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Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084885/rna-phloem-transport-mediated-by-pre-mirna-and-viral-trna-like-structures
#1
Alexander A Lezzhov, Anastasia K Atabekova, Eugeny A Tolstyko, Ekaterina A Lazareva, Andrey G Solovyev
Phloem-mobile mRNAs are assumed to contain sequence elements directing RNA to the phloem translocation pathway. One of such elements is represented by tRNA sequences embedded in untranslated regions of many mRNAs, including those proved to be mobile. Genomic RNAs of a number of plant viruses possess a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structures (TLSs) only distantly related to genuine tRNAs, but nevertheless aminoacylated and capable of interaction with some tRNA-binding proteins. Here, we elaborated an experimental system for analysis of RNA phloem transport based on an engineered RNA of Potato virus X capable of replication, but not encapsidation and movement in plants...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084884/powerdress-as-the-novel-regulator-enhances-arabidopsis-seeds-germination-tolerance-to-high-temperature-stress-by-histone-modification-of-som-locus
#2
Wenjuan Yang, Zhen Chen, Yawen Huang, Guanxiao Chang, Ping Li, Jiali Wei, Xiaojun Yuan, Jingling Huang, Xiangyang Hu
Seeds germination or dormancy is strictly controlled by endogenous phytohormone signal and environment cues. High temperature (HT) suppresses seeds germination or triggers seeds dormancy but underlying mechanism by which HT mediates seeds germination thermoinhibition needs more investigating. SOM is reported as the critical factor negatively controls light-irradiation seeds germination by altering Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) biosynthesis. Here we found that HT accelerates SOM expressing through ABA signal transduction component ABI3, both of abi3 and som mutants seeds show high germination rate under HT in contrast to wild type seeds...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084883/improving-genomic-prediction-of-growth-and-wood-traits-in-eucalyptus-using-phenotypes-from-non-genotyped-trees-by-single-step-gblup
#3
Eduardo P Cappa, Bruno Marco de Lima, Orzenil B da Silva-Junior, Carla C Garcia, Shawn D Mansfield, Dario Grattapaglia
Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) in tree breeding typically only uses information from genotyped trees. However, information from phenotyped but non-genotyped trees can also be highly valuable. The single-step GBLUP approach (ssGBLUP) allows genomic prediction to take into account both genotyped and non-genotyped trees simultaneously in a single evaluation. In this study, we investigated the advantage, in terms of breeding value accuracy and bias, of including phenotypic observation from non-genotyped trees in a standard tree GBLUP evaluation...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084882/products-of-anaerobic-metabolism-in-waterlogged-roots-of-soybean-are-exported-in-the-xylem
#4
Simone Cespedes Vitor, Ladaslav Sodek
Waterlogging leads to hypoxia of the root system. Metabolic changes occur that enable the plant to tolerate the hypoxic stress. We investigated the export of organic acids, products of anaerobic metabolism, via xylem of waterlogged soybean (Glycine max) plants. Organic acids were quantified by GC-MS and their formation via aspartate metabolism investigated using [4-13 C]aspartate. Elevated levels of malate were found together with variable amounts of other organic acids, notably lactate and succinate. Addition of [4-13 C]aspartate to the medium led to isotopic enrichment of several organic acids in the xylem sap...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084881/mobile-rnas-and-proteins-prospects-in-storage-organ-development-of-tuber-and-root-crops
#5
REVIEW
Bhavani Natarajan, Kirtikumar R Kondhare, David J Hannapel, Anjan K Banerjee
Storage tuber and root crops make up a significant portion of the world's subsistence food supply. Because of their importance in food security, yield enhancement has become a priority. A major focus has been to understand the biology of belowground storage organ development. Considerable insights have been gained studying tuber development in potato. We now know that two mobile signals, a full-length mRNA, StBEL5, and a protein, StSP6A, play pivotal roles in regulating tuber development. Under favorable conditions, these signals move from leaves to a belowground modified stem (stolon) and regulate genes that activate tuberization...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084880/terpenes-in-cannabis-sativa-from-plant-genome-to-humans
#6
REVIEW
Judith K Booth, Jörg Bohlmann
Cannabis sativa (cannabis) produces a resin that is valued for its psychoactive and medicinal properties. Despite being the foundation of a multi-billion dollar global industry, scientific knowledge and research on cannabis is lagging behind compared to other high-value crops. This is largely due to legal restrictions that have prevented many researchers from studying cannabis, its products, and their effects in humans. Cannabis resin contains hundreds of different terpene and cannabinoid metabolites. Many of these metabolites have not been conclusively identified...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084879/balance-between-nitrogen-use-efficiency-and-cadmium-tolerance-in-brassica-napus-and-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Qiong Liao, Shao-Fen Jian, Hai-Xing Song, Chun-Yun Guan, Joe Eugene Lepo, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Zhen-Hua Zhang
