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New Phytologist

Kailiang Yu, Gregory R Goldsmith, Yujie Wang, William R L Anderegg
The widely documented phenomenon of nighttime stomatal conductance (gsn ) could lead to substantial water loss with no carbon gain, and thus it remains unclear whether nighttime stomatal conductance confers a functional advantage. Given that studies of gsn have focused on controlled environments or small numbers of species in natural environments, a broad phylogenetic and biogeographic context could provide insights into potential adaptive benefits of gsn . We measured gsn on a diverse suite of species (n = 73) across various functional groups and climates-of-origin in a common garden to study the phylogenetic and biogeographic/climatic controls on gsn and further assessed the degree to which gsn co-varied with leaf functional traits and daytime gas exchange rates...
February 18, 2019: New Phytologist
Nicolas Tissot, Kevin Robe, Fei Gao, Susana Grant-Grant, Jossia Boucherez, Fanny Bellegarde, Amel Maghiaoui, Romain Marcelin, Esther Izquierdo, Moussa Benhamed, Antoine Martin, Florence Vignols, Hannetz Roschzttardtz, Frédéric Gaymard, Jean-François Briat, Christian Dubos
Iron (Fe) homeostasis is crucial for all living organisms. In mammals, an integrated post-transcriptional mechanism couples the regulation of both Fe deficiency and Fe excess responses. Whether in plants an integrated control mechanism involving common players regulates responses both to deficiency and to excess is still to be determined. In this study, molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches were used in order to investigate transcriptional responses to both Fe deficiency and excess. A transcriptional activator of responses to Fe shortage in Arabidopsis, called bHLH105/ILR3, was found to also negatively regulate expression of ferritin genes, which are markers of the plant's response to Fe excess...
February 17, 2019: New Phytologist
Jing Cui, Marlène Davanture, Michel Zivy, Emmanuelle Lamade, Guillaume Tcherkez
Oil palm is by far the major oil-producing crop at the global scale, with ≈62 Mt oil produced each year. This species is a strong potassium (K)-demanding species cultivated in regions where soil K availability is generally low and waterlogging due to tropical heavy rains can limit further nutrient absorption. However, the metabolic effects of K and waterlogging have never been assessed precisely. Here, we examined the metabolic response of oil palm saplings in the greenhouse under controlled conditions (nutrient composition with low or high K availability, with or without waterlogging), using gas exchange, metabolomics and proteomics analyses...
February 15, 2019: New Phytologist
Na Liu, Yingzi Yun, Yanni Yin, Matthias Hahn, Zhonghua Ma, Yun Chen
●Lipid droplets (LDs) control lipid metabolism in eukaryotic cells in general. However, the biogenesis regulation and biological functions of LDs are largely unknown in pathogenic fungi. ● Rapamycin treatment results in a significant increase of LD biogenesis in Fusarium graminearum. Molecular mechanisms of the TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway in regulating LD biogenesis and the functions of LD in virulence of F. graminearum were investigated in depth by combining genetic, cytological and phenotypic strategies...
February 14, 2019: New Phytologist
Elodie Chapurlat, Jon Ågren, Joseph Anderson, Magne Friberg, Nina Sletvold
•Floral scent is a crucial trait for pollinator attraction. Yet, only a handful of studies have estimated selection on scent in natural populations and no study has quantified the relative importance of pollinators versus other agents of selection. •In the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea s.s., we used electroantennographic data to identify floral scent compounds detected by local pollinators and quantified pollinator-mediated selection on emission rates of ten target compounds as well as on flowering start, visual display and spur length...
February 14, 2019: New Phytologist
Adam B Roddy, Guo-Feng Jiang, Kunfang Cao, Kevin A Simonin, Craig R Brodersen
Maintaining water balance has been a critical constraint shaping the evolution of leaf form and function. However, flowers, which are heterotrophic and relatively short-lived, may not be constrained by the same physiological and developmental factors. We measured physiological parameters derived from pressure-volume curves for leaves and flowers of 22 species to characterize the diversity of hydraulic traits in flowers and to determine whether flowers are governed by the same constraints as leaves. Compared to leaves, flowers had high saturated water content, which was a strong predictor of hydraulic capacitance in both leaves and flowers...
