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IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics

E Doukakis, K Debattista, T Bashford-Rogers, A Dhokia, A Asadipour, A Chalmers, C Harvey
Virtual Environments (VEs) provide the opportunity to simulate a wide range of applications, from training to entertainment, in a safe and controlled manner. For applications which require realistic representations of real world environments, the VEs need to provide multiple, physically accurate sensory stimuli. However, simulating all the senses that comprise the human sensory system (HSS) is a task that requires significant computational resources. Since it is intractable to deliver all senses at the highest quality, we propose a resource distribution scheme in order to achieve an optimal perceptual experience within the given computational budgets...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Auston Sterling, Nicholas Rewkowski, Roberta L Klatzky, Ming C Lin
Modal sound synthesis has been used to create realistic sounds from rigid-body objects, but requires accurate real-world material parameters. These material parameters can be estimated from recorded sounds of an impacted object, but external factors can interfere with accurate parameter estimation. We present a novel technique for estimating the damping parameters of materials from recorded impact sounds that probabilistically models these external factors. We represent the combined effects of material damping, support damping, and sampling inaccuracies with a probabilistic generative model, then use maximum likelihood estimation to fit a damping model to recorded data...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yusuke Ujitoko, Yuki Ban, Koichi Hirota
Playing back vibrotactile signals through actuators is commonly used to simulate tactile feelings of virtual textured surfaces. However, there is often a small mismatch between the simulated tactile feelings and intended tactile feelings by tactile designers. Thus, a method of modulating the vibrotactile perception is required. We focus on fine roughness perception and we propose a method using a pseudo-haptic effect to modulate fine roughness perception of vibrotactile texture. Specifically, we visually modify the pointer's position on the screen slightly, which indicates the touch position on textured surfaces...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Sahil Narang, Andrew Best, Dinesh Manocha
We present a real-time algorithm to infer the intention of a user's avatar in a virtual environment shared with multiple human-like agents. Our algorithm applies the Bayesian Theory of Mind approach to make inferences about the avatar's hidden intentions based on the observed proxemics and gaze-based cues. Our approach accounts for the potential irrationality in human behavior, as well as the dynamic nature of an individual's intentions. The inferred intent is used to guide the response of the virtual agent and generate locomotion and gaze-based behaviors...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
J Adam Jones, Jonathan E Hopper, Mark T Bolas, David M Krum
Spatial perception in virtual environments has been a topic of intense research. Arguably, the majority of this work has focused on distance perception. However, orientation perception is also an important factor. In this paper, we systematically investigate allocentric orientation judgments in both real and virtual contexts over the course of four experiments. A pattern of sinusoidal judgment errors known to exist in 2D perspective displays is found to persist in immersive virtual environments. This pattern also manifests itself in a real world setting using two differing judgment methods...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Lili Wang, Jian Wu, Xuefeng Yang, Voicu Popescu
Virtual Reality (VR) applications allow a user to explore a scene intuitively through a tracked head-mounted display (HMD). However, in complex scenes, occlusions make scene exploration inefficient, as the user has to navigate around occluders to gain line of sight to potential regions of interest. When a scene region proves to be of no interest, the user has to retrace their path, and such a sequential scene exploration implies significant amounts of wasted navigation. Furthermore, as the virtual world is typically much larger than the tracked physical space hosting the VR application, the intuitive one-to-one mapping between the virtual and real space has to be temporarily suspended for the user to teleport or redirect in order to conform to the physical space constraints...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Chakravarty R Alla Chaitanya, John M Snyder, Keith Godin, Derek Nowrouzezahrai, Nikunj Raghuvanshi
Precomputed sound propagation samples acoustics at discrete scene probe positions to support dynamic listener locations. An offline 3D numerical simulation is performed at each probe and the resulting field is encoded for runtime rendering with dynamic sources. Prior work place probes on a uniform grid, requiring high density to resolve narrow spaces. Our adaptive sampling approach varies probe density based on a novel "local diameter" measure of the space surrounding a given point, evaluated by stochastically tracing paths in the scene...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Seyedkoosha Mirhosseini, Ievgeniia Gutenko, Sushant Ojal, Joseph Marino, Arie Kaufman
Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a non-invasive screening tool for colorectal polyps which employs volume visualization of a colon model reconstructed from a CT scan of the patient's abdomen. We present an immersive analytics system for VC which enhances and improves the traditional desktop VC through the use of VR technologies. Our system, using a head-mounted display (HMD), includes all of the standard VC features, such as the volume rendered endoluminal fly-through, measurement tool, bookmark modes, electronic biopsy, and slice views...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Qian Zhou, Georg Hagemann, Dylan Fafard, Ian Stavness, Sidney Fels
Fish Tank Virtual Reality (FTVR) displays create a compelling 3D spatial effect by rendering to the perspective of the viewer with head-tracking. Combining FTVR with a spherical display enhances the 3D experience with unique properties of the spherical screen such as the enclosing shape, consistent curved surface, and borderless views from all angles around the display. The ability to generate a strong 3D effect on a spherical display with head-tracked rendering is promising for increasing user's performance in 3D tasks...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Jacob Young, Tobias Langlotz, Matthew Cook, Steven Mills, Holger Regenbrecht
The mobility and ubiquity of mobile head-mounted displays make them a promising platform for telepresence research asthey allow for spontaneous and remote use cases not possible with stationary hardware. In this work we present a system that providesimmersive telepresence and remote collaboration on mobile and wearable devices by building a live spherical panoramic representationof a user's environment that can be viewed in real time by a remote user who can independently choose the viewing direction. Theremote user can then interact with this environment as if they were actually there through intuitive gesture-based interaction...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Wenge Xu, Hai-Ning Liang, Yuxuan Zhao, Tianyu Zhang, D Yu, Diego Monteiro
In this paper, we present a case for text entry using a circular keyboard layout for mobile head-mounted displays (HMDs) that is dwell-free and does not require users to hold a dedicated input device for letter selection. To support the case, we have implemented RingText whose design is based on a circular layout with two concentric circles. The outer circle is subdivided into regions containing letters. Selection is made by using a virtual cursor controlled by the user's head movements-entering a letter region triggers a selection and moving back into the inner circle resets the selection...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Wei Liang, Jingjing Liu, Yining Lang, Bing Ning, Lap-Fai Yu
The functionality of a workspace is one of the most important considerations in both virtual world design and interior design. To offer appropriate functionality to the user, designers usually take some general rules into account, e.g., general workflow and average stature of users, which are summarized from the population statistics. Yet, such general rules cannot reflect the personal preferences of a single individual, which vary from person to person. In this paper, we intend to optimize a functional workspace according to the personal preferences of the specific individual who will use it...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Jian Chen, Guohao Zhang, Wesley Chiou, David H Laidlaw, Alexander P Auchus
We report empirical study results on the color encoding of ensemble scalar and orientation to visualize diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) tubes. The experiment tested six scalar colormaps for average fractional anisotropy (FA) tasks (grayscale, blackbody, diverging, isoluminant-rainbow, extended-blackbody, and coolwarm) and four three-dimensional (3D) spherical colormaps for tract tracing tasks (uniform gray, absolute, eigenmaps, and Boy's surface embedding). We found that extended-blackbody, coolwarm, and blackbody remain the best three approaches for identifying ensemble average in 3D...