The transmembrane transport of NO3 - and Cd2+ into plant cell vacuoles relies on the energy from their tonoplast proton pumps, V-ATPase and V-PPase. If the activity of these pumps is reduced, it results in less NO3 - and Cd2+ being transported into the vacuoles, which contributes to better nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and lower Cd2+ tolerance in plants. The physiological mechanisms that regulate the balance between NUE and Cd2+ tolerance remain unknown. In our study, two Brassica napus genotypes with differential NUEs, xiangyou 15 and 814, and Atclca-2 mutant and AtCAX4 over-expression line (AtCAX4-OE) of Arabidopsis thaliana, were used to investigate Cd2+ stress responses...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084878/the-host-basal-transcription-factor-iia-subunits-coordinate-for-facilitating-infection-of-tales-carrying-bacterial-pathogens-in-rice
#8
Shugang Hui, Huiling Liu, Meng Zhang, Dan Chen, Qingqing Li, Jingjing Tian, Jinghua Xiao, Xianghua Li, Shiping Wang, Meng Yuan
Many plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas rely largely on secreting virulence transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) proteins into plant nucleus to activate host susceptibility genes to cause disease, the process is dependent on pathogen TALEs association with host plants basal transcription factor IIA small subunit TFIIAγ. TFIIAγ together with large subunit TFIIAαβ constitute as a key component of RNA polymerase II complex for transcriptome initiation. However, whether TFIIAαβ coordinates or competes with pathogen TALEs for interaction with TFIIAγ to activate transcript of TALEs-targeting genes is unclear...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084877/machine-learning-approaches-and-their-current-application-in-plant-molecular-biology-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Jose Cleydson F Silva, Ruan M Teixeira, Fabyano F Silva, Sergio H Brommonschenkel, Elizabeth P B Fontes
Machine learning (ML) is a field of artificial intelligence that has rapidly emerged in molecular biology, thus allowing the exploitation of Big Data concepts in plant genomics. In this context, the main challenges are given in terms of how to analyze massive datasets and extract new knowledge in all levels of cellular systems research. In summary, ML techniques allow complex interactions to be inferred in several biological systems. Despite its potential, ML has been underused due to complex computational algorithms and definition terms...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084876/nitrate-transporter-1-1-is-involved-in-regulating-flowering-time-via-transcriptional-regulation-of-flowering-locus-c-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Yibo Teng, Yi Liang, Mengyun Wang, Huacheng Mai, Liping Ke
Nitrate Transporter 1.1 (NRT1.1) is a nitrate transporter and sensor that modulates plant metabolism and growth. It has previously been shown that NRT1.1 is involved in the regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we mainly used genetic and molecular methods to reveal the key flowering pathway that NRT1.1 may be involved in. Mutant alleles of CO and FLC, two crucial components in the flowering pathway, were introduced into the NRT1.1 defective mutant background by crossing. When the CO mutation was introduced into chl1-5 plants, the double mutant had delayed flowering time, and the CO transcription levels did not change in the chl1-5 plants...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084875/connections-between-abscission-dehiscence-pathogen-defense-drought-tolerance-and-senescence
#11
REVIEW
O Rahul Patharkar, John C Walker
This review focuses on relationships between the abscission process (organ shedding) and other related processes like shattering, senescence, pathogen defense, and drought stress with emphasis on how the relationships might be exploited to advance their respective fields. Shared molecular components provide a means for cross-talk between processes as well as a means for knowledge transfer between fields. The review briefly covers how fundamental abscission molecular mechanisms can be used for crop improvement...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084874/osann3-a-calcium-dependent-lipid-binding-annexin-is-a-positive-regulator-of-aba-dependent-stress-tolerance-in-rice
#12
Xuefei Li, Qian Zhang, Xue Yang, Jianbo Han, Zhengge Zhu
Annexin is a multigene family that plays critical roles in plant stress responses and various cellular processes. Here, we reported the cloning and functional characterization of a novel rice annexin protein, OsANN3. We found that expression of OsANN3 was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Overexpression of OsANN3 in rice significantly increased survival rates under drought stress, while knocking down OsANN3 resulted in sensitivity to drought. Meanwhile, OsANN3 overexpression showed enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ABA...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084873/the-rice-storage-protein-mrnas-as-a-model-system-for-rna-localization-in-higher-plants
#13
REVIEW
Hong-Li Chou, Li Tian, Haruhiko Washida, Masako Fukuda, Toshihiro Kumamaru, Thomas W Okita
The transport and targeting of mRNAs to specific intracellular locations is a ubiquitous process in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Despite the prevalent nature of RNA localization in guiding development, differentiation, cellular movement and intracellular organization of biochemical activities, only a few examples exist in higher plants. Here, we summarize past studies on mRNA-based protein targeting to specific subdomains of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) using the rice storage protein mRNAs as a model...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084872/osbbx14-promotes-photomorphogenesis-in-rice-by-activating-oshy5l1-expression-under-blue-light-conditions
#14
Bo Bai, Nannan Lu, Yaping Li, Shanli Guo, Haibo Yin, Yanan He, Wei Sun, Wen Li, Xianzhi Xie
