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Culture, Health & Sexuality

Kalysha Closson, Abigail Hatcher, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Laura Washington, Smanga Mkhwanazi, Rachel Jewkes, Kristin Dunkle, Andrew Gibbs
Qualitative research suggests that men's inability to achieve dominant forms of masculinity may be related to HIV-risk behaviours and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Using clustered cross-sectional data, we assessed how young men's gender role conflict was associated with HIV-risk behaviours in urban informal settlements in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Gender Role Conflict and Stress (GRC/S) was measured using a South African adaptation of the GRC/S scale comprising three sub-scales: subordination to women; restrictive emotionality; and success, power and competition...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Chris A Barcelos
Transgender individuals experience multiple barriers to accessing care related to medical transition, including a shortage of providers as well as health insurance programmes that categorically exclude the provision of gender-affirming hormones and surgery. Like people seeking financial support for health care related to illness or injury, many transgender people utilise web-based crowdfunding to help pay for medical transition costs. Although a growing body of research finds that medical crowdfunding individualises the effects of health inequalities, little of this research has focused specifically on trans crowdfunding...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Abiodun Idowu Adanikin, Nuala McGrath, Sabu S Padmadas
Contraceptive use in Nigeria has remained low at less than 15% for over two decades. Although husbands' opposition is acknowledged as one of the factors impeding women's contraceptive use, little is known about how wives negotiate when their husbands oppose family planning. We addressed this research gap by conducting thematic analyses of qualitative data from 30 interviews of married couples. We employed thematic analysis to identify relevant themes from the transcribed data. The findings clearly demonstrate attitudes highlighting an imbalance in power relations and contraceptive decision-making within marital relationships...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Alison H Norris, Nisha Rao, Sarah Huber-Krum, Sarah Garver, Elly Chemey, Abigail Norris Turner
Poverty has widespread impacts on health. In dealing with resource scarcity, individuals' thoughts are narrowed to address immediate resource limitations, thus crowding out other information, a phenomenon called the scarcity mindset. To assess for indication of a scarcity mindset in sexual and reproductive decision making in rural Malawi, a setting with extreme resource scarcity, we collected qualitative data in the form of eight focus group discussions and 28 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women and men of varying ages and marital status...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Bent Steenberg
South Africa continues to bear a heavy burden of HIV and a significant proportion of the nation's population consists of immigrants from other severely afflicted African nations. Yet little is known about how migrant populations respond to HIV in shifting cultural and clinical landscapes. Analysing 21 ethnographic life history interviews, this paper explores the social complexities of living with antiretroviral therapy and disclosure of serostatus among HIV-positive Mozambican migrants in Johannesburg. It focuses on (i) conceptualising the 'biosocial ambiance of illness'; (ii) how transformations occur in perceptions of disease; and (iii) how stigma produces an ambit of loneliness and secrecy, which inflects disclosure unevenly in different life-spaces and health-worlds...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
K G Santhya, Shireen J Jejeebhoy, Rajib Acharya, Neelanjana Pandey, Aparajita Gogoi, Madhu Joshi, Santosh Kumar Singh, Komal Saxena, Sandeep Kumar Ojha
Although the importance of working with young men to transform traditional gender norms has been widely acknowledged, programmes for young men remain sparse in highly gender stratified settings such as India, and those that have been implemented have not reached those in rural areas and those out-of-school. Drawing on data from a cluster randomised controlled trial with panel surveys, of a gender-transformative life skills education and sports-coaching programme conducted among young men aged 13-21 who were members of youth clubs, this paper examines the extent to which it transformed the gender role attitudes of young men and instilled in them attitudes rejecting violence against women and girls...
