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Conservation Biology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31087701/a-moral-panic-over-cats
#1
William S Lynn, Francisco Santiago-Ávila, Joann Lindenmayer, John Hadidian, Arian Wallach, Barbara J King
Some conservationists believe free-ranging cats pose an enormous risk to biodiversity and public health and therefore should be eliminated from the landscape by any means necessary. They further claim that those who question the science or ethics behind their arguments are science deniers (merchants of doubt) seeking to mislead the public . As much as we share a commitment to conservation of biodiversity and wild nature , we believe these ideas are wrong and fuel an unwarranted moral panic over cats. Those who question the ecological or epidemiological status of cats are not science deniers, and it is a false analogy to compare them with corporate and right-wing special interests that perpetrate disinformation campaigns over issues such as smoking and climate change...
May 14, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31074110/making-conservation-science-more-reliable-with-preregistration-and-registered-reports
#2
EDITORIAL
Timothy Parker, Hannah Fraser, Shinichi Nakagawa
Article impact statement: Preregistration and registered reports are good for researchers, good for research, and good for the reliability of science as a whole. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 10, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31069849/overlooked-biodiversity-loss-in-tropical-smallholder-agriculture
#3
Jacob B Socolar, Elvis H Valderrama Sandoval, David S Wilcove
Smallholder agriculture is the main driver of deforestation in the western Amazon, where terrestrial biodiversity reaches its global maximum. Understanding the biodiversity value of the resulting mosaics of cultivations and secondary forest is therefore crucial for conservation planning. However, Amazonian communities are organized across multiple forest-types that support distinct species assemblages, and little is known about smallholder impacts across the range of forest habitats that are essential for sustaining biodiversity...
May 8, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31069848/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-using-flagship-species-as-umbrellas-for-zone-designations-in-china-s-nature-reserves
#4
Xiaoli Shen, Sheng Li, William J McShea, Dajun Wang, Jianping Yu, Xiaogang Shi, Wei Dong, Xiangcheng Mi, Keping Ma
Flagship species have been widely used as umbrella species in the management plans of China's nature reserves. This conflation of concepts, "flagship umbrellas", is best represented by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other large endangered mammals which are often selected as conservation targets for the site selection and planning of reserves. Few empirical studies have tested the effectiveness of flagship species as planning surrogates for a broader range of species. Using extensive camera-trap data, we tested the efficacy of this conservation approach by examining the effectiveness of zone designations for the conservation of target species, as well as their sympatric species in four wildlife reserves (Gutianshan, Changqing, Laohegou and Wolong)...
May 8, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31059151/effects-of-ecotourism-on-forest-loss-in-the-himalayan-biodiversity-hotspot-based-on-counterfactual-analyses
#5
Jodi S Brandt, Volker Radeloff, Teri Allendorf, Van Butsic, Anand Roopsind
Ecotourism is developing rapidly in biodiversity hotspots worldwide, but there is limited and mixed empirical evidence that ecotourism achieves positive biodiversity outcomes. We assessed whether ecotourism influenced forest loss rates and trajectories from 2000 - 2017 in Himalayan temperate forests. We compared forest loss in 15 ecotourism hubs with nonecotourism areas in 4 Himalayan countries. We used matching statistics to control for local-level determinants of forest loss, for example, population density, market access, and topography...
May 6, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31058355/compliance-with-and-ecosystem-function-of-biodiversity-offsets-in-north-american-and-european-freshwaters
#6
REVIEW
Sebastian Theis, Jonathan L W Ruppert, Karling N Roberts, Charles K Minns, Marten Koops, Mark S Poesch
Land-use change via human development is a major driver of biodiversity loss. To reduce these impacts, billions of dollars are spent on biodiversity offsets. However, studies evaluating offset project effectiveness that examine components such as the overall compliance and function of projects remain rare. We reviewed 577 offsetting projects in freshwater ecosystems that included the metrics project size, type of aquatic system (e.g., wetland, creek), offsetting measure (e.g., enhancement, restoration, creation), and an assessment of the projects' compliance and functional success...
May 6, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31016794/conservation-publications-and-their-provisions-to-protect-research-participants
#7
REVIEW
Harriet Ibbett, Stephanie Brittain
Social science methods are increasingly applied in conservation research. However, the conservation sector has received criticism for inadequate application of ethical rigour when research involves people, particularly when investigating sensitive or illegal topics. We conducted a systematic review to investigate a) journal's ethical policies when publishing research that involves human participants, and b) the ethical safeguards documented by authors in conservation articles. Focusing on studies that used social science methods to research hunting of wildlife by local people, we reviewed 185 studies published in 57 journals...
