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Cells, Tissues, Organs

Maha Abu Gazia, Mohammed Abu El-Magd
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential cardioprotective effect of cardamom (CAR) against myocardial injuries induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rats through investigation of histological alterations and the associated oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. This study included 30 adult male albino rats that were randomized to 3 groups (n = 10/group): group I (control), group II (DOX) rats injected with DOX (2.5 mg/kg body weight [BW] i.p.) every other day for 2 weeks, and group III (CAR+DOX) received CAR extract (200 mg/kg BW) orally for 3 weeks, and 1 week later (starting from the 2nd week) they were injected with DOX (2...
February 4, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Seul Ah Lee, Sung-Min Moon, Seul Hee Han, Jae-Sung Kim, Do Kyung Kim, Chun Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease, characterized by cartilage degradation and inflammation. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of OA by inducing the release of other catabolic factors that contribute to cartilage degradation. Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) has been used as a medicinal plant in many countries and as a source of nutraceuticals to alleviate the symptoms of menopause. Ob-jectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anticatabolic effect of 40% prethanol extract of T...
January 31, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Xue Yin, Silvia Gonzales, Somya Sha, Howard Levene, Chun-Yuh Huang
Compressive loading promotes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and release by intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. Extracellular ATP can be rapidly hydrolyzed by ectonucleotidases. Adenosine, one of the adenine derivatives of ATP hydrolysis, can modulate diverse cellular actions via adenosine receptors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of exogenous adenosine on the production of extracellular matrix (ECM; i.e., collagen type II and aggrecan) and ATP of IVD cells and explore the underlying mechanism of action...
January 31, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Ryan J Gilbert, Guojun Sheng, Christoph Viebahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Matthew Carson, Julia K Keppler, Gilles Brackman, Daniel Dawood, Marta Vandrovcova, Karim Fawzy El-Sayed, Tom Coenye, Karin Schwarz, Susan A Clarke, Andre G Skirtach, Timothy E L Douglas
Polyphenols are known for their antimicrobial activity, whilst both polyphenols and the globular protein β-lactoglobulin (bLG) are suggested to have antioxidant properties and promote cell proliferation. These are potentially useful properties for a tissue-engineered construct, though it is unknown if they are retained when both compounds are used in combination. In this study, a range of different microbes and an osteoblast-like cell line (human fetal osteoblast, hFOB) were used to assess the combined effect of: (1) green tea extract (GTE), rich in the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and (2) whey protein isolate (WPI), rich in bLG...
January 24, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Mark A Hill
Human embryology is a core subject for medicine and current research. While animal models of development now have significant online resources available, the vast majority of human embryonic material is locked up in historic collections. When accessed today, these collections are still contributing to our understanding of human development. This paper describes two online resources for studying human development that are unlocking these invaluable collections and providing related human developmental resources...
January 23, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Olivia Schatz, Iris Zalaudek, Nassim Ghaffari Tabrizi-Wizsy, Christoph Grechenig, Petra Grinninger, Anton Haas, Johannes Haybaeck, Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof, Herbert Juch, Stefanie Krassnig, Erika Richtig, Andreas Lackner, Katharina Schwab, Andreas Wedrich, Martin Weger, Christoph Schwab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Christian Klopsch, Ralf Gaebel, Heiko Lemcke, Martin Beyer, Praveen Vasudevan, Hsin-Yu Fang, Michael Quante, Brigitte Vollmar, Anna Skorska, Robert David, Gustav Steinhoff
In-depth knowledge of the mechanisms induced by early postischemic cardiac endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the acutely ischemic heart could advance our understanding of cardiac regeneration. Herein, we aimed to identify, isolate, and initially characterize the origin, kinetics and fate of cardiac MSCs. This was facilitated by in vivo genetic cell fate mapping through green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression under the control of vimentin induction after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Following permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in CreER+ mTom/mGFP+ mice, vimentin/GFP+ cells revealed ischemia-responsive activation, survival, and local enrichment inside the peri-infarction border zone...
January 10, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Qingxi Liu, Sijie Xing, Yupeng Liu, Zijiang Zhang, Lihui Lv, Zhanfeng Cui, Zhaohui Li, Wenjian Ma, Tongcun Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Due to the ability to mimic in vivo cellular microenvironments, the development of multicell culture systems has received increasing interest for use as research models and serving as platforms for drug evaluation. METHODS: In this study, we developed a perfused microfluidic system to resemble the in vivo intercellular environment and applied it to study the differentiation from neural stem cells into neurons. RESULTS: As determined by immunofluorescence chemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, the neural stem cells grown in this microfluidic system showed an elevated differentiation rate toward the formation of neurons as determined by the increased level of βIII-tubulin production, which is 4 times higher than that of culturing neural stem cells only...
