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Marine Environmental Research

Alejandro Ortiz, Jorge M Navarro, Gemita Pizarro, Paola A Villanueva, Cristian J Segura
The neurotoxic complex saxitoxin, is a group of marine toxins that historically has significantly impacted human health and the ability to utilize marine resources. A steady increase in the distribution and intensity of Alexandrium catenella blooms in Chile, and around the world, has caused major ecological and socioeconomic impacts, putting this type of dinoflagellate, and its toxicity, in the spotlight. Ostrea chilensis is a commercially and ecologically important resource harvested from wild populations and farmed in centers of southern Chile, where it is exposed to large harmful algal blooms of the type that can cause paralysis in humans...
February 4, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Michela Del Pasqua, Maria Cristina Gambi, Roberto Caricato, Maria Giulia Lionetto, Adriana Giangrande
The aim of this study was to test the effects of short- and long-term exposure to high pCO2 on the invasive polychaete Branchiomma boholense (Grube, 1878), (Sabellidae), through the implementation of a transplant experiment at the CO2 vents of the Castello Aragonese at the island of Ischia (Italy). Analysis of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, protein tissue content and morphometric characteristics were performed on transplanted individuals (short-term exposure) as well as on specimens resident to both normal and low pH/high pCO2 environments (long-term exposure)...
January 26, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Juan A Campillo, Angel Sevilla, Carmen González-Fernández, Juan Bellas, Cristina Bernal, Manuel Cánovas, Marina Albentosa
Biomarkers are useful tools to assess biological effects of pollutants that are extensively used in monitoring programs to assess ecosystem health. However, they are strongly affected by mussel physiological state, especially nutritive status, which has led to the search of new biological indicators of chemical pollutants exposition. Environmental metabolomics is an approach for examining the metabolic responses (measurement of low molecular weight endogenous metabolites) of an organism to both natural and anthropogenic stressors that can occur in its environment...
January 25, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Hongpeng Cui, Xin Su, Fang Chen, Melanie Holland, Shengxiong Yang, Jinqiang Liang, Pibo Su, Hailiang Dong, Weiguo Hou
Cold seep is a unique habitat for microorganisms in deep marine sediments, and microbial communities and biogeochemical processes are still poorly understood, especially in relation to hydrate-bearing geo-systems. In this study, two cold seep systems were sampled and microbial diversity was studied at Site GMGS2-08 in the northern part of the South China Sea (SCS) during the GMGS2 gas hydrate expedition. The current cold seep system was composed of a sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) and an upper gas hydrate zone (UGHZ)...
January 23, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Massimiliano Molari, Katja Guilini, Lidia Lins, Alban Ramette, Ann Vanreusel
One of the options to mitigate atmospheric CO2 increase is CO2 Capture and Storage in sub-seabed geological formations. Since predicting long-term storage security is difficult, different CO2 leakage scenarios and impacts on marine ecosystems require evaluation. Submarine CO2 vents may serve as natural analogues and allow studying the effects of CO2 leakage in a holistic approach. At the study site east of Basiluzzo Islet off Panarea Island (Italy), gas emissions (90-99% CO2 ) occur at moderate flows (80-120 L m-2  h-1 )...
January 23, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Endika Quintano, Paula S M Celis-Plá, Brezo Martínez, Isabel Díez, Nahiara Muguerza, Félix L Figueroa, José M Gorostiaga
The red alga Gelidium corneum is a dominant foundation species in the south-eastern Bay of Biscay, where a decline in its populations has been documented in the few last decades. We investigated the ecophysiological responses of G. corneum to different light conditions by means of an in situ transplant experiment. We found that the stress response measured by physiological and biochemical approaches was higher in G. corneum at higher irradiance levels, for both transplanted and control specimens, than under lower light intensities...
January 17, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Alexandre Erraud, Marc Bonnard, Olivier Geffard, Romain Coulaud, Agnès Poret, Aurélie Duflot, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Alain Geffard, Benoit Xuereb
The study of the effects of contamination on sperm quality not only provides an early, specific and integrative response to the fraction of bioavailable pollutants, but also has been shown to predict the potential of this fraction to modify an organism's capacity to reproduce. In addition, fertility damage in invertebrates has been addressed as a major problem that may pose a threat to the maintenance of populations. In this context, the present study proposes a methodology based on the measurement of sperm DNA integrity to evaluate the impact of paternal damaged DNA on the reproductive success of Palaemon serratus...
