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Journal of Experimental Botany

Vu van Kien, Chan Young Jeong, Nguyen Thi Thuy, Dinh Thi Huyen Trang, Hojoung Lee, Suk-Whan Hong
The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) plays essential roles in growth and development in plants. However, insight into the biological function of GFAT1, mediating the first and regulatory step of the HBP remains unclear in plants. Here, we present a molecular characterization of AtGFAT1 in Arabidopsis. AtGFAT1 was highly expressed in the mature pollen grains, but not detectable in the rest of the organs. Pollen grains bearing the gfat1-2 knockout allele displayed defects in a polar deposition of pectin and callose in a pollen cell wall, leading to no genetic transmission of the gfat1-2 allele through male gametophyte...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Juan Liang, Andreas Klingl, Yen-Yu Lin, Emily Boul, Jane Thomas-Oates, Macarena Marín
Lotus species develop infection threads to guide rhizobia into nodule cells. However, there is evidence that some species have a genetic repertoire to allow other modes of infection. Conducting confocal and electron microscopy, quantification of marker gene expression, and phenotypic analysis of transgenic roots infected with mutant rhizobia we elucidated the infection mechanism used by Rhizobium leguminosarum Norway to colonise Lotus burttii. R. leguminosarum Norway induces a distinct host transcriptional response compared to Mesorhizobium loti...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ji Huang, Ruqin Wang, Xinbin Dai, Jiejie Feng, Hongsheng Zhang, Patrick X Zhao
Phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that perform essential functions in plants. Unlike the microRNA biogenesis from a hairpin structure, the production of phasiRNAs usually requires a phase initiator and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) for forming double-strand RNAs. By using full-length rice cDNA (KL-cDNA) to identify phasiRNA loci, we found that a putative non-coding sequence with a long hairpin structure (LHR) generates the phasiRNAs. The biogenesis of LHR-derived phasiRNAs was dependent on rice DCL4, but not on RDR2/6, DCL1 or DCL3...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marie-Hélène Montané, Benoît Menand
Target Of Rapamycin (TOR) is a conserved eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-related kinase (PIKK) that regulates growth and metabolism in response to environment in plants and algae. The study of the plant and algal TOR pathway largely depends on TOR inhibitors first developed for non-photosynthetic eukaryotes. In animals and yeast, fundamental works on the TOR pathway have benefited from the allosteric TOR inhibitor rapamycin and more recently from ATP-competitive TOR inhibitors (asTORis) that circumvent the limitations of rapamycin...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
David A Russo, Julie A Z Zedler, Poul Erik Jensen
In recent years, efforts to exploit sunlight, a free and abundant energy source, have sped up dramatically. Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, such as higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria, can very efficiently convert solar energy into chemical energy using water as an electron donor. Therefore, by providing organic building blocks for life, photosynthesis is undoubtedly one of the most important processes on Earth. The aim of light-driven catalysis is to harness solar energy, in the form of reducing power, to drive enzymatic reactions requiring electrons for their catalytic cycle...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Stéphanie Arrivault, Thiago Alexandre Moraes, Toshihiro Obata, David B Medeiros, Alisdair R Fernie, Alix Boulouis, Martha Ludwig, John E Lunn, Gian Luca Borghi, Armin Schlereth, Manuela Guenther, Mark Stitt
Low atmospheric CO2 in recent geological time led to the evolution of carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) like C4 photosynthesis in over 65 terrestrial plant lineages. We know little about the impact of low CO2 on the Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC) in C3 species that did not evolve CCMs, representing over 90% of terrestrial plant species. Metabolite profiling provides a top-down strategy to investigate the operational balance in a pathway. We profiled CBC-intermediates in a panel of C4 (Zeamays, Setaria viridis, Flaveria bidentis,F...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Andrew J Simkin, Patricia E López-Calcagno, Christine A Raines
A number of recent studies have provided strong support demonstrating that improving the photosynthetic processes through genetic engineering can provide an avenue to improve yield potential. The major focus of this review is on improvement of the Calvin-Benson cycle and electron transport. Consideration is also given to how altering regulatory process may provide an additional route to increase photosynthetic efficiency. Here we summarize some of the recent successes that have been observed through genetic manipulation of photosynthesis, showing that, in both the glasshouse and the field, yield can be increased by >40%...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Peng Wang, Zhangkui Wang, Qingchun Pan, Xichao Sun, Huan Chen, Fanjun Chen, Lixing Yuan, Guohua Mi
