Hypothesis: This preliminary study introduces and tests methods to analyze predicted phosphene occurrence using computational head models constructed from tACS recipients against verbal testimonies of phosphene sensations...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Enrique Flores-Gutiérrez, Edith Araceli Cabrera-Muñoz, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez
Several interventions have been shown to counteract the effects of stress that may be related to improved neuroplasticity and neuronal activation. In this sense, environmental enrichment (ENR) protects against acute stress and increases neuroplasticity. It has been suggested that the use of patterned auditory stimuli (PAS) may be beneficial in increasing the effectiveness of ENR on disorders related to stress, such as depression and anxiety. Examples of PAS are classical music compositions that have interesting effects at both clinical and preclinical levels...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Yanru Yang, Yuhua Zhang, Renjie Chai, Zhongze Gu
Recent clinical research on neuroengineering is primarily focused on biocompatible materials, which can be used to provide electroactive and topological cues, regulate the microenvironment, and perform other functions. Novel biomaterials for neuroengineering have been received much attention in the field of research, including graphene, photonic crystals, and organ-on-a-chip. Graphene, which has the advantage of high mechanical strength and chemical stability with the unique electrochemical performance for electrical signal detection and transmission, has significant potential as a conductive scaffolding in the field of medicine...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Simona Fiori, Laura Biagi, Paolo Cecchi, Giovanni Cioni, Elena Beani, Michela Tosetti, Mirco Cosottini, Andrea Guzzetta
Reorganization of somatosensory function influences the clinical recovery of subjects with congenital unilateral brain lesions. Ultrahigh-field (UHF) functional MRI (fMRI) with the use of a 7 T magnet has the potential to contribute fundamentally to the current knowledge of such plasticity mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary information on the possible advantages of the study of somatosensory reorganization at UHF fMRI. We enrolled 6 young adults (mean age 25 ± 6 years) with congenital unilateral brain lesions (4 in the left hemisphere and 2 in the right hemisphere; 4 with perilesional motor reorganization and 2 with contralesional motor reorganization) and 7 healthy age-matched controls...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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