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Waste Management

Roni A Neff, Marie Spiker, Christina Rice, Alexandra Schklair, Sally Greenberg, Emily Broad Leib
INTRODUCTION: Food date labels such as "best before" and "sell by" are largely unregulated in the United States (U.S.), although new voluntary standards are coming into effect. A U.S. consumer survey was performed in April 2016 to inform policy and education activities related to date labels. METHODS: The survey was administered online to a nationally representative sample of 1029 adults as part of a biweekly omnibus survey. Survey questions assessed the frequency of discarding food based on date labels by food type, interpretation of label language variations, and knowledge of whether date labels are currently regulated by the federal government...
February 7, 2019: Waste Management
Jacob Mønster, Peter Kjeldsen, Charlotte Scheutz
Fugitive methane (CH4 ) emissions from landfills are significant global sources of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere; thus, reducing them would be a beneficial way of overall greenhouse gas emissions mitigation. In Europe, landfill owners have to report their annual CH4 emissions, so direct measurements are therefore important for (1) evaluating and improving currently applied CH4 emission models, (2) reporting annual CH4 emissions and (3) quantifying CH4 mitigation initiatives. This paper aims at providing an overview of currently available methodologies used to measure fugitive CH4 emissions escaping from landfills...
January 16, 2019: Waste Management
Antonio F Castro Gámez, José Miguel Rodríguez Maroto, Iñaki Vadillo Pérez
In this study, landfill gas emissions from a landfill located in southern Spain were estimated using static surface flux chambers and applying and comparing four geostatistical methods; ordinary kriging, lognormal kriging, intrinsic random functions of order K and indicator kriging. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate methane (and carbon dioxide) emissions from a landfill in southern Spain. Static flux chambers were used to estimate emissions through the sealing layer of a landfill assuming that the geospatial mean best expresses the average value of these emissions...
December 21, 2018: Waste Management
Noppharit Sutthasil, Chart Chiemchaisri, Wilai Chiemchaisri, Komsilp Wangyao, Kazuto Endo, Tomonori Ishigaki, Masato Yamada
Two landfill test cells, with and without gas vents, were used to investigate the effectiveness of passive aeration, through basal leachate pipes, in mitigating methane emissions from municipal solid waste disposal in the tropical climate of Thailand. Surface methane emission rate, as well as methane content in the landfill gas, were determined for a period of three years. The results indicate that the average methane emission rate from the test cell with passive gas vents (42.13 g/t dry wt./d) was about half of that from the test cell without gas vents (90...
December 11, 2018: Waste Management
Valeria Fiandra, Lucio Sannino, Concetta Andreozzi, Giorgio Graditi
In this paper, the management of end-of-life PV modules based on an advanced eco-sustainable process has been presented and discussed. The thermal removal of the polymeric compounds contained in c-Si PV modules has been investigated to separate and recover Si, Ag, Cu, Al and glass. A two-step thermal process has been employed. In the first step, the rear polymeric layer has been removed without emissions of dangerous fluorinated substances. In the second step, the remaining polymers have been completely removed with low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Hongwei Luo, Dongqin He, Weiping Zhu, Yichao Wu, Zhitao Chen, En-Hua Yang
In this study, conversion of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (IBA) into highly efficient sorbents for Cu(II) removal was reported. The formation of tobermorite induced by humic acid (HA) and IBA under hydrothermal condition was explored and its potential application for efficient removal of Cu(II) ions was further investigated. After hydrothermal treatment, the morphology and microstructure of IBA remarkably changed from sheet-like to particle-like, thereby resulting in substantial increases of sorption capacity...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Corinna Thomas, Christine Idler, Christian Ammon, Christiane Herrmann, Thomas Amon
The high prevalence of extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-/AmpC-producing Escherichia (E.) coli in European broiler farms leads to the possible dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains into the environment using contaminated feces as organic fertilizer. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of temperature on the reduction kinetics of two artificially added ESBL-/AmpC-producing E. coli strains during lab-scale mesophilic (37 °C, 42 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic digestion of chicken manure...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Junqiang Zhang, Zhishuai Wang, Tong Li, Zhi Wang, Shu Zhang, Mei Zhong, Yue'e Liu, Xuzhong Gong
