Journals Current Treatment Options in N...

Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Andrés M De León, Rocio Garcia-Santibanez, Taylor B Harrison
PURPOSE OF EVIEW: The aim of this review is to discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and management of polyneuropathy (PN) in selected infections. Overall, most infection related PNs are an indirect consequence of immune activation rather than a direct result of peripheral nerve infection,  Schwann cell infection, or toxin production, though note this review will describe infections that cause PN through all these mechanisms. Rather than dividing them by each infectious agent separately, we have grouped the infectious neuropathies according to their presenting phenotype, to serve as a guide to clinicians...
June 10, 2023: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Εleni Stefanou, Nikolaos Karvelas, Samuel Bennett, Christo Kole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The risks of cerebrovascular manifestations due to SARS-CoV-2 infection are significantly increased within the first 6 months of the infection. Our work aims to give an update on current clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular manifestations during acute and long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of acute ischemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke during acute SARS-CoV-2 patients is estimated at 0.9 to 4...
2023: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Keir X X Yong, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Samrah Ahmed, Marianne Chapleau, Rik Ossenkoppele, Deepti Putcha, Gil D Rabinovici, Aida Suarez-Gonzalez, Jonathan M Schott, Sebastian Crutch, Emma Harding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study aims to provide a summary of recent developments for diagnosing and managing posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). We present current efforts to improve PCA characterisation and recommendations regarding use of clinical, neuropsychological and biomarker methods in PCA diagnosis and management and highlight current knowledge gaps. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent multi-centre consensus recommendations provide PCA criteria with implications for different management strategies (e...
2023: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Matthew Creech, Lindsey Carvalho, Heather McCoy, Jon Jacobs, H E Hinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision treatments to address the multifaceted pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are desperately needed, which has led to the intense study of fluid-based protein biomarkers in TBI. Mass Spectrometry (MS) is increasingly being applied to biomarker discovery and quantification in neurological disease to explore the proteome, allowing for more flexibility in biomarker discovery than commonly encountered antibody-based assays. In this narrative review, we will provide specific examples of how MS technology has advanced translational research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) focusing on clinical studies, and looking ahead to promising emerging applications of MS to the field of Neurocritical Care...
December 2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
David Stevens, Shadi Milani-Nejad, Tahseen Mozaffar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the clinical presentation and provides an update on the current strategies for diagnosis of Pompe disease. We will review the available treatment options. We examine newly approved treatments as well as upcoming therapies in this condition. We also provide commentary on the unmet needs in clinical management and research for this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: In March 2015, Pompe disease was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) and since then a number of states have added Pompe disease to their slate of diseases for their Newborn Screening (NBS) program...
November 2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Jannik Peters, Nathan P Staff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Toxic neuropathies are an important preventable and treatable form of peripheral neuropathy. While many forms of toxic neuropathies have been recognized for decades, an updated review is provided to increase vigilant in this area of neurology. A literature review was conducted to gather recent information about toxic neuropathies, which included the causes, clinical findings, and treatment options in these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Toxic neuropathies continue to cause significant morbidity throughout the world and the causative agents, particularly with regards to medications, do not appear to be diminishing...
May 2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Angelo Bianchetti, Renzo Rozzini, Luca Bianchetti, Flaminia Coccia, Fabio Guerini, Marco Trabucchi
Purpose of Review: This review discusses the complex relationship between COVID-19 and dementia and how the pandemic has affected the management of patients with dementia. This population resulted particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its effects and also to the negative effects of the measures taken worldwide to control the spread of the virus. Recent Findings: Patients with dementia were at increased risk for COVID-19 compared to patients without dementia, and diagnosis of dementia represents an independent risk factor for hospitalization in COVID-19 patients...
February 23, 2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Ehab Harahsheh, Stephen W English, Courtney M Hrdlicka, Bart Demaerschalk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to discuss the role and utilization of telestroke services through the COVID-19 pandemic and to suggest future directions to sustain and increase patients' access to stroke expertise. RECENT FINDINGS: Telestroke is an innovative and effective tool that has been shown to improve access, quality of care, and outcomes of patients with acute stroke syndromes in resource-limited areas for the last two decades. The COVID-19 pandemic posed a significant challenge and strained healthcare systems worldwide, but it created novel and unique opportunities to expand and increase the utilization of telehealth and telestroke services to deliver personalized healthcare across the continuum of stroke care outside of traditional settings...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Nassim Matin, Kasra Sarhadi, C Patrick Crooks, Abhijit V Lele, Vasisht Srinivasan, Nicholas J Johnson, Chiara Robba, James A Town, Sarah Wahlster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize pathophysiology, key conflicts, and therapeutic approaches in managing concomitant severe acute brain injury (SABI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). RECENT FINDINGS: ARDS is common in SABI and independently associated with worse outcomes in all SABI subtypes. Most landmark ARDS trials excluded patients with SABI, and evidence to guide decisions is limited in this population. Potential areas of conflict in the management of patients with both SABI and ARDS are (1) risk of intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation with high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), permissive hypercapnia due to lung protective ventilation (LPV), or prone ventilation; (2) balancing a conservative fluid management strategy with ensuring adequate cerebral perfusion, particularly in patients with symptomatic vasospasm or impaired cerebrovascular blood flow; and (3) uncertainty about the benefit and harm of corticosteroids in this population, with a mortality benefit in ARDS, increased mortality shown in TBI, and conflicting data in other SABI subtypes...