January 14, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Sterling B Tebbett, Robert P Streit, David R Bellwood
Mass coral bleaching is challenging today's coral reefs. However, our understanding of dynamics in benthic space holders, following such disturbances, is limited. To address this, we quantified successional dynamics of the ascidian, Didemnum cf. molle using a series of temporally and spatially matched photoquadrats across both the 2016 and 2017 mass coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef. Unlike corals, D. cf. molle appeared to flourish in the warm temperatures and rapidly expanded. Indeed, colony density increased nearly 6-fold over two years with one quadrat experiencing an increase of over 1000 ind...
January 14, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Eunchong Sin, Won Gi Min, Yun-Bae Kim, Tae Won Kim
Some subtidal habitats may experience extremely large diel temperature fluctuations. To explore the potential of subtidal animals to regulate their metabolic processes, we investigated how the oxygen consumption rate (MO2 ) of the sea urchin Mesocentrotus nudus changes in response to extreme temperature fluctuations by mimicking temperature variations recorded at Dokdo Island, Republic of Korea. We compared the MO2 of urchins before and after a temperature fluctuation. MO2 was positively correlated with temperature...
January 11, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Masato Kiyomoto
The preservation of sea urchin gametes was examined to make them more convenient material for research and education, especially on the embryology and ecotoxicology field. The possibility of egg preservation for enough period, two weeks to one month, were reported (Epel et al., 2004; Kiyomoto et al., 2014). The sperm storage is usually done without seawater (dry sperm) for several days. This storage period is lengthened by the addition of antibiotics up to 10 days (Hata, 1998). To maximize the preserved period, we examined the dilution or replacement of seminal plasma with seawater containing antibiotics...
January 11, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Manolis Mandalakis, Asimenia Gavriilidou, Paraskevi N Polymenakou, Christos A Christakis, Paraskevi Nomikou, Matej Medvecký, Stephanos P Kilias, Maroudio Kentouri, Georgios Kotoulas, Antonios Magoulas
As ocean acidification intensifies, there is growing global concern about the impacts that future pH levels are likely to have on marine life and ecosystems. By analogy, a steep decrease of seawater pH with depth is encountered inside the Kolumbo submarine volcano (northeast Santorini) as a result of natural CO2 venting, making this system ideal for ocean acidification research. Here, we investigated whether the increase of acidity towards deeper layers of Kolumbo crater had any effect on relevant phenotypic traits of bacterial isolates...
January 4, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Yana Deschutter, Karel De Schamphelaere, Gert Everaert, Christoph Mensens, Marleen De Troch
The Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is subjected to multiple environmental stressors. The impact of these stressors includes the modulation of fatty acid (FA) composition of the zooplankton. This study recorded temporal and spatial patterns of the FA profiles of two dominant calanoid copepods within the BPNS: Temora longicornis (Müller, 1785) and Acartia clausi (Giesbrecht, 1889). By means of distance-based linear modelling and by applying multi model inference to generalized additive models, environmental stressors were linked to patterns of the FA profiles of these species...
January 3, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Valentina Pitacco, Michele Mistri, Ida Floriana Aleffi, Claudio Lardicci, Susanna Prato, Davide Tagliapietra, Cristina Munari
Taxonomic Sufficiency (TS), the use of coarser taxonomic resolution in monitoring plans, has been receiving increasing attention in last years. A comprehensive dataset of macrobenthos from 18 Italian lagoons in a range of different latitude, typology, salinity and surface area, was analysed in order to test the efficiency of TS, in terms of correlation between patterns at level of species and patterns resulting from different levels of taxonomic aggregation. First, TS was applied on a range of univariate indices, providing complementary information on macrobenthic community, in order to test the efficiency, in a contest of different taxonomic composition, and different number of lower taxa belonging to the same higher taxon in each lagoon...
January 3, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Tejal Vijapure, Soniya Sukumaran, S Neetu, Kalpna Chandel
Marine hotspots are areas prioritized for conservation and monitoring, based on their sensitivity or vulnerability. Understanding the natural variability of resident organisms in such critical areas is integral for deciphering human-induced perturbations to formulate appropriate management strategies. Five marine hotspots along northwest India, comprising three active harbours and two marine protected areas, were surveyed seasonally to understand the macrofaunal distribution patterns and functional traits. Among the 33 macrobenthic taxa, Polychaeta constituted the dominant taxon...