February 14, 2019: New Phytologist
Alistair Rogers, Shawn P Serbin, Kim S Ely, Stan D Wullschleger
How Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs) represent leaf photosynthesis and its sensitivity to temperature are two critical components of understanding and predicting the response of the Arctic carbon cycle to global change. We measured the effect of temperature on the response of photosynthesis to irradiance in six Arctic plant species and determined the quantum yield of CO2 fixation (ϕCO 2 ) and the convexity factor (θ). We also determined leaf absorptance (α) from measured reflectance to calculate ϕCO 2 on an absorbed light basis (ϕCO 2...
February 14, 2019: New Phytologist
Zikun Mao, Adriana Corrales, Kai Zhu, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Zhanqing Hao, Xugao Wang
Soil fertility influences plant community structure, yet few studies have focused on how this influence is affected by the type of mycorrhizal association formed by tree species within local communities. We examined the relationship of aboveground biomass (AGB) and diversity of adult trees with soil fertility (N, P, organic matter, etc.) in the context of different spatial distributions of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees in a temperate forest in Northeast China. Diversity showed a positive trend along the soil fertility gradient mostly driven by a positive relationship between AM tree abundance and soil fertility...
February 14, 2019: New Phytologist
Matthias C Rillig, Anika Lehmann
Achieving global agricultural sustainability while maximizing yield and yield quality is a key issue for which we should consider all options. We here show that agricultural 'classical' management options are likely underexplored: we estimate that the most intensely researched sites cover only a fraction of a percent of available options. Since some of these untested options may prove important for yield, yield quality and sustainability, we suggest the use of distributed trials, exploring a broader range of options; this should occur in parallel to employing new technologies...
February 14, 2019: New Phytologist
Javier Valverde, Francisco Perfectti, José María Gómez
The pollination effectiveness of a flower visitor has traditionally been measured as the product of a quantity component that depends on the frequency of interaction and a quality component that measures the per-visit effects on plant reproduction. We propose that this could be complemented with a genetic component informing about each pollinator's contribution to the genetic diversity and composition of the plant progeny. We measured the quantity and quality components of effectiveness of most pollinator functional groups of the generalist herb Erysimum mediohispanicum...
February 14, 2019: New Phytologist
Xiangying Mao, Jeong Im Kim, Mitchell T Wheeler, Anne K Heintzelman, Vikki M Weake, Clint Chapple
The Mediator complex functions as a hub for transcriptional regulation. MED5, an Arabidopsis Mediator tail subunit, is required for maintaining phenylpropanoid homeostasis. A semi-dominant mutation (ref4-3) that causes a single amino acid substitution in MED5b functions as a strong suppressor of the pathway, leading to decreased soluble phenylpropanoid accumulation, reduced lignin content and dwarfism. By contrast, loss of MED5 results in increased levels of phenylpropanoids. We used a reverse genetic approach to identify suppressors of ref4-3 and found that ref4-3 requires CDK8, a kinase module subunit of Mediator, to repress plant growth...
February 12, 2019: New Phytologist
Gang Sa, Jun Yao, Chen Deng, Jian Liu, Yinan Zhang, Zhimei Zhu, Yuhong Zhang, Xujun Ma, Rui Zhao, Shanzhi Lin, Cunfu Lu, Andrea Polle, Shaoliang Chen
Salt stress is an important environmental cue impeding poplar nitrogen nutrition. Here, we characterized the impact of salinity on proton-driven nitrate fluxes in ectomycorrhizal roots and the importance of Hartig net for nitrate uptake. We employed two Paxillus involutus strains for root colonization: MAJ, which forms typical ectomycorrhizal structures (mantle and Hartig net) and NAU, colonizing roots with a thin, loose hyphal sheath. Fungus-colonized and non-colonized Populus × canescens were exposed to NaCl and used to measure root surface pH, NO3 - flux and transcription of nitrate transporters (PcNRT1...
February 12, 2019: New Phytologist
Jonathan P Lynch
Nutrient efficient crops are a solution to the two grand challenges of modern agriculture: improving food security while reducing environmental impacts. The primary challenges are (1) N and P efficiency, (2) K, Ca, and Mg efficiency for acid soils, and (3) Fe and Zn efficiency for alkaline soils. Root phenotypes are promising breeding targets for each of these. The Topsoil Foraging ideotype is beneficial for P capture and should also be useful for capture of K, Ca, and Mg in acid soils. The Steep, Cheap, and Deep ideotype for subsoil foraging is beneficial for N and water capture...
