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Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB

Zhanru Shao, Wenli Wang, Pengyan Zhang, Jianting Yao, Fahe Wang, Delin Duan
Brown algae play a dominant role in the primary productivity of coastal ecosystems and may have an efficient carbon fixation. In this work, 56 genes involved in inorganic carbon fixation were identified from the Saccharina japonica genome. Sequence structure analysis of these genes showed the existence of corresponding function domains and active amino acid sites highly conserved with other stramenopile species. The predicted subcellular localizations showed that Calvin cycle-related enzymes predominantly reside in the plastid and that putative C4 -related enzymes are mainly distributed in the mitochondrion...
February 4, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Claudio Lo Giudice, Irene Hernández, Luigi R Ceci, Graziano Pesole, Ernesto Picardi
RNA editing is a widespread epitranscriptomic mechanism by which primary RNAs are specifically modified through insertions/deletions or nucleotide substitutions. In plants, RNA editing occurs in organelles (plastids and mitochondria), involves the cytosine to uridine modification (rarely uridine to cytosine) within protein-coding and non-protein-coding regions of RNAs and affects organelle biogenesis, adaptation to environmental changes and signal transduction. High-throughput sequencing technologies have dramatically improved the detection of RNA editing sites at genomic scale...
February 2, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Maria Filek, Apolonia Sieprawska, Janusz Kościelniak, Jana Oklestkova, Barbara Jurczyk, Anna Telk, Jolanta Biesaga-Kościelniak, Anna Janeczko
This study focused on the idea that the toxic effect of zearalenone (ZEA) and the protective actions of the brassinosteroid - 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) as well as selenium are dependent on its accumulation in chloroplasts to a high degree. These organelles were isolated from the leaves of oxidative stress-sensitive and stress-tolerant wheat cultivars that had been grown from grains that had been incubated in a solution of ZEA (30 μM), Na2 SeO4 (Se, 10 μM), EBR (0.1 μM) or in a mixture of ZEA with Se or EBR...
February 1, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jay Prakash Awasthi, Tilak Chandra, Sagarika Mishra, Shaifaly Parmar, Birendra Prasad Shaw, Pravin Daulat Nilawe, Neeraj Kumar Chauhan, Smita Sahoo, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Shortfall of rain that creates drought like situation in non-irrigated agriculture system often limits rice production, necessitating introduction of drought tolerance trait into the cultivar of interest. The mechanism governing drought tolerance is, however, largely unknown, particularly the involvement of miRNAs, the master regulators of biochemical events. In this regard, response study on a drought tolerant rice variety KMJ 1-12-3 to 20% PEG (osmolality- 315 mOsm/kg) as drought stress revealed significant changes in abundance of several conserved miRNAs targeting transcription factors like homeodomain-leucine zipper, MADS box family protein, C2H2 zinc finger protein and Myb, well known for their importance in drought tolerance in plants...
February 1, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yajun He, Dingxue Hu, Jingcan You, Daoming Wu, Yixin Cui, Hongli Dong, Jiana Li, Wei Qian
Root system is essential for plants to absorb water and nutrients. The root related traits are complex quantitative traits and regulated by genetic control. Here, we used two association mapping panels to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on seven root related traits in Brassica napus at the seedling stage and obtained 27 SNP loci significantly associated with the phenotypes. We further conducted a genome-wide LD block analysis of the candidate peak regions and obtained 295 candidate genes with high association peaks across seven phenotypes in LD region...
January 28, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Brant T McNeece, Keshav Sharma, Gary W Lawrence, Kathy S Lawrence, Vincent P Klink
Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important signal transduction roles. However, little is known regarding how they influence the gene expression of other family members and the relationship to a biological process, including the Glycine max defense response to Heterodera glycines. Transcriptomics have identified MAPK gene expression occurring within root cells undergoing a defense response to a pathogenic event initiated by H. glycines in the allotetraploid Glycine max. Functional analyses are presented for its 32 MAPKs revealing 9 have a defense role, including homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana MAPK (MPK) MPK2, MPK3, MPK4, MPK5, MPK6, MPK13, MPK16 and MPK20...
January 28, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sha Yang, Luying Zhao, Jianmei Yan, Jialei Zhang, Feng Guo, Yun Geng, Quan Wang, Fangyuan Yang, Shubo Wan, Xinguo Li
Glutamyl-tRNA reductase1 (HEMA1) and ferrochelatase1 (FC1) are both expressed in response to salt stress in the biosynthetic pathway of tetrapyrroles. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) HEMA1 and FC1 were isolated by RT-PCR. The amino acid sequence encoded by the two genes showed high similarity with that in other plant species. The AhFC1 fusion protein was verified to function in chloroplast using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast. Sense and wild-type (WT) tobaccos were used to further study the physiological effects of AhHEMA1 and AhFC1...
