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Environmental Engineering Science

Hang Deng, Catherine A Peters
Underground fractures serve as flow conduits, and they may produce unwanted migration of water and other fluids in the subsurface. An example is the migration and leakage of greenhouse gases in the context of geologic carbon sequestration. This study has generated new understanding about how acids erode carbonate fracture surfaces and the positive feedback between reaction and flow. A two-dimensional reactive transport model was developed and used to investigate the extent to which geochemical factors influence fracture permeability and transmissivity evolution in carbonate rocks...
January 1, 2019: Environmental Engineering Science
(no author information available yet)
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1089/ees.2006.23.253.].
December 1, 2018: Environmental Engineering Science
Miguel Ángel López Zavala, Camila Renee Jaber Lara
Paracetamol and its toxic transformation products have been found in surface water, wastewater, and drinking water. Effective methods to degrade these products must be found to reduce their detrimental effects on microorganisms in aquatic systems and minimize the concern on human health. Thus, this study looked into the electrochemical oxidation of paracetamol and its oxidation products on surface water, and results were compared with those of paracetamol synthetic solution oxidation. Degradation of paracetamol was conducted using a stainless steel electrode cell, a pH of 3, and direct current densities of 5...
November 1, 2018: Environmental Engineering Science
Grace E Schwartz, James C Hower, Allison L Phillips, Nelson Rivera, Avner Vengosh, Heileen Hsu-Kim
The chemical composition of coal ash is highly heterogeneous and dependent on the origin of the source coal, combustion parameters, and type and configuration of air pollution control devices. This heterogeneity results in uncertainty in the evaluation of leaching potential of contaminants from coal ash. The goal of this work was to identify whether a single leaching protocol could roughly group high-leaching potential coal ash from low-leaching potential coal ash, with respect to arsenic (As) and selenium (Se)...
July 1, 2018: Environmental Engineering Science
Donald Lucas, Sara M Petty, Olya Keen, Bob Luedeka, Martin Schlummer, Roland Weber, Ramin Yazdani, Brian Riise, James Rhodes, Dave Nightingale, Miriam L Diamond, John Vijgen, Avery Lindeman, Arlene Blum, Catherine P Koshland
This is Part II of a review covering the wide range of issues associated with all aspects of the use and responsible disposal of foam and plastic wastes containing toxic or potentially toxic flame retardants. We identify basic and applied research needs in the areas of responsible collection, pretreatment, processing, and management of these wastes. In Part II, we explore alternative technologies for the management of halogenated flame retardant (HFR) containing wastes, including chemical, mechanical, and thermal processes for recycling, treatment, and disposal...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Engineering Science
Donald Lucas, Sara M Petty, Olya Keen, Bob Luedeka, Martin Schlummer, Roland Weber, Morton Barlaz, Ramin Yazdani, Brian Riise, James Rhodes, Dave Nightingale, Miriam L Diamond, John Vijgen, Avery Lindeman, Arlene Blum, Catherine P Koshland
Flame retardants (FRs) are added to foams and plastics to comply with flammability standards and test requirements in products for household and industrial uses. When these regulations were implemented, potential health and environmental impacts of FR use were not fully recognized or understood. Extensive research in the past decades reveal that exposure to halogenated FRs, such as those used widely in furniture foam, is associated with and/or causally related to numerous health effects in animals and humans...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Engineering Science
S Drew Story
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Environmental Engineering Science
Yang-Guo Zhao, Yi Zhang, Zonglian She, Yue Shi, Min Wang, Mengchun Gao, Liang Guo
Performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was monitored during the influent nutrient change from lactate to glucose/acetate/propionate and then to lactate. Meanwhile, anodic microbial communities were characterized by culture-independent molecular biotechnologies. Results showed MFC performance recovered rapidly when the lactate was replaced by one of its metabolic intermediates acetate, while it needed a longer time to recover if lactate substrate was converted to glucose/propionate or acetate to lactate...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Engineering Science
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1089/ees.2016.0223.].
August 1, 2017: Environmental Engineering Science
Marc A Edwards, Siddhartha Roy
Over the last 50 years, we argue that incentives for academic scientists have become increasingly perverse in terms of competition for research funding, development of quantitative metrics to measure performance, and a changing business model for higher education itself. Furthermore, decreased discretionary funding at the federal and state level is creating a hypercompetitive environment between government agencies (e.g., EPA, NIH, CDC), for scientists in these agencies, and for academics seeking funding from all sources-the combination of perverse incentives and decreased funding increases pressures that can lead to unethical behavior...