December 26, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Tamara Maciel Pereira, Gabriel Nuto Nóbrega, Tiago Osório Ferreira, Cynthia Yuri Ogawa, Plínio Barbosa de Camargo, José Roberto Feitosa Silva, Carla Ferreira Rezende
Mangroves have a relevant ecosystem function due to their efficiency in blue carbon sequestration. Autotrophic carbon conservation in mangroves remains controversial. In this sense, autotrophic nutrient assimilation by crabs can highlight their ecosystem function. This study aims to identify the relationship between quality sources and food partitioning in two leaf-eating crabs, Ucides cordatus and Goniopsis cruentata. Quantification of the litterfall biomass, analysis of the soil, the C/N ratio and stable isotopes (δ13 C and δ15 N) were used to evaluate food sources and crab tissues in two mangrove forests...
December 24, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
M Targusi, B La Porta, L Lattanzi, P La Valle, M Loia, D Paganelli, A Pazzini, R Proietti, L Nicoletti
Nowadays nourishment is the most popular shore reconstruction strategy to counteract erosion of coastal areas. Sediments used for nourishment can have terrestrial or marine origin. This study analysed the effects of nourishment with relict sand on the subtidal macrobenthic communities and on the surface sediment at 7 sites of the Marche Region (Central Adriatic Sea, Italy). Samples for biological and physical analyses were collected in each site before and after nourishment. One year after nourishment the presence of the relict sands used for the replenishment is still visible in the sediment of each site...
December 22, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Andréa da Consolação de Oliveira Carvalho, Carlos Rafael B Mendes, Rodrigo Kerr, José Luiz Lima de Azevedo, Felippe Galdino, Virginia M Tavano
This study describes the pigment-based phytoplankton community within three South Atlantic anticyclonic eddies (at different ages) shed from the Agulhas Current retroflection crossing the South Atlantic Ocean. Seawater samples were collected over these mesoscale structures in June-July 2015 during the Following Ocean Rings in the South Atlantic (FORSA) cruise. Data on phytoplankton pigments, measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were processed using a chemical taxonomy (CHEMTAX) tool to determine and quantify phytoplankton taxonomic groups...
December 21, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki, Amanda Reichelt-Brushett, Kirsten Benkendorff
To assess the effects of inorganic mercury ingestion on fish general behaviour and brain biochemical markers (acetylcholinesterase - AChE; lipid peroxidation - LPO; glutathione S-transferase - GST; catalase - CAT), juvenile yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis) were fed mercury dosed food (low = 0.7 mg kg-1 , medium = 2.4 mg kg-1 and high = 6 mg kg-1 ) or undosed food (control = 0.2 mg kg-1 ) for up to 16 days (5 replicates per treatment). Behavioural indicators, LPO levels and GST activity significantly changed overtime, but were not affected by mercury concentration...
December 20, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Valentina Asnaghi, Marie Collard, Luisa Mangialajo, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Philippe Dubois
Sea urchins, ecologically important herbivores of shallow subtidal temperate reefs, are considered particularly threatened in a future ocean acidification scenario, since their carbonate structures (skeleton and grazing apparatus) are made up of the very soluble high-magnesium calcite, particularly sensitive to a decrease in pH. The biomechanical properties of their skeletal structures are of great importance for their individual fitness, because the skeleton provides the means for locomotion, grazing and protection from predators...
December 17, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
M Celeste López-Abbate, Juan-Carlos Molinero, Gerardo M E Perillo, M Sonia Barría de Cao, Rosa E Pettigrosso, Valeria A Guinder, Román Uibrig, Anabela A Berasategui, Alejandro Vitale, Jorge E Marcovecchio, Mónica S Hoffmeyer
Planktonic ciliates constitute a fundamental component among microzooplankton and play a prominent role in carbon transport at the base of marine food webs. How these organisms respond to shifting environmental regimes is unclear and constitutes a current challenge under global ocean changes. Here we examine a multiannual field survey covering 25 years in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina), a shallow, flood-plain system dominated by wind and tidal energy. We found that the estuary experienced marked changes in wind dominant regimes and an increase in water turbidity driven from the joint effect of persistent long-fetch winds and the indirect effect of the Southern Annular Mode...
December 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
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