February 7, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Heather Fraser, Clare Bartholomaeus, Damien W Riggs, Nik Taylor, Shoshana Rosenberg
Extensive literature reveals the many health benefits animal companions can bring to the humans who live with them. However, much of this work has taken place with heterosexual and cisgender populations. To address this gap, we conducted qualitative interviews with 19 trans and cisgender women of diverse sexualities in Australia who reported having significant relationships with animal companions. In this article, we explore the benefits of healthcare providers (e.g. doctors, counsellors) recognising the potential significance of interspecies companionship for the health of trans and cisgender women of diverse sexualities...
February 7, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Meagan Zarwell, Yusuf Ransome, Narquis Barak, DeAnn Gruber, William T Robinson
Efforts to reduce HIV among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men include increasing awareness and uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Social capital may facilitate engagement in HIV prevention. Membership of social groups including chosen families (i.e. friends as family relationships) - one potential indicator of social capital - may be protective against HIV risk and infection. In this cross-sectional quantitative study, we examined social capital items and social group membership in association with PrEP outcomes...
February 6, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Richard Eves
This paper draws on qualitative research in Jiwaka Province, in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG), to examine the changing nature of marriage in that context. In particular, it examines how changes in the practice of brideprice have been associated with an increase in intimate partner violence. Violence, a relational process, is to be understood in the context of the customary unequal power relations between men and women. It is argued that men in the highlands of PNG see any gain in power for women as a loss for themselves, and so actively resist it...
January 29, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Pardis Mahdavi
Activism on sexuality and sexual politics in South and West Asia has been increasing in the last two decades, resulting in challenges and opportunities to negotiate sexual subjectivity, intimacy and politics. But some people articulate a desire to disentangle sexual politics from identity politics. Against this background, a two-pronged investigation of the intersections of sexuality and migration was conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with the aim of understanding the role of sexuality in compelling migration...
January 25, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Toloo Riazi
A study of the politics of naming public spaces in Tehran reveals a masculinist discourse lying behind the process. The majority of streets, plazas, universities and even parks have non-feminine names, and a considerable number of streets with feminine names were renamed after the Islamic Revolution. The analytical lens of this study focuses on the ideological stratification the government displays via the intentional naming of public spaces with official responses seemingly trying to determine the appropriate place for women...
January 22, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Miria Chitukuta, Zoe Duby, Ariana Katz, Teopista Nakyanzi, Krishnaveni Reddy, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Tchangani Tembo, Juliane Etima, Petina Musara, Nyaradzo M Mgodi, Ariane van der Straten
Rumours may influence health-related behaviours, including the uptake of and adherence to HIV prevention products. This study assessed the safety and effectiveness of a vaginal ring delivering the antiretroviral dapivirine for HIV prevention in Africa. We explored negative rumours about study participation and the vaginal ring amongst study participants and their communities in Malawi, Uganda, South Africa and Zimbabwe. In total 214 women participated in either single or serial in-depth interviews, or a focus group discussion...
January 18, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Rory Crath, Adam Gaubinger, Cristian Rangel
A school of critical sexual health scholars argues that biomedical and digital technologies need to be understood not as mere objects of use, but as having the agentic capacity to effect new senses of the self and transform social/sexual health relations and outcomes. Such a call to grapple with the multidimensionality of technologies, their affects and effects poses a challenge to current methodological frameworks. To address this challenge, we introduce a novel visual methodology called "embodied mapping" that builds on the arts-based method of body mapping...
January 18, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Sarah Abboud, Yzette Lanier, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Marilyn S Sommers
People interpret virginity in a variety of ways with different implications for sexual identity and behaviour. In Arab societies, heterosexuality and compulsory virginity before marriage are traditionally understood as ideals for a 'good' Arab girl, a 'good' Arab family and, consequently, a 'good' Arab society. In this study, our goal was to gain an in-depth understanding of the enactment of sexual agency and decision-making around virginity from the perspectives of Arab women living in the USA. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study involving interviews with ten women whose accounts could be grouped into three distinct types: 'For me, it's the person you marry that you will be doing these things with'; 'I want to wait until marriage but I know there might be a possibility where I'm not'; and 'I started dating this guy, and I did lose my virginity to him'...
