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Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30828703/collection-of-soot-particles-into-aqueous-suspension-using-a-particle-into-liquid-sampler
#1
Anna Wonaschuetz, Theresa Haller, Eva Sommer, Lorenz Witek, Hinrich Grothe, Regina Hitzenberger
Steam collection devices collecting aerosol particles into liquid samples are frequently used to analyze water-soluble particulate material. The fate of water-insoluble components is often neglected. In this work, we show that fresh soot particles can be suspended into pure water using a steam collection device, the particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS, Weber et al. 2001). The overall collection efficiency of freshly generated soot particles was found to be on the order of 20%. This shows that, depending on the analytic technique employed, the presence of insoluble, and/or hydrophobic particles in liquid samples from steam collection cannot be neglected...
2019: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718938/generation-of-high-concentrations-of-respirable-solid-phase-aerosols-from-viscous-fluids
#2
Xin Heng, Donovan B Yeates
High outputs of respirable solid-phase aerosols were generated from viscous solutions or suspensions of low and high molecular weight polyvinylprrolidone (PVP) solutions, 10% (w/v) albumin and, gamma-globulin solutions as well as 10.3% (w/v) surfactant suspensions. A central fluid flow was aerosolized by coaxial converging compressed air. The water was evaporated from the droplets using warm dilution air and infrared radiation. The resulting aerosol particles were concentrated using a virtual impactor. The aerosols were generated at fluid flow rates between 1 and 3 ml/min and delivered at a flow rate of 44 l/min as 2...
2018: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686853/dihydroxyacetone-levels-in-electronic-cigarettes-wick-temperature-and-toxin-formation
#3
Shawna Vreeke, Tetiana Korzun, Wentai Luo, R Paul Jensen, David H Peyton, Robert M Strongin
Recently, we reported the presence of dihydroxyacetone (DHA), the active ingredient in sunless tanners, in the aerosol of an electronic cigarette. DHA has been shown to react with DNA in vitro . The FDA restricts the use of DHA to external application only. It states that it should not be inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with any areas containing mucous membranes, due to unknown risk. Herein, the quantification of DHA in the aerosols of three brands of e-cigarettes has been carried out. These included two devices with horizontal heating coil configurations as well as one with a sub-ohm resistance vertical heating coil...
2018: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30381781/computational-analysis-of-deposition-and-translocation-of-inhaled-nicotine-and-acrolein-in-the-human-body-with-e-cigarette-puffing-topographies
#4
Ahmadreza Haghnegahdar, Yu Feng, Xiaole Chen, Jiang Lin
Recently, toxicants such as formaldehyde and acrolein were detected in electronic cigarette (EC) aerosols. It is imperative to conduct research and provide sufficient quantitative evidence to address the associated potential health risks. However, it is still a lack of informative data, i.e., high-resolution local dosimetry of inhaled aerosols in lung airways and other systemic regions, due to the limited imaging resolutions, restricted operational flexibilities, and invasive nature of experimental and clinical studies...
2018: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30233107/fate-of-pyrazines-in-the-flavored-liquids-of-e-cigarettes
#5
Rachel El-Hage, Ahmad El-Hellani, Rola Salman, Soha Talih, Alan Shihadeh, Najat Aoun Saliba
Popularity of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) has increased tremendously among young people, in part due to flavoring additives in ECIG liquids. Pyrazines are an important class of these additives, and their presence in tobacco cigarettes has been correlated with increased acceptability of smoking among smokers and bystanders. Pyrazine use by the tobacco industry is therefore thought to encourage smoking. However, the extent of transfer of pyrazines present in the liquid to aerosols upon vaping remains unclear...
2018: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29681677/size-selective-sampling-performance-of-six-low-volume-total-suspended-particulate-tsp-inlets
#6
Robert W Vanderpool, Jonathan D Krug, Surender Kaushik, Jerome Gilberry, Andrew Dart, Carlton L Witherspoon
Several low-volume inlets (flow rates ≤16.7 liters per minute (Lpm)) are commercially available as components of low-cost, portable ambient particulate matter samplers. Because the inlets themselves do not contain internal fractionators, they are often assumed to representatively sample "total" mass concentrations from the ambient air, independent of aerodynamic particle size and wind speed. To date, none of these so-called "TSP" inlets have been rigorously tested under controlled conditions...