CaO-containing carbon pellets (CCCP) was prepared by mixing carbide slag (Ca(OH)2 ) and powdered char to produce CaC2 , achieving the recycling of carbide slag during CaC2 production process. The thermal strength of CCCP was the focus of most attention when employing arc furnaces as reactors for CaC2 production in industry. To improve the thermal strength of CCCP, H3 PO4 was used as a binder in this study. The results indicated that Ca3 (PO4 )2 reacted by H3 PO4 and Ca(OH)2 could help refine the average particle sizes of CaO, resulted in a relatively uniform pore diameter distribution of CCCP with low porosity, therefore improving the thermal strength of CCCP...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Xiangqi Meng, Jie Hao, Hongbin Cao, Xiao Lin, Pengge Ning, Xiaohong Zheng, Junjun Chang, Xihua Zhang, Bao Wang, Zhi Sun
The production of lithium-ion battery is around 9100 million sets in 2016 and is believed to further increase consecutively. This fact triggers the generation of spent cathode materials which contain metals of both valuable and hazardous. Their recycling corresponding to life cycle sustainability of lithium-ion battery has attracted significant attention. However, most technologies for recycling waste lithium-ion batteries are dependent on metallurgical based processes where secondary pollution is inevitable...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
M D Meena, R K Yadav, B Narjary, Gajender Yadav, H S Jat, P Sheoran, M K Meena, R S Antil, B L Meena, H V Singh, Vijay Singh Meena, P K Rai, Avijit Ghosh, P C Moharana
Salt-induced soil degradation is a serious threat to global agriculture which is responsible for diminished productivity of agro-ecosystems. Irrigation with poor quality water and indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers to increase crop productivity creates salt accumulation in soil profile thereby reducing crop sustainability. High concentration of salts in soil inhibits plant growth due to low osmotic potential of the soil solution, ion toxicity and imbalance reduces nutrient uptake, crop yields. Low productivity of saline soils is not only due to salt toxicity or excess amounts of soluble salts but also lack of available mineral nutrients especially nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and soil organic matter...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Mateusz Malinowski, Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka, Magdalena Daria Vaverková
The article evaluates the effect of small selected doses of biochar addition (0%, 1.5%, 3% and 5%, wet weight) on the composting process of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with a low initial C/N ratio under real conditions. The low C/N composting mixtures with addition of biochar at low rates can have a positive effect on the compost quality and on the reduction of N losses in compost. The novelty of this work consists in studying the impact of small biochar doses on the composting process at full-scale...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Fu-Rong Xiu, Yifan Li, Yingying Qi, Xuan Yu, Jiahuan He, Yongwei Lu, Xiang Gao, Yuehua Deng, Zhiqi Song
In waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), brominated epoxy resin (BER) and copper are the two types of material that attracts the most attention due to their environmental risk and resource value. In this study, a novel and high-efficiency process for debromination and resource recovery of waste PCBs by low-temperature near-critical aqueous ammonia (NCAA) was successfully developed. A batch reactor was used in experiments with the temperatures ranging from 200 to 350 °C and the reaction times from 30 to 90 min...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Caterina Caviglia, Giorgia Confalonieri, Ingrid Corazzari, Enrico Destefanis, Giuseppe Mandrone, Linda Pastero, Renato Boero, Alessandro Pavese
The aim of this study is twofold: (i) characterization of the bottom ashes from the Incinerator plant of the city of Turin (northern Italy), in terms of their chemical/phase compositions and capacity to release heavy metals in leachates, as a function of particle size; (ii) investigation of thermal treatments' efficacy to promote inertization of the same bottom ashes, exploring time-temperature ranges with t ≤ 6 h and T ≤ 1000 °C. Special attention is paid to macro-sampling techniques in order to have samples that are representative of the average bottom ashes production...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Zeyuan Liu, Yang Yue, Ming Lu, Jia Zhang, Fucheng Sun, Xin Huang, Jizhi Zhou, Guangren Qian