Mixed nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) as nitrogen source can improve plant growth. The underlying mechanism was explored by using metabolomics and transcriptome. Maize plants were grown hydroponically with three nitrogen forms (nitrate, 75/25 nitrate/ammonium and ammonium). Mixed N increased photosynthetic rate compared to nitrate supply, and had the highest leaf area, shoot and root biomass among the three nitrogen treatments. In shoot and root, the concentration of nitrogenous compounds (NH4+, Gln, Asn) and carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, fructose) in plant with mixed N supply was higher than that with nitrate supply, but lower than that with ammonium supply...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hui Liu, Samuel H Taylor, Qiuyuan Xu, Yixue Lin, Hao Hou, Guilin Wu, Qing Ye
Life history and photosynthetic type both affect the economics of leaf physiological function. Annual plants have lower tissue densities and resource-use efficiencies than perennials, while C4 photosynthesis, facilitated in grasses by specific changes in leaf anatomy, improves photosynthetic efficiency and water-use efficiency, especially in hot climates. This study aimed to determine whether C4 photosynthesis affects differences in functional traits between annual and perennial species. We measured 26 traits and characterised niche descriptors for 42 grasses from subtropical China...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Andreas Stahl, Paul Vollrath, Birgit Samans, Matthias Frisch, Benjamin Wittkop, Rod J Snowdon
Oilseed rape is one of the most important dicotyledonous field crops in the world, where it plays a key role in productive cereal crop rotations. On the other hand, its production requires high nitrogen fertilization and its nitrogen footprint exceeds that of most other globally important crops. Hence, increased NUE in this crop is of high priority for sustainable agriculture. We report a comprehensive study of macro-physiological characteristics associated with breeding progress, conducted under contrasting nitrogen fertilization levels in a large panel of elite oilseed rape varieties representing breeding progress over the past 20 years...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Grace L Chongloi, Sandhan Prakash, Usha Vijayraghavan
Grasses have evolved complex inflorescences, where the primary unit is the specialized short branch called a spikelet. Investigations on the cumulative action, of genetic regulators, directing progressive change in axillary meristem identity and their terminal differentiation is crucial to understanding inflorescence complexity and the development of a determinate floret. Grass florets, also pose interesting questions on organ morphologies and functions as compared to other monocots and eudicots. Here, we summarize the expanding knowledge on regulation of grass inflorescence meristem transitions, specification of floret meristems and its determinate development primarily using rice as a model with suitable comparisons to other crop models and to the extensively studied eudicot model Arabidopsis...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Pilar S Testillano
Under stress, isolated microspores are reprogrammed in vitro towards embryogenesis, producing doubled haploid plants that are useful biotechnological tools in plant breeding as a source of new genetic variability, fixed in homozygous plants in only one generation. Stress-induced cell death and low rates of cell reprogramming are major factors that reduce yield. Knowledge gained in recent years has revealed that initiation and progression of microspore embryogenesis involve a complex network of factors, whose roles are not yet well understood...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Myriam Schaufelberger, Florian Galbier, Aline Herger, Rita de Brito Francisco, Stefan Roffler, Gilles Clement, Anouck Diet, Stefan Hörtensteiner, Thomas Wicker, Christoph Ringli
The growth and development of organisms must be tightly controlled and adjusted to nutrient availability and metabolic activities. The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) network is a major control mechanism in eukaryotes and influences processes such as translation, mitochondrial activity, production of reactive oxygen species, and the cytoskeleton. In Arabidopsis thaliana, inhibition of the TOR kinase causes changes in cell wall architecture and suppression of phenotypic defects of the cell wall formation mutant lrx1 (leucine-rich repeat extensin 1)...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
De Swaef Tom, Bellocchi Gianni, Aper Jonas, Lootens Peter, Roldán-Ruiz Isabel
Agricultural systems models, are complex and tend to be over-parameterized with respect to observational datasets. Practical identifiability analysis based on local sensitivity analysis proved effective in investigating identifiable parameter sets in environmental models, but has not been applied to agricultural systems models. In this paper, we demonstrate that identifiability analysis improves the experimental design to ensure independent parameter estimation for yield and quality outputs of a complex grassland model...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Qiuju Liang, Ke Wang, Xiaoning Liu, Bisma Riaz, Ling Jiang, Xing Wan, Xingguo Ye, Chunyi Zhang
