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Environmental Technology

Tangui Léziart, Pierre-Marie Dutheil de la Rochere, Ryan Cheswick, Peter Jarvis, Andreas Nocker
Chlorine is globally the most widely used chemical for water disinfection. Whereas disinfection efficiency is well known to depend on water pH and temperature, the effect of turbidity is less well studied. Although turbidity is measured online in most drinking water works and most countries where regulations exist have set limits of < 1 NTU for water leaving the works, the composition of turbidity is typically unknown. Given the heterogeneous nature of substances contributing to turbidity, the aim of this work was to study the effect of selected compounds on chlorination efficacy...
February 19, 2019: Environmental Technology
Wenjin Xu, Chao Xu, Jun Deng, Guomeng Zhang, Guangxu Zhang
In this paper, RuIII (edta) was used as a highly efficient absorbent for the removal of NO due to its desirable properties of high NO affinity and oxygen insensitivity. The effects of the RuIII (edta) concentration, reaction temperature, initial solution pH, oxygen concentration, inlet NO concentration, and liquid-to-gas ratio on denitration performance were examined. The results indicated that RuIII (edta) showed excellent denitration performance at low concentrations and that an increase in the concentration of RuIII (edta) resulted in an increase in NO removal efficiency...
February 18, 2019: Environmental Technology
Yongdi Liu, Chaoba Lin, Honghua Jia, Xiaoyu Yong, Xinxin Xie, Xiayuan Wu, Jun Zhou, Ping Wei
This paper studied the property of three different biofilm carriers added into the anaerobic digestion systems, a granular activated carbon, a polyacrylonitrile, and a polyacrylonitrile modified with diethylenetriamine (PAN-NH2 ). The PAN-NH2 system kept the maximum biogas and methane production, which were 42.69% and 37.29% higher than the control system, respectively. The value of pH and chemical oxygen demand, the content of total solid and volatile solid, volatile fatty acids concentration, coenzyme F420 concentration, and microbial community analysis were investigated during the anaerobic digestion process...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Technology
Van Thuan Le, My Uyen Dao, Hoang Sinh Le, Dai Lam Tran, Van Dat Doan, Hoai Thuong Nguyen
Magnetic activated carbon/chitosan composite (MACCS) beads from spent coffee grounds and shrimp shells were synthesized using green tea extract as a crosslinker. The adsorbent was then applied for removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution after carefully characterizing it by various techniques (XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX, VSM and BET). The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, thermodynamics, the effects of key adsorption factors such as the pH value, initial Ni(II) concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature were investigated in detail...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Technology
Krzysztof Kuglarz, Marek Bury, Agnieszka Kasprzycka, Justyna Lalak-Kańczugowska
The aim of the study was to determine the biogas productivity from selected cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) depending on the dose of mineral fertilization with nitrogen. The topic is novelty in the northern Poland area due to the fact that this crop is not very widespread here. The silage samples were derived from two experiments: 1) two factors experiment with sorghum varieties (Arbatax, KWS Maja, Herkules) and two doses of mineral nitrogen fertilization (0 and 150 kg·ha-1 N) in split-plot design...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Technology
Yu-Jung Chen, Yung-Chih Chen, Wei-Chieh Chung, Bao-Shun Tong, Moo Been Chang
As concern has increased regarding the interaction between efficiency and safety of disinfection, plasma becomes a viable alternative for disinfection in comparison with traditional methods. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is applied to deactivate B. subtilis and E. coli, respectively, and disinfection efficiency is experimentally evaluated in this study. Tests are conducted with different working gases to investigate their effects on disinfection. Results show that Ar plasma diluted with 25% O2 enhances the germicidal effects to 5...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Technology
Bárbara Luíza Souza Freitas, Lyda Patricia Sabogal-Paz
Household Slow Sand Filter (HSSF) performance in continuous and intermittent flows was evaluated when influent water was treated with a natural coagulant extracted from Opuntia cochenillifera. The water under study, used as influent, had a turbidity of 111 ± 17.3 NTU. When clarifying the water with O. cochenillifera, the best condition obtained was 30 mg.L-1 in natural pH (without correction), generating clarified water with turbidity satisfactory to filters operation (7.83 ± 2.32 NTU). The results indicated a better performance of continuous flow HSSF in turbidity removal (79...