2018: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28824221/production-of-neutral-molecular-clusters-by-controlled-neutralization-of-mobility-standards
#7
G Steiner, A Franchin, J Kangasluoma, V-M Kerminen, M Kulmala, T Petäjä
Measuring aerosols and molecular clusters below the 3 nm size limit is essential to increase our understanding of new particle formation. Instruments for the detection of sub-3 nm aerosols and clusters exist and need to be carefully calibrated and characterized. So far calibrations and laboratory tests have been carried out using mainly electrically charged aerosols, as they are easier to handle experimentally. However, the charging state of the cluster is an important variable to take into account. Furthermore, instrument characterization performed with charged aerosols could be biased, preventing a correct interpretation of data when electrically neutral sub-3 nm aerosols are involved...
August 3, 2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774180/field-performance-of-a-novel-passive-bioaerosol-sampler-using-polarized-ferroelectric-polymer-films
#8
Jennifer Therkorn, Nirmala Thomas, Jerry Scheinbeim, Gediminas Mainelis
Passive bioaerosol samplers can improve environmental and health protection by enhancing the practicality and cost-effectiveness of air sampling. Here, we present the outdoor field testing of a novel, passive bioaerosol sampler, the Rutgers Electrostatic Passive Sampler (REPS), based on the use of polarized, ferroelectric polymer film (poly(vinylidene fluoride)). Four 10-day-long field campaigns were conducted to compare total (culturable + non-culturable) and culturable bioaerosol collection efficiencies of REPS to passive samplers (PTFE settling filters and agar settling plates)...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739977/design-and-evaluation-of-an-aerodynamic-focusing-micro-well-aerosol-collector
#9
Jiayang He, Igor V Novosselov
Aerosol sampling and identification is vital for the assessment and control of particulate matter pollution, airborne pathogens, allergens, and toxins and their effect on air quality, human health, and climate change. In-situ analysis of chemical and biological airborne components of aerosols on a conventional filter is challenging due to dilute samples in a large collection region. We present the design and evaluation of a micro-well (µ-well) aerosol collector for the assessment of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the 0...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28871214/rapid-analysis-of-the-size-distribution-of-metal-containing-aerosol
#10
Jae Hong Park, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, Kathryn J Crawford, T Renée Anthony, Vicki H Grassian, Thomas M Peters
Conventional methods to measure the metallic content of particles by size are time consuming and expensive, requiring collection of particles with a cascade impactor and subsequent metals analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this work, we describe a rapid way to measure the size distribution of metal-containing particles from 10 nm to 20 μm, using a nano micro-orifice uniform-deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI) to size-selective and collect particles that are then analyzed with a field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to determine metal composition and concentration...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28706340/transport-phenomena-governing-nicotine-emissions-from-electronic-cigarettes-model-formulation-and-experimental-investigation
#11
Soha Talih, Zainab Balhas, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Ahmad El-Hellani, Mohamad Baassiri, Ezzat Jaroudi, Thomas Eissenberg, Najat Saliba, Alan Shihadeh
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and aerosolize a liquid containing propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), flavorants, water, and nicotine. ECIG effects and proposed methods to regulate them are controversial. One regulatory focal point involves nicotine emissions. We describe a mathematical model that predicts ECIG nicotine emissions. The model computes the vaporization rate of individual species by numerically solving the unsteady species and energy conservation equations. To validate model predictions, yields of nicotine, total particulate matter, PG, and VG were measured while manipulating puff topography, electrical power, and liquid composition across 100 conditions...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28690360/absorption-transmission-measurements-of-psap-particle-laden-filters-from-the-biomass-burning-observation-project-bbop-field-campaign
#12
Cary Presser, Ashot Nazarian, Joseph M Conny, Duli Chand, Arthur Sedlacek, John M Hubbe
Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) non-reacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques)...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28435179/real-time-measurement-of-size-resolved-elemental-composition-ratio-for-flame-synthesized-composite-nanoparticle-aggregates-using-a-tandem-smps-icp-oes
#13
Nathan Reed, Jiaxi Fang, Sanmathi Chavalmane, Pratim Biswas
Composite nanoparticles find application in catalysis, drug delivery, and energy storage and require increasingly fine control of their physical properties and composition. While composite nanoparticles have been widely synthesized and characterized, little work has systematically correlated the initial concentration of precursors and the final composition of flame synthesized composite nanoparticles. This relationship is explored in a diffusion flame aerosol reactor by coupling a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES)...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27928195/preparation-and-characterization-of-polycaprolactone-microspheres-by-electrospraying
#14
Feng-Lei Zhou, Penny L Hubbard Cristinacce, Stephen J Eichhorn, Geoff J M Parker
The ability to reproducibly produce and effectively collect electrosprayed polymeric microspheres with controlled morphology and size in bulk form is challenging. In this study, microparticles were produced by electrospraying polycaprolactone (PCL) of various molecular weights and solution concentrations in chloroform, and by collecting materials on different substrates. The resultant PCL microparticles were characterized by optical and electron microscopy to investigate the effect of molecular weight, solution concentration, applied voltage, working distance, and flow rate on their morphology and size...
