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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786092/recent-drought-and-tree-mortality-effects-on-the-avian-community-in-southern-sierra-nevada-a-glimpse-of-the-future
#1
L Jay Roberts, Ryan Burnett, James Tietz, Sam Veloz
Birds respond rapidly to changes in both habitat and climate conditions and thus are good indicators of the ecological effects of a changing climate, which may include warmer temperatures, changing habitat conditions, and increased frequency and magnitude of extreme events like drought. We investigated how a widespread tree mortality event concurrent with a severe drought influenced the avian community of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California. We assessed and compared the separate effects of climate stresses and altered habitat conditions on the avian community and used this information to evaluate the changes that are likely to occur in the near future...
February 20, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779867/intensive-silviculture-enhances-biomass-accumulation-and-tree-diversity-recovery-in-tropical-forest-restoration
#2
Pedro H S Brancalion, Otávio Campoe, João Carlos Teixeira Mendes, Camilla Noel, Gabriela G Moreira, Juliano van Melis, José Luiz Stape, Joannès Guillemot
Maximizing initial aboveground woody biomass (AGB) accumulation in order to obtain early payments for carbon stocking is essential for the financial viability of reforestation programs fostered by climate mitigation efforts. Intensive silviculture, i.e., silviculture traditionally used in commercial forestry to maximize productivity and gains, has recently been advocated as a promising approach to enhance AGB accumulation in restoration plantations. However, this approach may hamper natural forest regeneration and ecological succession due to high competition between colonizing plants and planted trees...
February 19, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779460/trade-offs-in-the-provisioning-and-stability-of-ecosystem-services-in-agroecosystems
#3
Daniel Montoya, Bart Haegeman, Sabrina Gaba, Claire de Mazancourt, Vincent Bretagnolle, Michel Loreau
Changes in land use generate trade-offs in the delivery of ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. However, we know little about how the stability of ecosystem services responds to landscape composition, and what ecological mechanisms underlie these trade-offs. Here, we develop a model to investigate the dynamics of three ecosystem services in intensively managed agroecosystems, i.e., pollination-independent crop yield, crop pollination, and biodiversity. Our model reveals trade-offs and synergies imposed by landscape composition that affect not only the magnitude but also the stability of ecosystem service delivery...
February 19, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761672/estimating-effects-of-arable-land-use-intensity-on-farmland-birds-using-joint-species-modeling
#4
Martin Stjernman, Ullrika Sahlin, Ola Olsson, Henrik G Smith
Declines in European farmland birds over past decades have been attributed to the combined effects of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Consequently, aspirations to stop declines should focus attention to reversing these changes through voluntary or policy driven interventions. The design of such interventions should ideally be informed by scientific knowledge of which aspects of the transformation of agricultural landscapes have contributed to the farmland bird declines. Declines may be associated with loss of natural habitats or the intensification and homogenization of land-use management on production land, and furthermore, these changes may interact...
February 14, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761647/half-a-century-of-multiple-anthropogenic-stressors-has-altered-northern-forest-understory-plant-communities
#5
Per-Ola Hedwall, Lena Gustafsson, Jörg Brunet, Matts Lindbladh, Anna-Lena Axelsson, Joachim Strengbom
Boreal forests form the largest and least disturbed forest biome in the northern hemisphere. However, anthropogenic pressure from intensified forest management, eutrophication and climate change may alter the ecosystem functions of understory vegetation and services boreal forests provide. Swedish forests span long gradients of climate, nitrogen deposition, and management intensity. This makes them ideal to study how the species composition and functions of other, more pristine, boreal forests might change under increased anthropogenic pressure...
February 14, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758109/gambling-with-extinction-comments-on-chauvenet-et-al-2010
#6
Paul L Fackler
The question of how a fixed budget to address a conservation problem should be allocated among alternative activities was addressed in Chauvenet, Baxter, McDonald-Madden & Possingham (2010) (henceforth CBMP). The specific context for their inquiry was the allocation of a budget for conservation of an endangered species that currently is present on a set of isolated patches. The patches differ in terms of their habitat quality and the effectiveness of management actions to prevent local extinction. A case study focused on the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) which is threatened by loss of habitat, poaching, prey depletion and conflict with livestock owners...
February 13, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756457/calibrating-an-individual-based-movement-model-to-predict-functional-connectivity-for-little-owls
#7
Severin Hauenstein, Julien Fattebert, Martin Grüebler, Beat Naef-Daenzer, Guy Pe'er, Florian Hartig
Dispersal is crucial for population viability and thus a popular target for conservation measures. However, the ability of individuals to move between habitat patches is notoriously difficult to estimate. One solution is to quantify functional connectivity via realistic individual-based movement models. Such simulation models, however, are difficult to build and even more difficult to parameterize. Here, we use the example of natal little owl (Athene noctua) dispersal to develop a new analysis chain for the calibration of individual-based dispersal models using a hybrid of statistical parameter estimation and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC)...