January 1, 2017: Environmental Engineering Science
Aaron A Forbis-Stokes, Patrick F O'Meara, Wangare Mugo, Gelas M Simiyu, Marc A Deshusses
The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65-75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Andres F Clarens, Catherine A Peters
Environmental engineers have played a critical role in improving human and ecosystem health over the past several decades. These contributions have focused on providing clean water and air as well as managing waste streams and remediating polluted sites. As environmental problems have become more global in scale and more deeply entrenched in sociotechnical systems, the discipline of environmental engineering must grow to be ready to respond to the challenges of the coming decades. Here we make the case that environmental engineers should play a leadership role in the development of climate change mitigation technologies at the carbon-water nexus (CWN)...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Alden C Adrion, David R Singleton, Jun Nakamura, Damian Shea, Michael D Aitken
Efficacy of bioremediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be limited by the fractions of soil-bound PAHs that are less accessible to PAH-degrading microorganisms. In previous test-tube-scale work, submicellar doses of nonionic surfactants were screened for their ability to enhance the desorption and biodegradation of residual PAHs in soil after conventional bioremediation in a laboratory-scale, slurry-phase bioreactor. Polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH) was the optimum surfactant for enhancing PAH removal, especially the high-molecular weight PAHs...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Samar Mazloum, Mohammed Mousa Al-Ansari, Keith Taylor, Jatinder K Bewtra, Niharendu Biswas
Soybean peroxidase has been shown to be effective in removal of aromatic compounds from wastewater, while the use of additives effectively reduces enzyme concentration requirement, hence overall treatment cost. Enzymatic treatment, an oxidative polymerization, was successful in removal of over 95% of both aniline and o-anisidine. The originality of this study lies in the findings that the additives, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), Triton X-100, and sodium dodecanoate (SDOD), reduced enzyme concentration requirement, while polyethylene glycol (PEG, average molar mass of 3350 g/mol) had no effect on the required enzyme concentration...
February 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Justin St Clair, Clement Cartier, Simoni Triantafyllidou, Brandi Clark, Marc Edwards
In this 48-month pilot study, long-term impacts of copper:lead galvanic connections on lead release to water were assessed without confounding differences in pipe exposure prehistory or disturbances arising from cutting lead pipe. Lead release was tracked from three lead service line configurations, including (1) 100% lead, (2) traditional partial replacement with 50% copper upstream of 50% lead, and (3) 50% lead upstream of 50% copper as a function of flow rate, connection types, and sampling methodologies...
January 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Siwei Sun, Monroe Weber-Shirk, Leonard W Lion
A nonintrusive digital imaging process was developed to study particle size distributions created through flocculation and sedimentation. Quantification of particle size distributions under different operating conditions can be of use in the understanding of aggregation mechanisms. This process was calibrated by measuring standardized polystyrene particles of known size and was utilized to count and measure individual kaolin clay particles as well as aggregates formed by coagulation with polyaluminum chloride and flocculation...
January 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Alexis Wells Carpenter, Stephanie N Laughton, Mark R Wiesner
Addition of nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) to anaerobic batch reactors to enhance methanogenic activity is described. Two NZVI systems were tested: a commercially available NZVI (cNZVI) slurry and a freshly synthesized NZVI (sNZVI) suspension that was prepared immediately before addition to the reactors. In both systems, the addition of NZVI increased pH and decreased oxidation/reduction potential compared with unamended control reactors. Biodegradation of a model brewery wastewater was enhanced as indicated by an increase in chemical oxygen demand removal with both sNZVI and cNZVI amendments at all concentrations tested (1...
August 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Jonathan L Ticknor, Katarzyna H Kucharzyk, Kaitlyn A Porter, Marc A Deshusses, Heileen Hsu-Kim
Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in the aquatic food web is governed in part by the methylation of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) by anaerobic microorganisms. In sulfidic settings, a small fraction of total Hg(II) is typically bioavailable to methylating microorganisms. Quantification of this fraction is difficult due to uncertainties in the speciation of Hg(II) and the mechanisms of uptake by methylating microbes. However, recent studies have shown that the bioavailable fraction is likely to include a portion of Hg(II) associated with solid phases, that is, nanostructured mercuric sulfides...
July 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Sandra Rafael, Luis Tarelho, Alexandra Monteiro, Tânia Monteiro, Catarina Gonçalves, Sylvio Freitas, Myriam Lopes
During the past decades, pressures on global environment and energy security have led to an increasing demand on renewable energy sources and diversification of the world's energy supply. The Portuguese energy strategy considers the use of Forest Biomass Residues (FBR) to energy as being essential to accomplish the goals established in the National Energy Strategy for 2020. However, despite the advantages pointing to FBR to the energy supply chain, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts on air quality...
June 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Qun Chen, Shujuan Wang, Yan Li, Ning Zhang, Bo Zhao, Yuqun Zhuo, Changhe Chen
Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline-alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers...
June 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
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