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Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

Juan Sanchez-Weatherby, James Sandy, Halina Mikolajek, Carina M C Lobley, Marco Mazzorana, Jon Kelly, Geoff Preece, Rich Littlewood, Thomas L M Sørensen
VMXi is a new high-flux microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline at Diamond Light Source. The beamline, dedicated to fully automated and fully remote data collection of macromolecular crystals in situ, allows rapid screening of hundreds of crystallization plates from multiple user groups. Its main purpose is to give fast feedback at the complex stages of crystallization and crystal optimization, but it also enables data collection of small and delicate samples that are particularly difficult to harvest using conventional cryo-methods, crystals grown in the lipidic cubic phase, and allows for multi-crystal data collections in drug discovery programs...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
H Popescu, J Perron, B Pilette, R Vacheresse, V Pinty, R Gaudemer, M Sacchi, R Delaunay, F Fortuna, K Medjoubi, K Desjardins, J Luning, N Jaouen
A new instrument named COMET for COherent Magnetic scattering Experiments in Transmission using polarized soft X-rays has been designed and built. This high-vacuum setup is placed at the intermediate focal point of the elastic branch of the SEXTANTS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL. The main application is in solid state physics, the instrument being optimized for studying material properties using coherent scattering of soft X-rays with an emphasis on imaging, with chemical selectivity, the magnetic domains of artificially nano-structured materials...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
A Girard, T Nguyen-Thanh, S M Souliou, M Stekiel, W Morgenroth, L Paolasini, A Minelli, D Gambetti, B Winkler, A Bosak
A new diffractometer is now available to the general user community at the ESRF. The new diffractometer is a side station of the high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer on beamline ID28 and is located in the same experimental hutch. Both instruments can be operated simultaneously. The new diffractometer combines a fast and low-noise hybrid pixel detector with a variable diffraction geometry. The beam spot on the sample is 50 µm × 50 µm, where focusing is achieved by a combination of Be lenses and a KB mirror...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
J M Ablett, D Prieur, D Céolin, B Lassalle-Kaiser, B Lebert, M Sauvage, Th Moreno, S Bac, V Balédent, A Ovono, M Morand, F Gélebart, A Shukla, J P Rueff
GALAXIES is an in-vacuum undulator hard X-ray micro-focused beamline dedicated to the study of the electronic structure of materials with high energy resolution using both photoelectron spectroscopy and inelastic X-ray scattering and under both non-resonant (NR-IXS) and resonant (RIXS) conditions. Due to the penetrating power of hard X-rays and the `photon-in/photon-out' technique, the sample environment is not a limitation. Materials under extreme conditions, for example in diamond anvil cells or catalysis chambers, thus constitute a major research direction...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Igor P Dolbnya, Kawal J S Sawhney, Stewart M Scott, Andy J Dent, Giannantonio Cibin, Geoff M Preece, Ulrik K Pedersen, Jon Kelly, Paul Murray
Systematic studies of the performance of a water-cooled X-ray monochromator, designed and built for the B16 Test beamline at the Diamond Light Source, UK, are presented. A technical description of the monochromator is given and the results of commissioning measurements are discussed. Overall, the monochromator satisfies the original specifications well and meets all the major requirements of the versatile beamline. Following its successful implementation on B16, the basic monochromator design has been reproduced and adapted on other Diamond Light Source beamlines, including B18 and B21...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Shibom Basu, Jakub W Kaminski, Ezequiel Panepucci, Chia Ying Huang, Rangana Warshamanage, Meitian Wang, Justyna Aleksandra Wojdyla
At the Swiss Light Source macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines the collection of serial synchrotron crystallography (SSX) diffraction data is facilitated by the recent DA+ data acquisition and analysis software developments. The SSX suite allows easy, efficient and high-throughput measurements on a large number of crystals. The fast continuous diffraction-based two-dimensional grid scan method allows initial location of microcrystals. The CY+ GUI utility enables efficient assessment of a grid scan's analysis output and subsequent collection of multiple wedges of data (so-called minisets) from automatically selected positions in a serial and automated way...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Marco Voltolini, Harold Barnard, Patrice Creux, Jonathan Ajo-Franklin
