Journals Current Treatment Options in G...

Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
James S Hampton, Linda Sharp, Dawn Craig, Colin J Rees
Purpose of review: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide, killing approximately 900,000 people each year. An individual's risk of developing CRC is multi-factorial with known risk factors including increasing age, male sex, family history of CRC and raised body mass index. Population-based screening programmes for CRC exist in many countries, and in the United Kingdom (UK), screening is performed through the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP)...
January 5, 2021: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Jana G Hashash, Michael F Picco, Francis A Farraye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review serves as a summary of healthcare maintenance items that should be addressed when managing patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This manuscript discusses vaccine-preventable illnesses, cancer prevention recommendations, and other screenings that are important to gastroenterologists and primary care physicians caring for patients with IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with IBD often require immunomodulator agents and/or biologics to induce and maintain disease remission which can increase the risk of developing several infections...
2021: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Z H McMahan, D Khanna
OBJECTIVE: We sought to critically evaluate the literature published over the past 3 years on the management of gastrointestinal complications in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We emphasize interesting and important new findings to bring the reader up-to-date. We also discuss controversial discoveries and hypotheses currently of interest. METHODS: We conducted a literature search on PubMed over the last 3 years using the key words "systemic sclerosis," "gastrointestinal," "scleroderma," and "treatment...
December 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Benjamin A Lerner, Xavier Llor
Purpose of review: Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the world. Between 1% and 3% of cases are associated with specific genetic cancer risk syndromes. The purpose of this article is to review the latest insights, as well as gaps in knowledge, regarding some of the most common hereditary gastric cancer syndromes: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS), Lynch syndrome, the adenomatous polyposis syndromes, and the hamartomatous polyposis syndromes...
December 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Thomas Lambin, Adam S Faye, Jean-Frédéric Colombel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the relationship between IBD (inflammatory bowel diseases) therapy and VTE (venous thromboembolism) risk, as well as the safety, barriers, and utility of VTE prophylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2019, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a black box warning concerning the use of tofacitinib among ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with a post hoc analysis revealing that all patients had additional risk factors for VTE. Additionally, although IBD patients experiencing a disease flare often present with hematochezia, these patients are less likely to receive VTE prophylaxis, despite data showing that pharmacologic prophylaxis has not been associated with clinically significant signs of bleeding...
September 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Ying Gibbens, Prasad G Iyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is conflicting data on the effectiveness of the currently recommended endoscopic surveillance strategy in non-dysplastic BE patients. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of the current surveillance strategy. We also reviewed critical strategies and new technologies which could improve dysplasia detection. RECENT FINDINGS: Adherence to the current EGD surveillance guidelines is suboptimal with high rates of missed dysplasia/EAC...
September 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Nasir Saleem, Colin W Howden
Purpose of review: Our purpose was to provide an update on methods and indications for testing and treatment selection focusing on novel modalities. Recent findings: Increasing antibiotic resistance has reduced treatment effectiveness. Antibiotic resistance testing is not widely available in North America where there are insufficient resistance and susceptibility data. Quadruple regimens (bismuth-based or concomitant/non-bismuth-based) have been recommended first-line...
July 17, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Marialena Mouzaki, Rohit Loomba
The microbiome was originally postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD when the first studies of dysbiosis in NAFLD were reported. Since then, a number of studies have investigated this finding further, in order to discern whether the dysbiosis is the result of the metabolic dysregulation seen with NAFLD or a contributor to the pathogenesis of this condition.
June 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Zachary Wilmer Reichenbach, Gregory M Piech, Zubair Malik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nearly 4000 patients will be admitted to hospital in the US this year for hiccups. Hiccups are controlled by a complex reflex arc between peripheral receptors and the brainstem. Any disruption along this pathway may produce hiccups. Typically, hiccups resolve spontaneously but in certain pathologies symptoms may persist. Persistent hiccups may be considered a sign of underlying pathology. The most common cause involves GERD. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on etiologies, studies have shown that first-line therapy should use a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and involve appropriate gastrointestinal consultation...
March 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Yan Jiang, John O Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine recent key developments in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). RECENT FINDINGS: Newer research has suggested cytokine-mediated inflammation may play a role in the physiology of GERD, implying that the underlying mechanism may not be entirely related to chemical damage due to acid. Aided by novel technologies, diagnostic testing is also moving toward elucidating individual mechanisms and better defining specific GERD phenotypes with the goal of providing directed therapy...