February 11, 2019: New Phytologist
Mengying Zhong, Pilar Castro-Díez, Jean-Philippe Puyravaud, Frank J Sterck, Johannes H C Cornelissen
Xylem conduit diameter (Dmax) of woody angiosperm adults scales with plant size and widens from stem apex downwards. We hypothesized that, notwithstanding relative growth rate (RGR), growth form or leaf habit, woody seedling conduit Dmax scales linearly with plant size across species; this scaling should be applicable to all vegetative organs, with consistent conduit widening from leaf via stem to main root and coupling with whole-leaf area and whole-stem xylem area. To test these hypotheses, organ-specific xylem anatomy traits and size-related traits in laboratory-grown seedlings were analyzed across 55 woody European species from cool-temperate and Mediterranean climates...
February 11, 2019: New Phytologist
Pedro Crevillén, Ángeles Gómez-Zambrano, Juan A López, Jesús Vázquez, Manuel Piñeiro, José A Jarillo
•Post-translational histone modifications and the dynamics of histone variant H2A.Z are key mechanisms underlying the floral transition. In yeast, SWR1-C and NuA4-C mediate the deposition of H2A.Z and the acetylation of histone H4, H2A and H2A.Z respectively. Yaf9 is a subunit shared by both chromatin remodeling complexes. The significance of the two Arabidopsis YAF9 homologs, YAF9A and YAF9B, is unknown. •To get an insight on the role of Arabidopsis YAF9 proteins in plant developmental responses, we followed physiological, genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomics and cell biology approaches...
February 11, 2019: New Phytologist
Desré Pinard, Ana Carolina Fierro, Kathleen Marchal, Alexander A Myburg, Eshchar Mizrachi
Subcellular compartmentation of plant biosynthetic pathways in the mitochondria and plastids requires coordinated regulation of nuclear encoded genes, and the role of these genes has been largely ignored by wood researchers. In this study, we constructed a targeted systems genetics coexpression network of xylogenesis in Eucalyptus using plastid and mitochondrial carbon metabolic genes and compared the resulting clusters to the aspen xylem developmental series. The constructed network clusters reveal the organization of transcriptional modules regulating subcellular metabolic functions in plastids and mitochondria...
February 11, 2019: New Phytologist
Rebekka Bögelein, Marco M Lehmann, Frank M Thomas
While photosynthetic isotope discrimination is well understood, the post-photosynthetic and transport-related fractionation mechanisms that influence phloem and subsequently tree ring δ13 C are less investigated and may vary among species. We studied the seasonal and diel courses of leaf-to-phloem δ13 C differences of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in vertical crown gradients and followed the assimilate transport via the branches to the trunk phloem at breast height in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)...
February 11, 2019: New Phytologist
David A Grantz, Brandon S Linscheid, Nancy E Grulke
Origins of abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated metabolic control of stomatal conductance have been suggested to be recent, a gradualistic model of stomatal evolution. In ferns, steady state stomatal conductance (gs ) was unresponsive to ABA in some studies, supporting this model. Stomatal kinetic responses to ABA have not been considered. We used dynamic gas exchange methods to characterize half times of stomatal opening and closing in response to step changes in light, across a range of ABA exposures in three diverse taxa...
February 10, 2019: New Phytologist
Martin M Vila-Aiub, Qin Yu, Stephen B Powles
We reviewed the literature to understand the effects of glyphosate resistance on plant fitness at the molecular, biochemical and physiological level. A number of correlations between enzyme characteristics and glyphosate resistance imply the existence of a plant fitness cost associated with resistance-conferring mutations in the glyphosate target enzyme, EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase). These biochemical changes result in a trade-off between the glyphosate resistance level of the EPSPS enzyme and its catalytic activity...
February 8, 2019: New Phytologist
Manuel Nieves-Cordones, Mamy Andrianteranagna, Teresa Cuéllar, Isabelle Chérel, Rémy Gibrat, Martin Boeglin, Bertrand Moreau, Nadine Paris, Jean-Luc Verdeil, SabineDagmar Zimmermann, Isabelle Gaillard
In grapevine, climate changes lead to increased berry potassium (K+ ) contents that result in must with low acidity. Consequently, wines are becoming 'flat' to the taste, with poor organoleptic properties and low potential aging, resulting in significant economic loss. Precise investigation into the molecular determinants controlling berry K+ accumulation during its development are only now emerging. Here, we report functional characterization by electrophysiology of a new grapevine Shaker-type K+ channel, VvK3...
February 8, 2019: New Phytologist
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