February 12, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739365/color-chlorophyll-a-and-suspended-solids-effects-on-secchi-depth-in-lakes-implications-for-trophic-state-assessment
#8
Patrick L Brezonik, R William Bouchard, Jacques C Finlay, Claire G Griffin, Leif G Olmanson, Jesse P Anderson, William A Arnold, Raymond Hozalski
Two other optically related water quality variables also directly affect SD: non-algal suspended solids (SSNA ) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, expressed as the absorption coefficient at 440 nm, a440 ). Using a database of ~ 1460 samples from ~ 625 inland lake basins in Minnesota and two other Upper Midwest states, Wisconsin and Michigan, we analyzed relationships among these variables, with special focus on CDOM levels that influence SD values and the Minnesota SD standards used to assess eutrophication impairment of lakes...
February 10, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737867/effects-of-forestry-driven-changes-to-groundcover-and-soil-moisture-on-amphibian-desiccation-dispersal-and-survival
#9
Christopher J E Haggerty, Thomas L Crisman, Jason R Rohr
Over 80% of amphibian species that are declining are forest dependent. Forestry practices are a major cause of forest alterations globally, and it is well documented that clearcutting can contribute to amphibian declines. However, there might be adverse effects of forestry practices other than clearcutting. For example, planting overstory trees in rows (plantations) can change groundcover microhabitats and soil moisture levels, but the effects of this common practice on amphibian populations are not well studied...
February 8, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710404/ectomycorrhizas-and-tree-seedling-establishment-are-strongly-influenced-by-forest-edge-proximity-but-not-soil-inoculum
#10
Sara Grove, Norah P Saarman, Gregory S Gilbert, Brant Faircloth, Karen A Haubensak, Ingrid M Parker
Reforestation is challenging when timber harvested areas have been degraded, invaded by non-native species, or are of marginal suitability to begin with. Conifers form mutualistic partnerships with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) to obtain greater access to soil resources, and these partnerships may be especially important in degraded areas. However, timber harvest can impact mycorrhizal fungi by removing or compacting topsoil, removing host plants, and warming and drying the soil. We used a field experiment to evaluate the role of EMF in Douglas-fir reforestation in clearcuts invaded by Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) where traditional reforestation approaches have repeatedly failed...
February 2, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706573/patterns-of-rangeland-productivity-and-land-ownership-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#11
Nathaniel P Robinson, Brady W Allred, David E Naugle, Matthew O Jones
Rangelands cover 40-50% of the earth's terrestrial surface. While often characterized by limited, yet variable resource availability, rangelands are vital for humans, providing numerous ecosystem goods and services. In the conterminous United States (CONUS) the dominant component of rangeland conservation is a network of public rangelands, concentrated in the west. Public rangelands are interspersed with private and tribal rangelands resulting in a complex mosaic of land tenure and management priorities. We quantify ownership patterns of rangeland production at multiple scales across CONUS and find that both total production and average productivity of private rangelands is more than twice that of public and tribal rangelands...
January 31, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706569/a-new-baseline-for-countrywide-%C3%AE-diversity-and-species-distributions-illustration-using-6000-plant-species-in-panama
#12
Brian Leung, Emma J Hudgins, Anna Potapova, Maria C Ruiz-Jaen
Estimating α-diversity and species distributions provide baseline information to understand factors such as biodiversity loss and erosion of ecosystem services. Yet, species surveys typically cover a small portion of any country's landmass. Public, global databases could help, but contain biases. Thus, the magnitude of bias should be identified and ameliorated, the value of integration determined, and application to current policy issues illustrated. The ideal integrative approach should be powerful, flexible, efficient, and conceptually straightforward...
January 31, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703273/past-tree-influence-and-prescribed-fire-exert-strong-controls-on-reassembly-of-mountain-grasslands-after-tree-removal
#13
Charles B Halpern, Joseph A Antos, Shan Kothari, Annette M Olson
Woody-plant encroachment represents a global threat to grasslands. Although the causes and consequences of this regime shift have received substantial attention, the processes that constrain reassembly of the grassland state remain poorly understood. We experimentally tested two potentially important controls on reassembly-the past influence of trees and the effects of fire-in conifer-invaded grasslands (mountain meadows) of western Oregon. Previously, we had reconstructed the history of tree invasion at fine spatial and temporal resolution...