January 16, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Olivier Ferlatte, John L Oliffe, Travis Salway, Rod Knight
Despite the high prevalence of suicide in gay communities, the impact of suicide on surviving male partners is poorly understood. This article presents a qualitative case study of two gay men who lost a partner to suicide and explores how stigma may shape gay men's bereavement experiences. Data were collected using photovoice methods and analysed using a thematic approach. Five themes were inductively derived: (1) trying to prevent the inevitable; (2) guilty of keeping secrets; (3) dreams shattered by suicide; (4) abandoned and alone in grief; and (5) a lonesome road to recovery...
January 15, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Amílcar Magaço, Kathryn Dovel, Fabian Cataldo, Pedroso Nhassengo, Risa Hoffman, Lucas Nerua, José Tique, Mohomed Saide, Aleny Couto, Francisco Mbofana, Eduardo Gudo, Rosa Marlene Cuco, Sérgio Chicumbe
HIV test-and-treat programmes are being implemented throughout sub-Saharan Africa, enrolling HIV-positive clients into antiretroviral treatment (ART) immediately after diagnosis, regardless of clinical stage or CD4 count. This study conducted in Mozambique examined what influenced clients who tested HIV-positive in the context of test-and-treat to make ART initiation decisions. Eighty in-depth interviews with HIV-positive clients and nine focus group discussions with health care workers were completed across 10 health facilities...
January 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Paula Galdino Cardin de Carvalho, Cristiane da Silva Cabral, Laura Ferguson, Sofia Gruskin, Carmen Simone Grilo Diniz
The use of reproductive technologies has expanded beyond cases of infertility, and opportunities for individuals of different sexual orientations to use such technologies for conception have increased. The authors examined the challenges and limitations faced by women in same-sex relationships seeking conception services in São Paulo, Brazil. They interviewed 16 women in same-sex relationships who conceived children using reproductive technologies. Access to public health services for conception remains limited and exclusive to infertile heterosexual couples...
January 11, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Sandra Souto Pereira, Katherine Swainston, Sue Becker
This paper uses a discursive analytical method to explore dominant discourses concerning the sexual health of women who have sex with women. In-depth interviews were conducted with a cross-cultural sample of women from England and Brazil. Sex between women was discursively constructed as 'safe', and women who have sex with women were seen as being at low to negligible risk of contracting/transmitting sexually transmitted infections. Analysis identified two discourses underlying these constructions: a binaries discourse which focused on dichotomies of gender, sexuality and risk; and a sexual double-standard discourse, which focused on the positioning of sex between women as safe and the use of barrier methods of protection as indicative of not engaging in or fully enjoying the sexual act...
January 11, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Samantha Willan, Nolwazi Ntini, Andrew Gibbs, Rachel Jewkes
This paper explores young women's experiences and constructions of love-relationships and intimate partner violence in South Africa, and the role of agency in women's decisions to remain in or leave violent love-relationships. Understanding why young women stay in or leave violent love-relationships is key to developing nuanced understandings of agency and informing intimate partner violence prevention interventions. Data were collected from 15 young women in informal settlements in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa, via in-depth interviews, photovoice and participant observation, and were analysed inductively...
January 11, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Kristefer Stojanovski, Elizabeth J King, Viktorija Bondikjova, Diarra K Brooks, Antonio Mihajlov
There exists limited understanding about the intersectional nature of needs and inequities among sexual and gender minorities in Macedonia and Eastern Europe. We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional and national needs assessment among 71 sexual and gender minority community members using semi-structured focus groups and interviews. Thematic analysis was used to better understand their self-identified needs, their concerns about equity and the intersectional nature of their needs. Community members discussed a wide range of health and healthcare needs as well as the social and structural factors that influence those needs, including: cultural norms; victimisation and safety concerns and the role of law, policy and politics; education and democratisation of knowledge; and economic and housing opportunities...
January 11, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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