February 19, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Vladimir Milivojevic, Tomica Milosavljevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the recent medical literature to show global burden of gastroduodenal disease, potential strategies, and further perspectives. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastrointestinal and liver diseases are growing health problems, and cause more than 8 million deaths per year worldwide; encompass a range of long-term health conditions, such as digestive cancers, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, peptic ulcer disease, liver diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, and functional gastrointestinal disorders...
January 28, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Jaime de la Fuente, Shounak Majumder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In current clinical practice, the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) are based on guidelines that combine clinical and imaging findings. These guidelines usefully identify a large category of low-risk PCLs that do not require treatment. However, they have limited accuracy for diagnosis of advanced neoplasia in worrisome and high-risk PCLs. Novel molecular markers that can accurately detect advanced neoplasia in PCLs can transform the care of patients with PCLs...
January 27, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Zoe Lawrence, Seth A Gross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the intent of maximizing adenoma detection rate (ADR), different devices and colonoscopic innovations have been introduced over the past few years. There are a variety of attachment devices available for use in colonoscopy, all intended to improve ADR. In this review, we evaluate the evidence surrounding the available attachment devices and their impact on ADR. RECENT FINDINGS: Endocuff, Endoring, Transparent cap, G-EYE balloon, and Third Eye Retroscope were all included in this review...
January 27, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
M Zad, A J Bredenoord
Belching is a physiological event that allows venting of swallowed gastric air. Excessive belching is a common presentation to gastroenterology clinics and could be isolated complains or associated with other gastrointestinal problems. PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: It is to describe the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of belching disorders RECENT FINDINGS: These demonstrate that learned abnormal behaviors in response to unpleasant feeling in the abdomen are the driving causes for excessive belching and addressing these behaviors by speech pathology and cognitive behavior therapy considered as the keystone in its management The gold standard in the diagnosis of belching is impedance monitoring by which belching is classified into supragastric belching and gastric belching...
January 23, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Jason D Eckmann, Derek W Ebner, John B Kisiel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multi-target stool DNA (MT-sDNA) was approved in 2014 for use in screening average-risk patients for colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we highlight recent literature from post-market studies to provide an update on clinical use and utility not possible from pre-approval studies. RECENT FINDINGS: MT-sDNA has been included in major society guidelines as an option for colorectal cancer screening, and has seen exponentially increasing use in clinical practice...
January 21, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Nicholas Hoerter, Seth A Gross, Peter S Liang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the history, recent advances, and ongoing challenges of artificial intelligence (AI) technology in colonic polyp detection. RECENT FINDINGS: Hand-crafted AI algorithms have recently given way to convolutional neural networks with the ability to detect polyps in real-time. The first randomized controlled trial comparing an AI system to standard colonoscopy found a 9% increase in adenoma detection rate, but the improvement was restricted to polyps smaller than 10 mm and the results need validation...
January 21, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Mohamad I Itani, Jad Farha, Mohamad Kareem Marrache, Lea Fayad, Dilhana Badurdeen, Vivek Kumbhari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery and endoluminal bariatric therapies (EBTs) form an increasingly utilized therapeutic approach to treat obese patients but may worsen gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In this updated article, we review the evidence on the effects of bariatric procedures on GERD. FINDINGS: Recent evidence implicates sleeve gastrectomy with the highest rates of de novo GERD and Barrett's esophagus (BE), whereas malabsorptive-restrictive procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) were shown to have significantly lower reported rates...
January 20, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Herit Vachhani, Bruno De Souza Ribeiro, Ron Schey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to discuss current diagnostic and treatments of rumination. Rumination is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in adults, especially when symptoms suggest regurgitation rather than vomiting accompanied by re-chewing and re-swallowing and should be included in the differential diagnosis. It is primarily diagnosed clinically by ROME-IV or DSM-5. RECENT FINDINGS: That rumination can be re-affirmed by characteristic patterns on objective testing such as high-resolution esophageal manometry and 24-h pH impedance testing...
January 20, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Ryan A Balko, Don C Codipilly, Karthik Ravi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) has expanded understanding of esophageal motor function. The Chicago Classification scheme has allowed systematic categorization of the myriad of manometric parameters identified during HRM. Multichannel intraluminal impedance pH has enhanced ambulatory reflux monitoring through complete assessment of esophageal content transit. However, the clinical implications of identified minor esophageal functional disorders remain unclear...
January 17, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Jessica Briscoe, Monica Saumoy, Octavia Pickett-Blakely
The original article unfortunately contained a mistake.
January 7, 2020: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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