April 23, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31006918/untapped-potential-of-collective-intelligence-in-conservation-and-environmental-decision-making
#8
Ans Vercammen, Mark Burgman
Environmental decisions are often deferred to groups of experts, committees, or panels to develop climate policy, plan protected areas, or negotiate trade-offs for biodiversity conservation. There is, however, surprisingly little empirical research on the performance of group decision making related to the environment. We examined examples from a range of different disciplines, demonstrating the emergence of collective intelligence in the elicitation of quantitative estimates, crowdsourcing applications, and small-group problem solving...
April 21, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31006914/network-analysis-of-a-stakeholder-community-combatting-illegal-wildlife-trade
#9
Andrea Moshier, Janna Steadman, David L Roberts
The illegal wildlife trade has emerged as a growing and urgent environmental issue. Stakeholders involved in the efforts to curb wildlife trafficking include non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academia, and state government/enforcement bodies. The extent to which these stakeholders work and communicate amongst each other is fundamental to effectively combatting illicit trade. Using the United Kingdom as a case study, we conducted a mixed methods study using a social network analysis and stakeholder interviews to assess communication relationships in the counter wildlife trafficking community...
April 21, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30997704/mainstreaming-human-and-large-carnivore-coexistence-through-institutional-collaboration
#10
Tibor Hartel, Ben C Scheele, Abi Tamim Vanak, Laurențiu Rozylowicz, John D C Linnell, Euan G Ritchie
Achieving human-large carnivore coexistence in Human Dominated Landscapes (HDL) is a key challenge for societies globally. This challenge cannot be adequately met with the current sectoral approaches of HDL governance and an academic sector largely dominated by disciplinary silos. In this essay, we urge academia (universities and other research institutions and organisations) to take a more active role in embracing societal challenges around large carnivore conservation in HDL. Drawing on key lessons from populated regions of Europe, Asia and South America with significant densities of large carnivores, we illustrate how academia can help facilitate cross-sectoral cooperation for mainstreaming human large carnivore coexistence...
April 18, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30980558/a-composite-measure-of-habitat-loss-for-entire-assemblages-of-species
#11
Jeremy S Simmonds, James E M Watson, Alvaro Salazar, Martine Maron
Habitat destruction is among the greatest threats facing biodiversity, affecting common and threatened species alike. However, metrics for communicating its impacts typically overlook the non-threatened component of assemblages. This risks the loss of habitat for species that comprise the majority of assemblages going unreported. Here, we adapt a widely-used measure for summarizing researcher output (the h index) to provide the first metric describing natural habitat loss for entire assemblages, inclusive of threatened and non-threatened species...
April 13, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30980554/effective-mitigation-of-conservation-conflicts-and-participatory-governance-reflections-on-kubo%C3%A5-et-al
#12
Krzysztof Niedziałkowski, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Rafał Kowalczyk, Dries P J Kuijper, Grzegorz Mikusiński, Nuria Selva, Wiesław Walankiewicz, Tomasz Wesołowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30977162/the-fatal-flaws-of-compassionate-conservation
#13
Meera Anna Oommen, Rosie Cooney, Madhuri Ramesh, Michael Archer, Daniel Brockington, Bram Buscher, Robert Fletcher, Daniel J D Natusch, Abi T Vanak, Grahame Webb, Kartik Shanker
Climate change, overconsumption, land-use intensification, widespread pollution, and other environmentally damaging factors are threatening Earth's biodiversity and its ability to provide ecosystem services essential for human survival. Article impact statement: Wallach et al.'s framing of compassionate conservation is flawed and impractical and could be dangerous for people, wildlife, and ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 12, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30968970/understanding-complex-drivers-of-wildlife-crime-to-design-effective-conservation-interventions
#14
Henry Travers, Lucy J Archer, Geoffrey Mwedde, Dilys Roe, Julia Baker, Andrew Plumptre, Aggrey Rwetsiba, E J Milner-Gulland
In conservation, understanding the drivers of behavior and developing robust interventions to promote behavioral change is challenging and requires a multi-faceted approach. This is particularly true for efforts to address illegal wildlife use, where pervasive - and sometimes simplistic - narratives often obscure complex realities. In this paper, we apply a set of novel techniques in an integrated approach to investigate the drivers and prevalence of wildlife crime in communities surrounding two national parks in Uganda and predict the performance of potential interventions designed to tackle these crimes...