January 28, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Rui Nascimento, Marisa Maia, António E N Ferreira, Anabela B Silva, Ana Ponces Freire, Carlos Cordeiro, Marta Sousa Silva, Andreia Figueiredo
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important fruit crop in the world, with 7.5 million of production area in 2017. The domesticated varieties of grapevine are highly susceptible to many fungal infections, of which downy mildew, caused by the biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curt.) Berl. et de Toni is one of the most threatening. In V. vinifera, several studies have shown that a weak and transient activation of a defense mechanism occurs, but it is easily overcome by the pathogen leading to the establishment of a compatible interaction...
January 25, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Cláudia Maria Furlan, Fernanda Anselmo-Moreira, Luíza Teixeira-Costa, Gregório Ceccantini, Juha-Pekka Salminen
The present study aimed to investigate the reciprocal effects of Phoradendron perrottetii (mistletoe) and T. guianensis (host plant) regarding their polyphenol composition. Taking into account that tannins are important molecules in plant defense and their biosynthesis tends to be enhanced when a species is exposed to stress, we address the following questions: (1) Are the tannins found in our model species important in the interaction between host and mistletoe? (2) Does the presence of mistletoe induce changes in the content of tannins and other polyphenols in the host plant? (3) Do we find differences between the tannin sub-groups in the responses of the host plant to mistletoe? (4) Could the observed differences reflect the relative importance of one tannin group over another as chemical defense against the mistletoe? Using a polyphenol and tannin group-specific MRM methods we quantified four different tannin sub-groups together with flavonoid and quinic acid derivatives by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry together with the oxidative and protein precipitation activities of leaves and branches of Tapirira guianensis and Phoradendron perrottetii...
January 23, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Francisco Palma, Fátima Carvajal, Raquel Jiménez-Muñoz, Amada Pulido, Manuel Jamilena, Dolores Garrido
This work examines the effect of a treatment with 1 mM of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on zucchini fruit during postharvest cold storage. Specifically, the effect of GABA on postharvest quality was measured, as well as its implication in the GABA shunt and other related metabolic pathways. The treatments were performed in Sinatra, a variety of zucchini highly sensitive to low-temperature storage. The application of GABA improved the quality of zucchini fruit stored at 4 °C, with a reduction of chilling-injury index, weight loss, and cell death, as well as a lower rate of electrolyte leakage...
January 22, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Linhuan Chen, Bing Hu, Yonghua Qin, Guibing Hu, Jietang Zhao
Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites derived from the specific branch of the flavonoid pathway, responsible for red, purple and blue coloration display in the flowers and fruits. The functions of anthocyanins are diverse, including acting as visual signals to pollinators, defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, anthocyanins have been the most intensely studied secondary metabolite pathway. From model plants to horticultural crops, numerous studies have resulted in the discovery of highly conserved MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcriptional complex for the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants...
January 22, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Hong-Bing Yang, Yan-Chong Yu, Yi Wang, Xue-Feng Xu, Zhen-Hai Han
To further dissect the mechanism of salt tolerance in Malus, the comparison was made regarding the differences between the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive species in sodium accumulation and extrusion capability in the roots and stem base as well as the sodium re-transportation from shoot to roots by using 22 Na labeling-based feeding of leaves and roots-split experiments. The results demonstrated that the salt-tolerant Malus species could accumulate more 22 Na in the main roots, lateral roots, stem base phloem and xylem, and extrude more sodium out than the salt-sensitive one...
January 21, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Huiling Zhang, Ying Yao, Shuangchen Chen, Juan Hou, Yihe Yu, Tengfei Liu, Juan Du, Botao Song, Conghua Xie
Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a major drawback restricting potato process industry. Starch degradation and sucrose decomposition are considered to be the key pathways in potato CIS. Our previous study showed that the RING finger gene SbRFP1 could slow down starch degradation and the accumulation of reducing sugars (RS) through inhibiting amylase and invertase activity in cold-stored tubers. However, the regulation mechanism of SbRFP1 is not clear. In this paper, we first proved that SbRFP1 could promote starch synthesis and modify the shape of starch granules...
