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Reports on Progress in Physics

Nguyen Quang Hung, Nguyen Dinh Dang, Luciano G Moretto
The present review summarizes the recent studies on the thermodynamic properties of pairing in many-body systems including superconductors, metallic nanosized clusters and/or grains, solid-state materials, focusing on the excited nuclei, that is nuclei at finite temperature and/or angular momentum formed via heavy-ion fusion, $\alpha$-induced fusion reactions, or inelastic scattering of light particles on heavy targets. Because of the finiteness of the systems, several interesting effects of pairing such as nonvanishing pairing gap, smoothing of superfluid-normal phase transition, first and second order phase transitions, pairing reentrance, etc...
February 8, 2019: Reports on Progress in Physics
D F Geesaman, Paul E Reimer
The quark and gluon structure of the proton has been under intense experimental and theoretical investigation
 for five decades. Even for the distributions of the well-studied valence quarks, challenges such as the value of
 the down quark to up quark ratio at high fractional momenta remain. Much of the sea of quark-antiquark pairs
 emerges from the splitting of gluons and is well described by perturbative evolution in quantum chromodynamics.
 However, experiments confirm that there is a non-perturbative component to the sea that is not well understood and
 hitherto has been difficult to calculate with ab initio non-perturbative methods...
February 8, 2019: Reports on Progress in Physics
Christoph A Weber, David Zwicker, Frank Jülicher, Chiu Fan Lee
Phase separating systems that are maintained away from thermodynamic equilibrium 
 via molecular processes represent a class of active systems, which we call \textit{ active emulsions}.
 These systems are driven by external energy input for example provided by an external fuel reservoir. 
 The external energy input gives rise to novel phenomena that are not present in passive systems.
 For instance, concentration gradients can spatially organise emulsions and cause novel droplet size distributions...
February 7, 2019: Reports on Progress in Physics
Robert S Gurney, David G Lidzey, Tao Wang
The rise in power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices over the last few years has been driven by the emergence of new organic semiconductors and the growing understanding of morphological control at both the molecular and aggregation scales. Non-fullerene OPVs adopting p-type conjugated polymers as the donor and n-type small molecules as the acceptor have exhibited steady progress, outperforming PCBM-based solar cells and reaching efficiencies of over 14 % in 2018. This review starts with a refreshed discussion of charge separation, recombination, and VOC loss in non-fullerene OPVs, followed by a review of work undertaken to develop favorable molecular configurations required for high device performance...
February 7, 2019: Reports on Progress in Physics
Mark R Hirsbrunner, Timothy M Philip, Bora Basa, Youngseok Kim, Moon Jip Park, Matthew J Gilbert
As experimental probes have matured to observe ultrafast transient and high frequency responses of materials and devices, so to have the theoretical methods to numerically and analytically simulate time- and frequency-resolved transport. In this review article, we discuss recent progress in the development of the time-dependent and frequency-dependent non-equilibrium Green function (NEGF) technique. We begin with an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the underlying Kadanoff-Baym equations and derive the fundamental NEGF equations in the time and frequency domains...
January 14, 2019: Reports on Progress in Physics
Kunli Xiong, Daniel Tordera, Magnus P Jonsson, Andreas B Dahlin
In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of plasmonic nanostructures for color generation, a technology that dates back to ancient times. Plasmonic structural colors have several attractive features but once the structures are prepared the colors are normally fixed. Lately, several concepts have emerged for actively tuning the colors, which opens up for many new potential applications, the most obvious being novel color displays. In this review we summarize recent progress in active control of plasmonic colors and evaluate them with respect to performance criteria for color displays...
January 14, 2019: Reports on Progress in Physics
Alan Mak, Georgii Shamuilov, Peter Salen, David Dunning, J Hebling, Yuichiro Kida, Ryota Kinjo, Brian McNeil, Takashi Tanaka, Neil Thompson, Zoltán Tibai, Gyorgy Toth, Vitaliy Goryashko
Research at modern light sources continues to improve our knowledge of the natural world, from the subtle workings of life to matter under extreme conditions. Free-electron lasers, for instance, have enabled the characterization of biomolecular structures with sub-ångström spatial resolution, and paved the way to controlling the molecular functions. On the other hand, attosecond temporal resolution is necessary to broaden our scope of the ultrafast world. Here we discuss attosecond pulse generation beyond present capabilities...
December 20, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Gary Beane, Tuphan Devkota, Brendan S Brown, Gregory V Hartland
The ability to study single particles has revolutionized nanoscience. The advantage of single particle spectroscopy measurements compared to conventional ensemble studies is that they remove averaging effects from the different sizes and shapes that are present in the samples. In time-resolved experiments this is important for unraveling homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening effects in lifetime measurements. In this report, recent progress in the development of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopic techniques for interrogating single nanostructures will be discussed...
November 28, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Nelson Christensen
A stochastic background of gravitational waves could be created by the superposition of a large number of independent sources. The physical processes occurring at the earliest moments of the universe certainly created a stochastic background that exists, at some level, today. This is analogous to the cosmic microwave background, which is an electromagnetic record of the early universe. The recent observations of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors imply that there is also a stochastic background that has been created by binary black hole and binary neutron star mergers over the history of the universe...