November 1, 2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28638174/near-real-time-measurement-of-carbonaceous-aerosol-using-microplasma-spectroscopy-application-to-measurement-of-carbon-nanomaterials
#15
Lina Zheng, Pramod Kulkarni, M Eileen Birch, Gregory Deye, Dionysios D Dionysiou
A sensitive, field-portable microplasma spectroscopy method has been developed for real-time measurement of carbon nanomaterials. The method involves microconcentration of aerosol on a microelectrode tip for subsequent analysis for atomic carbon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) or spark emission spectroscopy (SES). The spark-induced microplasma was characterized by measuring the excitation temperature (15,000 - 35,000 K), electron density (1.0 × 1017 - 2.2 × 1017 cm-3 ), and spectral responses as functions of time and interelectrode distance...
August 18, 2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28871213/evaluation-of-the-alphasense-optical-particle-counter-opc-n2-and-the-grimm-portable-aerosol-spectrometer-pas-1-108
#16
Sinan Sousan, Kirsten Koehler, Laura Hallett, Thomas M Peters
We compared the performance of a low-cost (∼$500), compact optical particle counter (OPC, OPC-N2, Alphasense) to another OPC (PAS-1.108, Grimm Technologies) and reference instruments. We measured the detection efficiency of the OPCs by size from 0.5 to 5 μm for monodispersed, polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres. We then compared number and mass concentrations measured with the OPCs to those measured with reference instruments for three aerosols: salt, welding fume and Arizona road dust. The OPC-N2 detection efficiency for monodispersed was similar to the PAS-1...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28867869/porous-polyurethane-foam-for-use-as-a-particle-collection-substrate-in-a-nanoparticle-respiratory-deposition-sampler
#17
Levi W D Mines, Jae Hong Park, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, T Renée Anthony, Vicki H Grassian, Thomas M Peters
Porous polyurethane foam was evaluated to replace the eight nylon meshes used as a substrate to collect nanoparticles in the Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition (NRD) sampler. Cylindrical (25-mm diameter by 40-mm deep) foam with 110 pores per inch was housed in a 25-mm-diameter conductive polypropylene cassette cowl compatible with the NRD sampler. Pristine foam and nylon meshes were evaluated for metals content via elemental analysis. The size-selective collection efficiency of the foam was evaluated using salt (NaCl) and metal fume aerosols in independent tests...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28867868/inter-comparison-of-low-cost-sensors-for-measuring-the-mass-concentration-of-occupational-aerosols
#18
Sinan Sousan, Kirsten Koehler, Geb Thomas, Jae Hong Park, Michael Hillman, Andrew Halterman, Thomas M Peters
Low-cost sensors are effective for measuring the mass concentration of ambient aerosols and secondhand smoke in homes, but their use at concentrations relevant to occupational settings has not been demonstrated. We measured the concentrations of four aerosols (salt, Arizona road dust, welding fume, and diesel exhaust) with three types of low-cost sensors (a DC1700 from Dylos and two commodity sensors from Sharp), an aerosol photometer, and reference instruments at concentrations up to 6500 μg/m3 . Raw output was used to assess sensor precision and develop equations to compute mass concentrations...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28663667/practical-limitations-of-aerosol-separation-by-a-tandem-differential-mobility-analyzer-aerosol-particle-mass-analyzer
#19
James G Radney, Christopher D Zangmeister
A cavity ring-down spectrometer and condensation particle counter were used to investigate the limitations in the separation of singly and multiply charged aerosol particles by a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). The impact of particle polydispersity and morphology was investigated using three materials: nearly-monodisperse polystyrene latex nanospheres (PSL); polydisperse, nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate (AS) and polydisperse lacey fractal soot agglomerates...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28603336/application-of-direct-reading-and-elemental-carbon-analysis-methods-to-measure-mass-based-penetration-of-carbon-nanotubes-through-elastomeric-half-face-and-filtering-facepiece-respirators
#20
Evanly Vo, Ziqing Zhuang, Eileen Birch, Quinn Birch
The aim of this study was to apply a direct-reading aerosol instrument method and an elemental carbon (EC) analysis method to measure the mass-based penetration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs) and filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). For the direct-reading aerosol instrument method, two scanning mobility particle sizer/aerodynamic particle sizer systems were used to simultaneously determine the upstream (outside respirator) and downstream (inside respirator) test aerosols...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
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