February 12, 2019: Environmental Technology
Amin Noormohamadi, Maryam Homayoonfal, Mohammad Reza Mehrnia, Fatemeh Davar
The aim of this research is benefiting from the synergistic effect of simultaneous presence of Fe3 O4 and ZrO2 in the form of Fe3 O4 coated ZrO2 (Fe3 O4 @ZrO2 ) nanoparticles within the structure of PAN membrane to reduce membrane fouling. The role of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in increasing the pore size and magnetic saturation as well as the role of ZrO2 in decreasing surface roughness and hydrophobicity can mitigate membrane fouling in magnetic assisted membrane bioreactors. For this purpose, Fe3 O4 , ZrO2 , and Fe3 O4 @ZrO2 nanoparticles were embedded into PAN membrane structure and magnetic (Mn M), hydrophilic (Hn M), and magnetic-hydrophilic (HMn M) membranes were synthesized...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Technology
Saret Bun, Kritchart Wongwailikhit, Nattawin Chawaloesphonsiya, Jenyuk Lohwacharin, Phaly Ham, Pisut Painmanakul
Oxygen scarcity may significantly affect the process performance since it has low aqueous solubility and high demand by chemical and biological processes. The oxygen mass transfer is therefore necessary to enhance. This work aimed to develop the gas-liquid reactor, named Modified Airlift Reactor (MALR) for improving the oxygen transfer efficiency in terms of internal configurations and aeration parameters by equipping a vertical baffle for creating liquid circulation phenomena, and installing slanted baffles in the reactor riser to extend air-bubbles retention time and to improve their distributions...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Technology
S D W Comber, M J Gardner, B Ellor
Results are presented for 170 wastewater treatment works sites (20 per substance in influent, effluent and 36 per substance in river water upstream and downstream of the WwTW discharge) over a period of two years between 2015 and 2017; this comprises data for approximately 3,000 samples for effluent and 6,000 for river samples taken downstream of effluent discharges. Seasonal trends in contaminant concentrations for several substances are reported. Two clear patterns of seasonal variation are proposed over and above all of the variables associated with environmental data including process technology, dilution and geography...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Technology
Romero Barbosa de Assis Filho, Caroline Maria Bezerra de Araújo, Ana Maria Salgueiro Baptisttella, Edinália Bleilla Batista, Rafaela Alvina Barata, Marcos Gomes Ghislandi, Mauricio Alves da Motta Sobrinho
This work shows a promising, environmentally friendly and greener alternative for the production and application of electrochemically produced Graphene Oxide (GO) for the adsorptive removal of Methylene Blue (MB) dye in aqueous medium. During the adsorption tests, GO produced via electrochemical route reached the equilibrium in only 10 min of contact, exhibiting a percentage removal of MB over 97%. It could also be observed that the experimental data better fitted to the pseudo-second order kinetic model. By analysing the isotherms, it was verified the maximum adsorptive capacity was 500 mg...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Technology
Kobra Atrak, Ali Ramazani, Saeid Taghavi Fardood
This paper focuses on the successful synthesis of Zn0.5 Ni0.5 AlFeO4 magnetic nanoparticles applying tragacanth gel through the sol-gel technique, as an environmentally-friendly, economical and simple method for the first time. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Based on the XRD result, the conformation of single phase cubic spinel structure with the average crystallite size of 10 nm was confirmed...
February 10, 2019: Environmental Technology
Elham Ashrafi, Edris Allahyari, Elena Torresi, Henrik Rasmus Andersen
In this study, two moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR1 and MBBR2 ) filled with different size of carrier media (Kaldnes K1 and Kaldnes K1 micro, respectively) were subjected to soluble (sugar and sodium acetate (Ac)) substrate and mixture of soluble and particulate (particulate potato starch (PS)) substrate in a very high organic loading rate (12 kgCOD/m3 ·d) at different temperatures (26 and 15˚C, in MBBR1 and MBBR2 , respectively). The effects of carrier type and substrate on biofilm structure and reactor performance have been studied...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Technology
Abdul Sameeu Ibupoto, Umair Ahmed Qureshi, Maryam Arain, Farooq Ahmed, Zeeshan Khatri, Rafi Zaman Brohi, Ick Soo Kim, Zafar Ibupoto
Hybrid nanofibers based on ZnO loaded activated carbon nanofibers (ZnO-ACNFs) are proposed here for the elimination of hazardous lead from aqueous solutions. The prepared ZnO nanoscale material was loaded into the polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PAN NFs) which were later carbonized by using a novel method named as a plate-sandwich method. The Synthesized nanofibrous composite was characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR and XRD techniques to analyze its chemical and morphological properties. Moreover, the nanocomposite was efficaciously applied for the lead (Pb2+ ) ions removal from wastewater and simulated water through continuous filtration and batch filtration...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Technology