Folates are indispensable co-factors for one-carbon metabolism in all organisms. In humans, suboptimal folate intake results in serious disorders. One promising strategy for improving human folate status is to enhance folate levels in food crops by metabolic engineering. In this study, we cloned two GmGCHI (GTP cyclohydrolase I) genes (Gm8gGCHI and Gm3gGCHI) and one GmADCS (aminodeoxychorismate synthase) gene from soybean, which are responsible for synthesizing the folate precursors pterin and p-aminobenzoate, respectively...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Pierre Gautrat, Virginie Mortier, Carole Laffont, Annick De Keyser, Justine Fromentin, Florian Frugier, Sofie Goormachtig
The number of legume root nodules resulting from a symbiosis with rhizobia is tightly controlled by the plant. Certain members of the CLAVATA3/Embryo Surrounding Region (CLE) peptide family, specifically MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 in Medicago truncatula, act in the systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) pathway that negatively regulates the number of nodules. Little is known about the molecular pathways that operate downstream of the AON-related CLE peptides. Here, by means of a transcriptome analysis, we show that roots ectopically expressing MtCLE13 deregulate only a limited number of genes, including three down-regulated genes encoding lysin motif receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs), among which are the nodulation factor (NF) receptor NF Perception gene (NFP) and two up-regulated genes, MtTML1 and MtTML2, encoding Too Much Love (TML)-related Kelch-repeat containing F-box proteins...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nicolás E Blanco, Daniela Liebsch, Manuel Guinea Díaz, Åsa Strand, James Whelan
Sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 1.1 (SnRK1.1, also known as KIN10 or SnRK1) has been identified as the catalytic subunit of the complex SnRK1, the Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of a central integrator of energy and stress signaling in eukaryotes dubbed as AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1. A nuclear localisation of SnRK1.1 has been previously described and is in line with its function as integrator of energy and stress signals. Here, using two biological models (Nicotianabenthamiana and Arabidopsisthaliana), native regulatory sequences, different microscopy techniques and manipulations of cellular energy status, it was found that SnRK1...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yamei Wang, Jian Hou, Hong Liu, Tian Li, Ke Wang, Chenyang Hao, Hongxia Liu, Xueyong Zhang
BRITTLE1 (BT1), responsible for unidirectional transmembrane transport of ADP-glucose, plays a pivotal role in starch synthesis of cereal grain. In this study, we isolated three TaBT1 homoeologous genes located on chromosomes 6A, 6B and 6D in common wheat. TaBT1 was mainly expressed in developing grains and knockdown of TaBT1 in common wheat exhibited a decrease in grain size, thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain total starch content. High diversity was detected at the TaBT1-6B locus, with 24 polymorphic sites forming three haplotypes (Hap1, Hap2 and Hap3)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sacha Escamez, Simon Stael, Julia Vainonen, Patrick Willems, Huiting Jin, Sachie Kimura, Frank Van Breusegem, Kris Gevaert, Michael Wrzaczek, Hannele Tuominen
During plant vascular development, xylem tracheary elements (TEs) form water-conducting, empty pipes through genetically regulated cell death. Cell death is prevented from spreading to non-TEs by unidentified intercellular mechanisms, downstream of METACASPASE9 (MC9)-mediated regulation of autophagy in TEs. Here, we identified differentially abundant extracellular peptides in vascular-differentiating wild type and MC9-downregulated Arabidopsis cell suspensions. The peptide Kratos rescued the abnormally high ectopic non-TE death resulting from either MC9 knockout or TE-specific overexpression of the ATG5 autophagy protein during experimentally induced vascular differentiation in Arabidopsis cotyledons...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Norma Fàbregas, Alisdair R Fernie
Metabolic regulation is one of the main mechanisms involved in the maintenance of cell osmotic potential under abiotic stress. To date, metabolite profiling approaches have been extensively used to characterize the molecular responses to abiotic stress in many plant species. However, studies revealing the specific metabolic responses of plants exposed to water-deficit stress remain limited. Here, we review the most recent developments that advance our understanding of the metabolic response to drought stress in Arabidopsis and rice...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
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