February 8, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Valentin Bruder, Christoph Muller, Steffen Frey, Thomas Ertl
As our field matures, evaluation of visualization techniques has extended from reporting runtime performance to studying user behavior. Consequently, many methodologies and best practices for user studies have evolved. While maintaining interactivity continues to be crucial for the exploration of large data sets, no similar methodological foundation for evaluating runtime performance has been developed. Our analysis of 50 recent visualization papers on new or improved techniques for rendering volumes or particles indicates that only a very limited set of parameters like different data sets, camera paths, viewport sizes, and GPUs are investigated, which make comparison with other techniques or generalization to other parameter ranges at least questionable...
February 8, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Zipeng Liu, Shing Hei Zhan, Tamara Munzner
We address the visual comparison of multiple phylogenetic trees that arises in evolutionary biology, specifically between one reference tree and a collection of dozens to hundreds of other trees. We abstract the domain questions of phylogenetic tree comparison as tasks to look for supporting or conflicting evidence for hypotheses that requires inspection of both topological structure and attribute values at different levels of detail in the tree collection. We introduce the new visual encoding idiom of aggregated dendrograms to concisely summarize the topological relationships between interactively chosen focal subtrees according to biologically meaningful criteria, and provide a layout algorithm that automatically adapts to the available screen space...
February 7, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Salman Mahmood, Klaus Mueller
Organizing multivariate data spaces by their dimensions or attributes can be a rather difficult task. Most of the work in this area focuses on the statistical aspects such as correlation clustering, dimension reduction, and the like. These methods typically produce hierarchies in which the leaf nodes are labeled by the attribute names while the inner nodes are often represented by just a statistical measure and criterion, such as a threshold. This makes them difficult to understand for mainstream users. Taxonomies in science, biology, engineering, etc...
February 4, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Shih-Hsuan Hung, Chih-Yuan Yao, Yu-Jen Fang, Ping Tan, Ruen-Rone Lee, Alla Sheffer, Hung-Kuo Chu
This paper presents an algorithm to generate micrography QR codes, a novel machine-readable graphic created by embedding a QR code within a micrography. The unique structure of micrography makes it incompatible with existing methods used to combine QR codes with natural or halftone images. We exploited the high-frequency nature of micrography in the design of a deformation model that enables the warping of individual letters and adjustment of font weights to embed a QR code within a micrography. The entire process is supervised by visual quality metrics tailored for micrography, in conjunction with a QR code quality measure aimed at striking a balance between visual fidelity and decoding robustness...
February 1, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Zongji Wang, Feng Lu
Volumetric representation has been widely used for 3D deep learning in shape analysis due to its generalization ability and regular data format. However, for fine-grained tasks like part segmentation, volumetric data has not been widely adopted compared to other representations. Aiming at delivering an effective volumetric method for 3D shape part segmentation, this paper proposes a novel volumetric convolutional neural network. Our method can extract discriminative features encoding detailed information from voxelized 3D data under limited resolution...
January 30, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yijun Shen, Longzhi Yang, Edmond S L Ho, Hubert P H Shum
Traditional methods for motion comparison consider features from individual characters. However, the semantic meaning of many human activities is usually defined by the interaction between them, such as a high-five interaction of two characters. There is little success in adapting interaction-based features in activity comparison, as they either do not have a fixed topology or are in high dimensional. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for activity comparison from the interaction point of view. Our new metric evaluates the similarity of interaction by adapting the Earth Mover's Distance onto a customized geometric mesh structure that represents spatial-temporal interactions...
January 25, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Xu Zhu, Miguel A Nacenta, Ozgur Akgun, Peter Nightingale
Problems such as timetabling or personnel allocation can be modeled and solved using discrete constraint programming languages. However, while existing constraint solving software solves such problems quickly in many cases, these systems involve specialized languages that require significant time and effort to learn and apply. These languages are typically text-based and often difficult to interpret and understand quickly, especially for people without engineering or mathematics backgrounds. Visualization could provide an alternative way to model and understand such problems...
January 24, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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