January 31, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694574/multispecies-hierarchical-modeling-reveals-variable-responses-of-african-carnivores-to-management-alternatives
#14
Matthew T Farr, David S Green, Kay E Holekamp, Gary J Roloff, Elise F Zipkin
Carnivore communities face unprecedented threats from humans. Yet, management regimes have variable effects on carnivores, where species may persist or decline in response to direct or indirect changes to the ecosystem. Using a hierarchical multispecies modeling approach, we examined the effects of alternative management regimes (i.e., active vs. passive enforcement of regulations) on carnivore abundances and group sizes at both species and community levels in the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. Alternative management regimes have created a dichotomy in ecosystem conditions within the Reserve, where active enforcement of regulations maintains low levels of human disturbance in the Mara Triangle and passive enforcement of regulations in the Talek region permits multiple forms of human disturbance...
January 29, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681219/-meta-population-dynamics-determine-effective-spatial-distributions-of-mosquito-borne-disease-control
#15
Samantha R Schwab, Chris M Stone, Dina M Fonseca, Nina H Fefferman
Recent epidemics of mosquito-borne dengue and Zika viruses demonstrate the urgent need for effective measures to control these diseases. The best method currently available to prevent or reduce the size of outbreaks is to reduce the abundance of their mosquito vectors, but there is little consensus on which mechanisms of control are most effective, or when and where they should be implemented. Although the optimal methods are likely context-dependent, broadly applicable strategies for mosquito control, such as how to distribute limited resources across a landscape in times of high epidemic risk, can mitigate (re)-emerging outbreaks...
January 25, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680832/drought-mediated-extinction-of-an-arid-land-amphibian-insights-from-a-spatially-explicit-dynamic-occupancy-model
#16
Erin R Zylstra, Don E Swann, Blake R Hossack, Erin Muths, Robert J Steidl
Understanding how natural and anthropogenic processes affect population dynamics of species with patchy distributions is critical to predicting their responses to environmental changes. Despite considerable evidence that demographic rates and dispersal patterns vary temporally in response to an array of biotic and abiotic processes, few applications of metapopulation theory have sought to explore factors that explain spatio-temporal variation in extinction or colonization rates. To facilitate exploring these factors, we extended a spatially explicit model of metapopulation dynamics to create a framework that requires only binary presence-absence data, makes few assumptions about the dispersal process, and accounts for imperfect detection...
January 25, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680826/soil-microbial-restoration-strategies-for-promoting-climate-ready-prairie-ecosystems
#17
Kathryn M Docherty, Jessica L M Gutknecht
Tractable practices for soil microbial restoration in tallgrass prairies reclaimed from agriculture are a critical gap in traditional ecological restoration. Long-term fertilization and tilling permanently alter soil bacterial and fungal communities, requiring microbe-targeted restoration methods to improve belowground ecosystem services and carbon storage in newly restored prairies. These techniques are particularly important when restoring for climate-ready ecosystems, adapted to altered temperature regimes...
January 25, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680837/the-role-of-ecotype-environment-interactions-in-intraspecific-trophic-niche-partitioning-subsequent-to-stocking
#18
O Morissette, P Sirois, C C Wilson, M Laporte, L Bernatchez
Worldwide, stocking of fish represent a valuable tool for conservation and maintenance of species exploited by recreational fishing. Releases of hatchery-reared fish are more and more recognized to have numerous demographic, ecological and genetic impacts on wild populations. However, consequences on intraspecific trophic relationships have rarely been investigated. In this study, we assessed the impacts of supplementation stocking and resulting introgressive hybridization on the trophic niches occupied by stocked, local and hybrid Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) within populations of piscivorous and planktivorous ecotypes stocked from a wild piscivorous source population...
January 24, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30672632/ringed-seal-demography-in-a-changing-climate
#19
Jody R Reimer, Hal Caswell, Andrew E Derocher, Mark A Lewis
Climate change is affecting species' distributions and abundances worldwide. Baseline population estimates, against which future observations may be compared, are necessary if we are to detect ecological change. Arctic sea ice ecosystems are changing rapidly and we lack baseline population estimates for many ice-associated species. Provided we can detect them, changes in Arctic marine ecosystems may be signaled by changes in indicator species such as ringed seals (Pusa hispida). Ringed seal monitoring has provided estimates of survival and fertility rates, but these have not been used for population level inference...
January 23, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30664297/dynamic-wildlife-occupancy-models-using-automated-acoustic-monitoring-data
#20
Cathleen Balantic, Therese Donovan
Automated acoustic monitoring of wildlife has been used to characterize populations of sound-producing species across large spatial scales. However, false negatives and false positives produced by automated detection systems can compromise the utility of these data for researchers and land managers, particularly for research programs endeavoring to describe colonization and extinction dynamics that inform land use decision-making. To investigate the suitability of automated acoustic monitoring for dynamic occurrence models, we simulated underlying occurrence dynamics, calling patterns, and the automated acoustic detection process for a hypothetical species under a range of scenarios...
January 21, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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