December 21, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Peter Baillie-Johnson, Octavian Voiculescu, Penny Hayward, Benjamin Steventon
Neuromesodermal progenitors (NMps) are a population of bipotent progenitors that maintain competence to generate both spinal cord and paraxial mesoderm throughout the elongation of the posterior body axis. Recent studies have generated populations of NMp-like cells in culture, which have been shown to differentiate to both neural and mesodermal cell fates when transplanted into either mouse or chick embryos. Here, we aim to compare the potential of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived progenitor populations to generate NMp behaviour against both undifferentiated and differentiated populations...
December 5, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Jonathan M Zuidema, Ryan J Gilbert, Manoj K Gottipati
Over several decades, biomaterial scientists have developed materials to spur axonal regeneration and limit secondary injury and tested these materials within preclinical animal models. Rarely, though, are astrocytes examined comprehensively when biomaterials are placed into the injury site. Astrocytes support neuronal function in the central nervous system. Following an injury, astrocytes undergo reactive gliosis and create a glial scar. The astrocytic glial scar forms a dense barrier which restricts the extension of regenerating axons through the injury site...
December 5, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Alexander Rulle, Nikoloz Tsikolia, Bernadette de Bakker, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr, Christoph Viebahn
Existence and biomedical relevance of the neurenteric canal, a transient midline structure during early neurulation in the human embryo, have been controversially discussed for more than a century by embryologists and clinicians alike. In this study, the authors address the long-standing enigma by high-resolution histology and three-dimensional reconstruction using new and historic histological sections of 5 human 17- to 21-day-old embryos and of 2 marmoset monkey embryos of the species Callithrix jacchus at corresponding stages...
November 27, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Palaniappan Sethu, Thomas A Haglund, Aaron J Rogers, Herbert Chen, John Porterfield, Courtney J Balentine
We developed a novel model for studying hyperparathyroidism by growing ex vivo 3-dimensional human parathyroids as part of a microphysiological system (MPS) that mimics human physiology. The purpose of this study was to validate the parathyroid portion of the MPS. We prospectively collected parathyroid tissue from 46 patients with hyperparathyroidism for growth into pseudoglands. We evaluated pseudogland architecture and calcium responsiveness. Following 2 weeks in culture, dispersed cells successfully coalesced into pseudoglands ∼500-700 µm in diameter that mimicked the appearance of normal parathyroid glands...
November 22, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Bonnie J Berry, Alec S T Smith, Jessica E Young, David L Mack
One of the most profound advances in the last decade of biomedical research has been the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models for identification of disease mechanisms and drug discovery. Human iPSC technology has the capacity to revolutionize healthcare and the realization of personalized medicine, but differentiated tissues derived from stem cells come with major criticisms compared to native tissue, including variability in genetic backgrounds, a lack of functional maturity, and differences in epigenetic profiles...
October 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Dingyuan I Sun, Alexia Tasca, Maximilian Haas, Grober Baltazar, Richard M Harland, Walter E Finkbeiner, Peter Walentek
Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) represent a highly conserved family of ion transporters that regulate pH homeostasis. NHEs as well as other proton transporters were previously linked to the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway, cell polarity signaling, and mucociliary function. Furthermore, mutations in the gene SLC9A3 (encoding NHE3) were detected as additional risk factors for airway infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Here, we used the Xenopus embryonic mucociliary epidermis as well as human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) as models to investigate the functional roles of NHEs in mucociliary development and regeneration...
October 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Xin Hong, Cong Zhang, Feng Wang, Xiao-Tao Wu
Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, which is closely associated with the loss of vacuolated notochordal nucleus pulposus cells (NNPC), remains a major cause of lower-back pain and motor deficiency. Being the most defining characteristic of NNPC, large cytoplasmic vacuoles not only modulate the cytoskeleton and shape cell morphology but they also respond to the disc microenvironment and regulate the biological behavior of vacuolated cells as a potent reporter of the histocytological changes that occur at the beginning of disc aging and degeneration...
October 3, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Shahrzad Fathollahipour, Pritam S Patil, Nic D Leipzig
Oxygen is a vital source of energy necessary to sustain and complete embryonic development. Not only is oxygen the driving force for many cellular functions and metabolism, but it is also involved in regulating stem cell fate, morphogenesis, and organogenesis. Low oxygen levels are the naturally preferred microenvironment for most processes during early development and mainly drive proliferation. Later on, more oxygen and also nutrients are needed for organogenesis and morphogenesis. Therefore, it is critical to maintain oxygen levels within a narrow range as required during development...
October 1, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Hans-Werner Denker, Arthur W English
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Daohong Zhao, Yanlin Li, Xizong Zhou, Zhongde Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mobilization of peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) and whether a combination of PBMSCs and modified demineralized bone matrix (DBM) promoted the repair of cartilage lesions in a pig model. METHODS: Pig PBMSCs were mobilized by the combined administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Colony formation was detected by the fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-F) count and the percentage of the CD45-CD90+ cell population by flow cytometry...
September 26, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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