In rice, OsBBX14, a B-box (BBX) transcription factor, reportedly delays heading. Here, we revealed that OsBBX14 positively regulates rice photomorphogenesis. The OsBBX14-overexpressing (OsBBX14-OX) seedlings were hypersensitive to light, especially blue light, and exhibited dwarfism, while the OsBBX14 knock-out plants (osbbx14) were taller than wild-type plants under blue light. Histological analyses indicated that the observed dwarfism was mainly due to decreased cell length. Additionally, OsBBX14 abundance (mRNA and protein levels) was influenced by different light wavelengths in a time-dependent manner...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084871/chloroplast-development-activates-the-expression-of-ascorbate-biosynthesis-associated-genes-in-arabidopsis-roots
#15
Saki Shiroma, Mio Tanaka, Tomohiro Sasaki, Takahisa Ogawa, Kazuya Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Sawa, Takanori Maruta, Takahiro Ishikawa
Transcriptional activation of ascorbate biosynthesis-associated genes under illumination is one of the important steps in ascorbate pool size regulation in photosynthetic tissues. Several biological processes within chloroplasts such as photosynthesis are required for this activation, suggesting functional chloroplasts to play a key role. We herein found that when grown on agar plate, ascorbate content in Arabidopsis non-photosynthetic tissues, roots, are unexpectedly almost comparable to that in shoots. The high accumulation of ascorbate was particularly observed in root regions closer to the root-hypocotyl junction, in which chloroplast development occurred because of a direct exposure to light...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084870/nitrogen-and-nitric-oxide-regulate-arabidopsis-flowering-differently
#16
Zhong-Wei Zhang, Yu-Fan Fu, Yang-Hong Zhou, Chang-Quan Wang, Ting Lan, Guang-Deng Chen, Jian Zeng, Yang-Er Chen, Ming Yuan, Shu Yuan, Jin-Yao Hu
Both nitrogen (N) and nitric oxide (NO) postpone plant flowering. However, we still don't know whether N and NO trigger the same signaling pathways leading to flowering delay. Our previous study found that ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR1) and the blue-light receptor cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) are involved in nitrogen-regulated flowering-time control. However, NO-induced late-flowering does not require FNR1 or CRY1. Sucrose supply counteracts the flowering delay induced by NO. However high-N-induced late-flowering could not be reversed by 5% sucrose supplementation...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084869/identification-and-characterization-of-the-ipomoea-nil-rela-spot-homologs-inrshs-and-potential-directions-of-their-transcriptional-regulation
#17
Justyna M Prusińska, Justyna Boniecka, Grażyna B Dąbrowska, Anna Goc
Although the stringent response has been known for more than half a century and has been well studied in bacteria, only the research of the past 19 years revealed that the homologous mechanism is conserved in plants. The plant RelA/SpoT Homolog (RSH) genes have been identified and characterized in a limited number of plant species, whereas products of their catalytic activities, (p)ppGpp (alarmones), have been shown to accumulate mainly in chloroplasts. Here, we identified full-length sequences of the Ipomoea nil RSH genes (InRSH1, InRSH2 and InCRSH), determined their copy number in the I...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084868/cadmium-stress-alters-cytosine-methylation-status-and-expression-of-a-select-set-of-genes-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#18
Cuihua Xin, Junling Chi, Yibo Zhao, Yindi He, Jiangbo Guo
In this paper, we evaluated the genotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) in plants by performing a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) on the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Among 255 loci examined, 14 genes were found to show altered cytosine methylation patterns in response to Cd stress. Four of those genes (NbMORC3, NbHGSNAT, NbMUT, and NbBG) were selected for further analysis due to their predicted roles in plant development. Cd-induced changes of cytosine methylation status in MSAP fragments of selected genes were confirmed using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP)...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084867/y-2-sk-2-and-sk-3-type-dehydrins-from-agapanthus-praecox-can-improve-plant-stress-tolerance-and-act-as-multifunctional-protectants
#19
Zhou Yang, Jiangyuan Sheng, Ke Lv, Li Ren, Di Zhang
Two dehydrins from Agapanthus praecox (ApY2 SK2 and ApSK3 ) show important protective effects under complex stresses. Both ApY2 SK2 and ApSK3 contain one intron and consist of a full-length cDNA of 981 bp and 1057 bp encoding 186 and 215 amino acids, respectively. ApY2 SK2 and ApSK3 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana show reduced plasma membrane damage and ROS levels and higher antioxidant activity and photosynthesis capability under salt, osmotic, cold and drought stresses compared with the wild-type. ApY2 SK2 and ApSK3 are mainly located in the cytoplasm and cell membrane, and ApY2 SK2 can even localize in the nucleus...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084866/review-phytostimulation-and-root-architectural-responses-to-quorum-sensing-signals-and-related-molecules-from-rhizobacteria
#20
REVIEW
Randy Ortiz-Castro, José López-Bucio
Bacteria rely on chemical communication to sense the environment and to retrieve information on their population densities. Accordingly, a vast repertoire of molecules is released, which synchronizes expression of genes, coordinates behavior through a process termed quorum-sensing (QS), and determines the relationships with eukaryotic species. Already identified QS molecules from Gram negative bacteria can be grouped into two main classes, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and cyclodipeptides (CDPs), with roles in biofilm formation, bacterial virulence or symbiotic interactions...
July 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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