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Ammad Mahmood, Keith W Muir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alteplase has been the thrombolytic of choice for acute ischaemic stroke for more than two decades. A thrombolytic which is easier to administer and with improved or comparable safety and efficacy is desirable. Tenecteplase has emerged as a potential successor, and its off-license use in acute ischaemic stroke has increased in recent years. We aimed to examine the evidence base for each drug and discuss their use in varying patient populations in acute ischaemic stroke...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Jamie Nicole LaBuzetta, Atul Malhotra, Phyllis C Zee, Matthew B Maas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article introduces fundamental concepts in circadian biology and the neuroscience of sleep, reviews recent studies characterizing circadian rhythm and sleep disruption among critically ill patients and potentially links to functional outcomes, and draws upon existing literature to propose therapeutic strategies to mitigate those harms. Particular attention is given to patients with critical neurologic conditions and the unique environment of the neuro-intensive care unit...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Ajay X Thomas, James J Riviello, Daniel Davila-Williams, Sruthi P Thomas, Jennifer C Erklauer, David F Bauer, Jon A Cokley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides guidance for acute spinal cord injury (SCI) management through an analytical assessment of the most recent evidence on therapies available for treating SCI, including newer therapies under investigation. We present an approach to the SCI patient starting at presentation to acute rehabilitation and prognostication, with additional emphasis on the pediatric population when evidence is available. RECENT FINDINGS: Further studies since the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS) demonstrated a potential functional outcome benefit with ultra-early surgical intervention ≤ 8 h post-SCI...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Sudeepta Dandapat, Waldo R Guerrero, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez
PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: This article provides an overview into acute treatments in stroke which are widely studied and available for adults and their applicability in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Arterial ischemic stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Neurological deficits and etiologies are age-dependent and more challenging to diagnose than in the adult population. Advancements in imaging and treatment modalities including increased treatment windows in acute stroke have led to improvement in the diagnosis and management of pediatric arterial ischemic disease...
January 2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Marialaura Simonetto, Paul M Wechsler, Alexander E Merkler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of stroke in the era of COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 is associated with myriad neurological disorders, including cerebrovascular disease. While ischemic stroke is the most common, COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage, arterial dissection, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Areti Vassilopoulos, Shekeeb Mohammad, Leon Dure, Kasia Kozlowska, Aaron D Fobian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a multi-network brain disorder that encompasses a broad range of neurological symptoms. FND is common in pediatric practice. It places substantial strains on children, families, and health care systems. Treatment begins at assessment, which requires the following: the medical task of making the diagnosis, the interpersonal task of engaging the child and family so that they feel heard and respected, the communication task of communicating and explaining the diagnosis, and the logistical task of organizing treatment...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Belén Rodriguez, Lars Larsson, Werner J Z'Graggen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is a common neuro-muscular complication of intensive care treatment associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The current guidelines for diagnosis include clinical and electrophysiological criteria as well as a muscle biopsy, and allow diagnosis only at an advanced stage of the disease. To date, there is no treatment for CIM available, apart from symptomatic and rehabilitative interventions. In this review, we discuss different diagnostic approaches and describe new treatment possibilities for CIM...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Pauline Samia, Katherine Oyieke, Dorcas Tunje, Anaita Udwadia-Hegde, Kristen Feemster, Ibrahim Oncel, Banu Anlar
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive, and frequently fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by measles virus. The risk of SSPE remains significant globally, with fluctuating incidence noted in in tandem with measles vaccine uptake. This review aims to explore the current global status of SSPE, its treatment, and preventive measures. RECENT FINDINGS: An increase in measles cases have been reported in various parts of the world for different reasons related to the regional context of the outbreak...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Alexandra N Cocores, Teshamae S Monteith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is an update of headache attributed to systemic disease and current therapeutic strategies. Clinical scenarios are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnosis of headache attributed to metabolic or systemic disorder appears in the Appendix of International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, and requires further evaluation and validation. However, recent studies characterizing headache appear in the literature. Specific treatment includes addressing underlying systemic disorders, managing concurrent primary headache, and treating comorbidities that may exacerbate headache...
2022: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Corinne A Pittman, Bryan K Ward, Carrie L Nieman
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The goal of this review is to highlight current approaches to diagnosis and treatment for adult-onset hearing loss in patients likely to present to a neurologist's office. The review will discuss primary and secondary causes of acute and chronic hearing loss, and will discuss common situations that can be managed by a neurologist as well as situations that require immediate care and referral for further management by an otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon. RECENT FINDINGS: Hearing screening assessments using mobile applications and tablet devices are now available and can be integrated into many clinical practice settings, including in the evaluation of hearing concerns related to various neurological pathologies...
July 2021: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Jane G Boggs
PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: This review presents current therapy for seizures in the intensive care unit. The reader is provided with recent evidence regarding the use of EEG in determining treatment for acute seizures. Proposed treatment approaches for seizures and status epilepticus are provided. Controversies and complexity of selecting treatments are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Critical Care EEG Monitoring Research Consortium analyzed the association of periodic and rhythmic electroencephalographic patterns with seizures and found that lateralized and generalized periodic discharges and lateralized rhythmic delta were associated with increased seizure risk...
2021: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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