A new experimental triaxial cell for in situ synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography aimed at imaging small samples of (6 mm × 19 mm) at high temperatures (up to 400°C) and pressures (up to 24 MPa confining) is presented. The system has flow-through capabilities, independent axial and radial pressure control, and has been developed and tested at the 8.3.2. beamline at the Advanced Light Source. The characteristics of this new experimental rig are described, along with the challenges, mainly concerning the combination of X-ray transparency with vessel strength at high temperature, and solutions found during the development stage...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Xianchao Cheng, Lin Zhang
Hard X-rays with energies higher than several kiloelectronvolts can be focused to spot sizes below 10 nm with the present synchrotron beamlines, offering unique advantages for the chemical, elemental and structure analysis of matter. Nevertheless, a surface precision on the nanometre scale for the focusing optics is required and remains the main hurdle limiting X-ray analytical techniques with single-nanometre spatial resolution. On the other hand, to preserve the wavefront properties of coherent X-ray beams, precise control of the reflective mirror surface quality at the nanometre scale is demanded for X-ray free-electron laser applications...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Wenyang Zhao, Kenji Sakurai
For many years, X-ray movies have been considered a promising tool for exploring and providing insights into chemical reactions. A simultaneous multi-element X-ray movie can further clarify the behavior difference of various elements and help investigate their interactions. The present short communication illustrates how to conduct multi-element X-ray movie imaging in a synchrotron facility solely by placing a micro-pinhole in front of a visible-light complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera. It has been found that the CMOS camera can resolve X-ray fluorescence spectra when it is specially operated...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Luxi Li, Yingying Xie, Evan Maxey, Ross Harder
Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging has become valuable for visualization of the structural, morphological and strain evolution of crystals in operando electrode materials. As the electrode material particles (either in a single-crystal form or an aggregation form of single crystals) are evenly dispersed and randomly oriented in the electrode laminate, the submicrometer-sized coherentX-ray beam can be used to probe the local properties of electrode material crystals using two approaches. Coherent multi-crystal diffraction provides collective structural information of phase transitions in tens of crystals simultaneously as well as the individual behavior from single crystals, which are oriented at the Bragg condition in the X-ray illumination volume...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Zhili Wang, Kun Ren, Xiaomin Shi, Yuqi Ren, Kun Gao, Zhao Wu
A single-image method is proposed for quantitative phase retrieval in hard X-ray grating interferometry. This novel method assumes a quasi-homogeneous sample, with a constant ratio between the real and imaginary parts of its complex refractive index. The method is first theoretically derived and presented, and then validated by synchrotron radiation experiments. Compared with the phase-stepping method, the presented approach abandons grating scanning and multiple image acquisition, and is therefore advantageous in terms of its simplified acquisition procedure and reduced data-collection times, which are especially important for applications such as in vivo imaging and phase tomography...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Alan Kastengren
Indirect detection of X-rays using single-crystal scintillators is a common approach for high-resolution X-ray imaging. With the high X-ray flux available from synchrotron sources and recent advances in high-speed visible-light cameras, these measurements are increasingly used to obtain time-resolved images of dynamic phenomena. The X-ray flux on the scintillator must, in many cases, be limited to avoid thermal damage and failure of the scintillator, which in turn limits the obtainable light levels from the scintillator...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Emanuel Larsson, Doğa Gürsoy, Francesco De Carlo, Erica Lilleodden, Malte Storm, Fabian Wilde, Kaixiong Hu, Martin Müller, Imke Greving
Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) is a well established technique, available at various synchrotron beamlines around the world as well as by laboratory benchtop devices. One of the major TXM challenges, due to its nanometre-scale resolution, is the overall instrument stability during the acquisition of the series of tomographic projections. The ability to correct for vertical and horizontal distortions of each projection image during acquisition is necessary in order to achieve the effective 3D spatial resolution...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Michael Foerster, Nahuel Statuto, Blai Casals, Alberto Hernández-Mínguez, Simone Finizio, Ania Mandziak, Lucia Aballe, Joan Manel Hernàndez Ferràs, Ferran Macià