April 10, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30963642/using-individual-based-movement-information-to-identify-spatial-conservation-priorities-for-mobile-species
#15
Ross G Dwyer, Hamish A Campbell, Richard D Pillans, Matthew E Watts, Barry J Lyon, Siddeswara M Guru, Minh N Dinh, Hugh P Possingham, Craig E Franklin
The optimal design of reserve networks and fisheries closures depends upon species occurrence information and knowledge of how anthropogenic impacts interact with the species concerned. However, challenges in surveying mobile and cryptic species over adequate spatial and temporal scales can mask the importance of particular habitats, leading to uncertainty about which areas to protect to optimize conservation efforts. We investigated how telemetry-derived locations can help guide the scale and timing of fisheries closures with the aim of reducing threatened species bycatch...
April 8, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30957293/effects-of-publication-bias-on-conservation-planning
#16
R Hickisch, T Hodgetts, P J Johnson, C Sillero-Zubiri, K Tockner, D W Macdonald
Conservation planers need reliable information on spatial patterns of biodiversity. However, existing data sets are skewed because some ecosystems, taxa, and locations are underrepresented. We determined how many articles have been published in recent decades on the biodiversity of different countries and their constituent provinces. We searched the Web of Science catalogues SCI and SSCI for biodiversity-related articles published from 1993 to 2016 that included country and province names. We combined data on research publication frequency with other provincial-scale factors hypothesized to affect the likelihood of research activity (i...
April 8, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30950531/the-case-for-embedding-researchers-in-conservation-agencies
#17
Dirk J Roux, Richard T Kingsford, Carly N Cook, Jane Carruthers, Katrina Dickson, Marc Hockings
While protected areas represent a pivotal response to escalating anthropogenic threats, they face many pressures, inside and outside their boundaries. Amid these challenges, effective conservation needs to be guided by evidence-based decision-making supported by good mechanisms of knowledge exchange. While many different models promote knowledge exchange, we argue that embedding research scientists within conservation management agencies is best suited to supporting evidence-based conservation. From scarce literature on embedding as a model of knowledge exchange, and experiences from several continents, we set out: 1) the benefits of embedded science for effective evidence-based conservation within management agencies; 2) the challenges and opportunities associated with institutionalizing the embedding model; and 3) the research required to understand the effectiveness of embedding research scientists for evidence-based conservation...
April 5, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30950112/using-cumulative-human-impact-models-to-reveal-global-threat-patterns-for-seahorses
#18
Xiong Zhang, Amanda C J Vincent
Understanding the threats acting upon marine organisms and their conservation status is vital but challenging given a paucity of data. Here we provide a global-scale study of cumulative human impact (CHI) and conservation status of seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) - a genus of rare and data-poor marine fishes. We built linear-additive models to assess and map the CHI of 12 anthropogenic stressors on 42 seahorse species, based on expert knowledge and spatial datasets. We examined the utility of the estimated impact indices (impact of each stressor and CHI) in predicting conservation status for the species using random forest (RF) models...
April 5, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30941815/relating-characteristics-of-global-biodiversity-targets-to-reported-progress
#19
Elizabeth J Green, Graeme M Buchanan, Stuart H M Butchart, Georgina M Chandler, Neil D Burgess, Samantha L L Hill, Richard D Gregory
To inform governmental discussions on the nature of a revised Strategic Plan on Biodiversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), we reviewed the relevant literature and assessed the framing of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets in the current Strategic Plan. We asked international experts from non-governmental organizations, academia, government agencies, international organizations, research institutes and the CBD to score the Aichi Targets and their constituent elements against a set of 'SMART'-based criteria: Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, Unambiguous, Scalable and Comprehensive (excluding 'Time-bound' as all targets are bound to 2015 or 2020)...
April 2, 2019: Conservation Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30912605/long-term-declines-of-european-insectivorous-bird-populations-and-potential-causes
#20
Diana E Bowler, Henning Heldbjerg, Anthony D Fox, Maaike de Jong, Katrin Böhning-Gaese
Evidence of declines in insect populations has recently received considerable scientific and societal attention. However, the lack of long-term insect monitoring makes it difficult to assess whether declines are geographically widespread. By contrast, bird populations are well monitored and often used as indicators of environmental change. We compared the population trends of European insectivorous birds with those of other birds to assess whether patterns in bird population trends were consistent with declines of insects...
March 26, 2019: Conservation Biology
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