January 19, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xianchen Zhang, Honghong Wu, Linmu Chen, Ningning Wang, Chaoling Wei, Xiaochun Wan
Tea plant is an important economic crop and is vulnerable to drought. A good understanding of tea drought tolerance mechanisms is required for breeding robust drought tolerant tea varieties. Previous studies showed mesophyll cells' ability to maintain K+ is associated with its stress tolerance. Here, in this study, 12 tea varieties were used to investigate the role of mesophyll K+ retention ability towards tea drought stress tolerance. A strong and negative correlation (R2  = 0.8239, P < 0.001) was found between PEG (mimic drought stress)-induced K+ efflux from tea mesophyll cells and overall drought tolerance in 12 tea varieties...
January 19, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Luis Morales-Quintana, Cristian Carrasco-Orellana, Dina Beltrán, María Alejandra Moya-León, Raúl Herrera
Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTH) may have endotransglycosylase (XET) and/or hydrolase (XEH) activities. Previous studies confirmed XET activity for PrXTH1 protein from radiata pine. XTHs could interact with many hemicellulose substrates, but the favorite substrate of PrXTH1 is still unknown. The prediction of union type and energy stability of the complexes formed between PrXTH1 and different substrates (XXXGXXXG, XXFGXXFG, XLFGXLFG and cellulose) were determined using bioinformatics tools. Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics, MM-GBSA and Electrostatic Potential Calculations were employed to predict the binding modes, free energies of interaction and the distribution of electrostatic charge...
January 19, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xiao-Shuang Zhang, Rong Ni, Piao-Yi Wang, Ting-Ting Zhu, Chun-Jing Sun, Hong-Xiang Lou, Ai-Xia Cheng
Caffeoyl Coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs) catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a hydroxyl moiety. CCoAOMTs are important for the synthesis of lignin, which provides much of the rigidity required by tracheophytes to enable the long distance transport of water. So far, no CCoAOMTs has been characterized from the ancient tracheophytes ferns. Here, two genes, each encoding a CCoAOMT (and hence denoted PaCCoAOMT1 and PaCCoAOMT2), were isolated from the fern species Polypodiodes amoena...
January 18, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Lin Zhang, Anning Wen, Xiaoqi Wu, Xiaoling Pan, Nan Wu, Xuan Chen, Yan Chen, Dandan Mao, Liangbi Chen, Sheng Luan
Magnesium (Mg2+ ) is an essential element for plant growth. Its transport and homeostasis in plants is mainly maintained by the MRS2/MGT of Mg2+ transporters. Little is known about the MRS2/MGT gene family in Brassica napus L. (B. napus), one of the most important oil grains. In our present study, we identified 36 putative MRS2/MGT genes (BnMGTs) from B. napus and investigated their phylogeny, expression pattern and function. These BnMGT genes were sorted into five distinguished groups by the phylogenetic analysis, and they were clearly homologous with the MRS2/MGT genes in Arabidopsis and rice...
January 17, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sandeep Sharma, Chen Chen, Kusum Khatri, Mangal S Rathore, Shree P Pandey
Water stress severely reduces the production of wheat. Application of seaweed extracts have started to show promise in protecting plants from environmental stresses as they contain several biostimulants. However, the modes of action of these biostimulants are not clear. Here, we investigated the role of Gracilaria dura (GD), a red alga, in conferring stress tolerance to wheat during drought under glasshouse and agro-ecological conditions by integrating molecular studies with physiological and field investigations...
January 16, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Binggao Sun, Yingjia Zhao, Shuya Shi, Mengya Yang, Kai Xiao
Salt stress suppresses plant growth, development, and crop productivity. In this study, we characterized the role of TaZFP1, a C2H2 type-zinc finger protein family member of T. aestivum, in salt stress tolerance. TaZFP1 possesses a conserved C2H2 motif (CX2-4 CX12 HX3-5 H) shared by plant ZFP proteins, translocates to the nucleus after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) assortment, and displays a ZF 3-D structure similar to its eukaryote homologs. The transcripts of TaZFP1 were upregulated during salt stress condition and this effect was restored under normal conditions...
January 16, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Laura Marastoni, Youry Pii, Mauro Maver, Fabio Valentinuzzi, Stefano Cesco, Tanja Mimmo
Azospirillum brasilense was reported to up-regulate iron (Fe) uptake mechanisms, such as Fe reduction and rhizosphere acidification, in both Fe sufficient and deficient cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.). Strategy I plants take up both Fe and copper (Cu) after their reduction mediated by the ferric-chelate reductase oxidase (FRO) enzyme. Interestingly, in cucumber genome only one FRO gene is reported. Thus, in the present study we applied a bioinformatics approach to identify the member of cucumber FRO gene family and allowed the identification of at least three CsFRO genes, one of which was the already identified, i...
January 11, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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