The quantification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in LiNbO3 piezoelectric crystals by stroboscopic X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM), with a temporal smearing below 80 ps and a spatial resolution below 100 nm, is reported. The contrast mechanism is the varying piezoelectric surface potential associated with the SAW phase. Thus, kinetic energy spectra of photoemitted secondary electrons measure directly the SAW electrical amplitude and allow for the quantification of the associated strain...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Martin Donnelley, Kaye S Morgan, Regine Gradl, Mitzi Klein, Daniel Hausermann, Chris Hall, Anton Maksimenko, David W Parsons
The Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) was designed to be the world's widest synchrotron X-ray beam, partly to enable clinical imaging and therapeutic applications for humans, as well as for imaging large-animal models. Our group is currently interested in imaging the airways of newly developed cystic fibrosis (CF) animal models that display human-like lung disease, such as the CF pig. One key outcome measure for assessing the effectiveness of CF airway therapies is the ability of the lung to clear inhaled particulates by mucociliary transit (MCT)...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
G Bortel, G Faigel, M Tegze, B Angelov
Atomic resolution X-ray holography can be realized by using the atoms of the sample as inside sources or inside detectors. However, until now there were only very few experiments in which the atoms played the role of inside sources. The reason is twofold: (i) technically, inside-detector experiments are much easier and faster; (ii) by using atoms as inside detectors one can measure holograms at many energies on the same sample, which helps the reconstruction. This paper shows that, using new technical developments, inside-source holograms can be taken much faster than inside-detector holograms and, by applying a sophisticated evaluation method, high-quality reconstruction from a single-energy hologram can also be obtained...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
K Zhukovsky, A Kalitenko
The harmonic power and bunching evolution in X-ray single-pass free-electron lasers (FELs) is modelled and the harmonic generation in a phase-shifted two-frequency FEL is explored. The advanced phenomenological FEL model, which is validated numerically and experimentally, is employed. The model accounts for major losses for each harmonic individually; it is compared with reported experimental data and with PERSEO numerical simulations, which are performed here for a variety of experiments. The latter cover the radiation wavelength range 0...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Ondřej Šipr, Wilayat Khan, Yves Joly, Ján Minár
Ca and S K-edge spectra of CaS are calculated by the full-potential Green's function multiple-scattering method, by the FLAPW method and by the finite-difference method. All three techniques lead to similar spectra. Some differences remain close to the edge, both when comparing different calculations with each other and when comparing the calculations with earlier experimental data. Here it is found that using the full potential does not lead to significant improvement over the atomic spheres approximation and that the effect of the core hole can be limited to the photoabsorbing atom alone...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Klaudia Wojtaszek, Anna Wach, Joanna Czapla-Masztafiak, Krzysztof Tyrala, Jacinto Sá, Lütfiye Yıldız Özer, Corrado Garlisi, Giovanni Palmisano, Jakub Szlachetko
X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provide a unique opportunity to probe both the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied states in matter with bulk sensitivity. In this work, a combination of valence-to-core XES and pre-edge XAS techniques are used to determine changes induced in the electronic structure of titanium dioxide doped with nitrogen atoms. Based on the experimental data it is shown that N-doping leads to incorporation of the p-states on the occupied electronic site...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Chandrani Nayak, Preeti Jain, C P Vinod, S N Jha, D Bhattacharyya
This article describes the setting up of a facility on the energy-scanning EXAFS beamline (BL-09) at RRCAT, Indore, India, for operando studies of structure-activity correlation during a catalytic reaction. The setup was tested by operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies performed on a Co-based catalyst during the Fischer-Tropsch reaction to obtain information regarding structural changes in the catalyst during the reaction. Simultaneous gas chromatography (GC) measurements during the reaction facilitate monitoring of the product gases, which in turn gives information regarding the activity of the catalyst...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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