In the current work, a quick prediction of the heavy metal (HM) leaching potential in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) was developed based on the statistical data between the HM leaching behaviors and the compositional variety in FA from China. In the comparison of the surveyed (508 data points) leaching concentrations, Pb and Cd leaching amounts in FA exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limits most frequently. Moreover, the chemical compositions (pH and soluble chlorine (S-Cl)) of FA were proposed to have significant linear correlations with the Pb and Cd leaching...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Joshua O'Brien, Gladman Thondhlana
Single-use plastic shopping bag consumption is one of the leading causes of environmental and socio-economic problems worldwide, which has led to global calls for intervention strategies to reduce use. In South Africa, plastic bag use is still widespread despite intervention efforts based on levying taxes. Using an online questionnaire, this study examines plastic bag use practices and factors influencing use in South Africa. The results show that the majority of respondents perceived there was a plastic bag use problem in the country but still highly used plastic bags because it was convenient to do so...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Shan Gui, Liange Zhao, Zhijian Zhang
Ever increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming a serious city pollution trouble, extensive studies explored this question from micro demographic factors before. But testing the impact of spatial dependence on MSW from macroeconomic factors with city-level panel data has not received adequate attention it deserves in prior literature, and routinely ignoring spatial dependence is prone to estimation biases. This research utilizes panel data of 285 Chinese cities for the period of 2006-2015 to explore the spatial dependence of the MSW...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Timothy G Townsend, Wesley W Ingwersen, Briana Niblick, Pradeep Jain, Jim Wally
National generation estimates for seven material types in the construction and demolition debris stream are regularly published in the United States. However, the quantities of these materials in different end-of-life management pathways are not published or otherwise made available. Quantification of end-of-life management pathways is useful for identifying approaches to decrease disposal and increase material recovery. An issue for construction and demolition debris is that data needed for a nationwide estimate of management pathways are not tracked in a single system...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Thilde B Thomasen, Charlotte Scheutz, Peter Kjeldsen
Landfills are significant sources of anthropogenic atmospheric methane (CH4 ), which contributes to climate change. Large amounts of CH4 are emitted from landfills in dilute form due to mixing with air in leachate collection systems, or during lateral migration away from landfills. The objective of this study was to investigate the CH4 oxidation efficiency of a compost material subject to LFG diluted with atmospheric air resulting in CH4 concentrations of 5-10% v/v. CH4 oxidation rates and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) production were measured through batch and dynamic column experiments where two laboratory scale biofilters were constructed...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Marcelo Tramontin Souza, Lisandro Simão, Oscar Rubem Klegues Montedo, Fabiano Raupp Pereira, Antonio Pedro Novaes de Oliveira
The aluminum anodizing process generates a large volume of waste composed mainly of amorphous aluminum hydroxide with chemical compatibility to be used in other industrial processes as an alternative starting raw material. This waste has several application possibilities such as the production of refractories, ceramic pigments, bricks, and many others. However, despite its potential features, its recycling process is far from well consolidated. This work highlights the most important contributions regarding Al-anodizing waste (AAW) features and their potential applications from the last 30 years...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Michael Ayiania, Evan Terrell, Alex Dunsmoor, Felix Martin Carbajal-Gamarra, Manuel Garcia-Perez
The ever-increasing consumption of material goods with economic growth is resulting in an increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the rapid filling of landfills. Fractions of municipal solid waste containing wood-based products have the potential to be used for the development of value added products. In this paper we produced and characterized biochar and pyrolysis vapors from municipal solid waste (MSW) woody fractions to demonstrate their suitability towards soil amendments. Carbonization work focused on compost overs, molded wood pallets, treated wood, sawmill cut ends, wood derived fuels, furniture, painted wood, plywood, oriented strand board and particle boards from Washington State recycling facilities...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
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