November 21, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Andrzej Burian, John C Dore, Karolina Jurkiewicz
Carbon can have many different forms and the characterisation of structural features on a length scale of 1 Å to 10 μm is important in defining its physical and chemical properties for the various forms. The use of either electro-magnetic (x-ray) or particle (neutron) beams plays an important role in determining these characteristics. In this paper, we review the various techniques that are used to determine the structural features by experimental means and how the data are processed to give the required information in a suitable form for detailed analysis by computer simulation...
November 21, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Thomas Ullrich, Raju Venugopalan, Salvatore Fazio, Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, Heikki Mantysaari, Maria Pia Zurita, Bjoern Schenke, J H Lee, Brian Page
We provide an assessment of the energy dependence of key measurements within the scope of the
 machine parameters for a U.S. based Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) outlined in the EIC White Paper.
 We rst examine the importance of the physics underlying these measurements in the context of the
 outstanding questions in nuclear science. We then demonstrate, through detailed simulations of the
 measurements, that the likelihood of transformational scientic insights is greatly enhanced by making
 the energy range and reach of the EIC as large as practically feasible...
November 19, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Fulvio Flamini, Nicolò Spagnolo, Fabio Sciarrino
Photonic quantum technologies represent a promising platform for several applications, ranging from long-distance communications to the simulation of complex phenomena. Indeed, the advantages offered by single photons do make them the candidate of choice for carrying quantum information in a broad variety of areas with a versatile approach. Furthermore, recent technological advances are now enabling first concrete applications of photonic quantum information processing. The goal of this manuscript is to provide the reader with a comprehensive review of the state of the art in this active field, with a due balance between theoretical, experimental and technological results...
November 13, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Dominik Floess, Harald Giessen
The Faraday effect describes the phenomenon that a magnetized material can alter the polarization state of transmitted light. Interestingly, unlike most light-matter interactions in nature, it breaks Lorentz reciprocity. This exceptional behavior is utilized for applications such as optical isolators, which are core elements in communication and laser systems. While there is high demand for sub-micron nonreciprocal photonic devices, the realization of such systems is extremely challenging as conventional magneto-optic materials only provide weak magneto-optic response within small volumes...
November 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Stephan Rachel
The discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators more than a decade ago has revolutionized modern condensed matter physics. Today, the field of topological states of matter is one of the most active and fruitful research areas for both experimentalists and theorists. The physics of topological insulators is typically well described by band theory and systems of non-interacting fermions. In contrast, several of the most fascinating effects in condensed matter physics merely exist due to electron-electron interactions, examples include unconventional superconductivity, the Kondo effect, and the Mott-Hubbard transition...
November 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Rongyan Chen, Nan Lin Wang
The presence of magnetic ions was believed to be detrimental to superconductivity in early stage. However, unconventional superconductivity was widely induced by doping or applying external pressure in magnetic systems such as heavy fermion, cuprate and iron-based superconductors, in which magnetic fluctuations are suggested to serve as the pairing glue for Cooper pairs.
 The discoveries of superconductivity in the magnetic compounds CrAs and MnP under high pressures have further enriched this family and provided new platforms to investigate the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity...
October 31, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Xin Qian, Jen-Chieh Peng
N/A at Outline stage.
October 15, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Rosalind J Allen, Bartlomiej Waclaw
Bacterial growth presents many beautiful phenomena that pose new theoretical challenges to statistical physicists, and are also amenable to laboratory experimentation. This review provides some of the essential biological background, discusses recent applications of statistical physics in this field, and highlights the potential for future research.
October 1, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Leor Barack, Adam Pound
The detection of gravitational waves from binary black-hole mergers by the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration marks the dawn of an era when general-relativistic dynamics in its most extreme manifestation is directly accessible to observation. In the future, planned (space-based) observatories operating in the millihertz band will detect the intricate gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of compact objects into massive black holes residing in galactic centers. Such inspiral events are extremely effective probes of black-hole geometries, offering unparalleled precision tests of general relativity in its most extreme regime...
October 1, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Karl-Heinz Schmidt, Beatriz Jurado
An overview is given on some of the main advances in the experimental methods, experimental results, theoretical models and ideas of the last few years in the field of nuclear fission. New approaches have considerably extended the availability of fissioning systems for the experimental study of nuclear fission, and have provided a full identification of all fission products in A and Z for the first time. In particular, the transition from symmetric to asymmetric fission around 226 Th, some unexpected structures in the mass distributions in the fission of systems around Z  =  80-84, and an extended systematics of the odd-even effect in the fission fragment Z distributions have all been measured (Andreyev et al 2018 Rep...
October 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Daniele Faccio, Andreas Velten
Cameras capable of capturing videos at a trillion frames per second allow to freeze light in motion, a very counterintuitive capability when related to our everyday experience in which light appears to travel instantaneously. By combining this capability with computational imaging techniques, new imaging opportunities emerge such as 3D imaging of scenes that are hidden behind a corner, the study of relativistic distortion effects, imaging through diffusive media and imaging of ultrafast optical processes such as laser ablation, supercontinuum and plasma generation...
October 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
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