Izelmar Todero, Tássia C Confortin, Luciana Luft, Jeferson Seibel, Raquel C Kuhn, Marcus V Tres, Giovani L Zabot, Marcio A Mazutti
Exopolysaccharides are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms and are a subject of research in many fields of science and industry due to some of their confirmed properties, especially in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical areas. In this context, the objectives of this work were to evaluate the potential of Fusarium fujikuroi for producing exopolysaccharides and to concentrate such compounds in order to increase the herbicidal activity. Exopolysaccharides were produced by submerged fermentation and different concentration methods (membranes, lyophilization, and evaporation) were evaluated...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Technology
Ghizlane Enaime, Abdelaziz Baçaoui, Abdelrani Yaacoubi, Stephan Berzio, Marc Wichern, Manfred Lübken
In the present study, the treatability of olive mill wastewater (OMWW) using an anaerobic fixed bed biofilm reactor packed with granular activated carbon (GAC) and inoculated with non-acclimated biomass was performed in a semi-continuous mode under mesophilic conditions. Three organic loading rates (OLR) varied from 0.94 to 2.81 gCOD/(L d) were applied. The results of batch adsorption tests on GAC and the experimental data from PBBR- GAC operation were used to set up a COD mass balance in order to investigate the effect of adsorption on the COD removal during the three anaerobic treatment steps...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Technology
Munique Dias, Alexsandra Valério, Débora de Oliveira, Antônio A Ulson de Souza, Selene M Guelli U de Souza
The adsorption of annatto dye was analyzed using kaolin clay as the adsorbent. In this work, the influence of the adsorbent particle size, agitation (0 and 100 rpm), temperature (25, 40, and 60 °C), and salt presence (sodium chloride and sodium sulfate at 1, 2 and 3 wt%) on the adsorption process was studied. The adsorption increased 14.21% for particles smaller than 45 µm and the agitation (100 rpm) led to an increase of 22.41% compared to the system without agitation. The ΔG° (237.711 kJmol-1 ) indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous...
February 2, 2019: Environmental Technology
Sikelelwa N Ndiweni, Michael Chys, Nhamo Chaukura, Stijn W H Van Hulle, Thabo Ti Nkambule
The presence and persistence of natural organic matter (NOM) in drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) requires a robust and rapid monitoring method. Measurement and monitoring of NOM fractions using current technology is time-consuming and expensive. This study uses fluorescence measurements in combination with Parallel Factor (ParaFac) analysis to characterize NOM fractions. This was achieved through: (1) determining the origin and composition of NOM fractions using fluorescence index (FI), humification index, biological index, and freshness index, and (2) using multivariate analysis to reveal key parameters and hidden NOM fraction characteristics influenced by seasonal changes and environmental activities...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Technology
Edilma R B Dantas, Edlamara J Silva, Wilton S Lopes, Marcelo R do Nascimento, Valderi D Leite, José T de Sousa
This investigation aimed to refine the operational parameters of the Fenton process, to compare Fenton-treated and non-treated leachate with respect to physicochemical variables and toxicity towards Daphnia magna, and to characterize the sludge. The optimal conditions for the Fenton treatment involved the use of a reagent containing 12 g Fe2+ L-1 , H2 O2 /Fe2+ molar ratio of 9 and pH 2.0, with oxidation, flocculation and sedimentation times of 30, 10 and 15  min, respectively. Under these conditions, the values of the majority of parameters, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, true color (TC), carbohydrates, proteins, phosphorus, total solids, total volatile solids, dissolved volatile solids, Kjeldahl nitrogen, N-NH3 and iron, were reduced significantly after treatment...
January 29, 2019: Environmental Technology
Haoyang Fu, Hongfei He, Muhammad Usman, Qingze Chen, Minwang Laipan, Yixuan Yang, Runliang Zhu, Limei Cai
In this work, we developed a novel magnetic bimetallic Al/Fe (oxyhydr)oxide adsorbent through a facile and cost-effective method and explored its potential to adsorb fluoride in water. Its synthesis involved corrosion of natural magnetite in aluminum chloride solution, followed by titration with NaOH solution for in-situ synthesis of Al/Fe (oxyhydr)oxide-coated magnetite (Mag@Al2 Fe). Characterization data indicated a uniform coating of Al/Fe (oxyhydr)oxide on magnetite, and the resulting composite possessed large specific surface area (∼90 m2 /g) and good magnetic property...
January 29, 2019: Environmental Technology
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