Debergh Hanne, Castelain Philippe, Goens Karine, Lefevere Paulien, Claessens Jessie, Vits De Elien, Vissers Marc, Blindeman Liesbet, Bataille Charlotte, Saegerman Claude, Packeu Ann
Azole resistance in A. fumigatus (ARAf) is becoming a worldwide health threat due to increasing occurrence in the environment. However, environmental surveillance programs are not commonly in place and are lacking in Belgium. Since no data on the occurrence of ARAf and the presence of hotspots for the selection of azole resistance is available in Belgium, a first study on the prevalence of ARAf in the environment was conducted. A total of 232 air and compost or soil samples were taken from two composting facilities, and from horticultural and agricultural crops...
May 20, 2024: Medical Mycology
Norma B Fernandez, Diego H Cáceres, Julian A Serrano, Alexandro Bonifaz, Cristina E Canteros, Roberto Suarez-Alvarez, Rosely Maria Zancope Oliveira, Regielly C R Cognialli, Priscila Marques de Macedo, Beatriz L Gomez, Angela M Tobon, Carlos Taborda, Tom Chiller, Jose Guillermo Pereira Brunelli, Dallas J Smith, Marcus de Melo Teixeira, Flavio Queiroz-Telles, Guillermo Garcia Effron, Karina Ardizzoli, Ricardo Negroni, Gustavo Giusiano
The Second International Meeting on Endemic Mycoses of the Americas (IMEMA) and the First International Symposium on Implantation Mycoses (ISIM) took place in Santiago del Estero, Argentina during September 25-27th, 2023. The conference provided a platform for researchers, clinicians, and experts to discuss the latest developments in the field of endemic and implantation mycoses. Topics included epidemiology, diagnostic advances, treatment strategies, and the impact of environmental factors in the spread of these fungal diseases...
May 14, 2024: Medical Mycology
Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio Quevedo-Caraballo, Marta E García, José L Blanco
Despite previous reports on the emergence of Malassezia pachydermatis strains with decreased susceptibility to azoles, there is limited information on the actual prevalence and genetic diversity of azole-resistant isolates of this yeast species. We assessed the prevalence of azole resistance in M. pachydermatis isolates from cases of dog otitis or skin disease attended in a veterinary teaching hospital during a 2-year period and analyzed the ERG11 (encoding a lanosterol 14-α demethylase, the primary target of azoles) and whole genome sequence diversity of a group of isolates that displayed reduced azole susceptibility...
May 11, 2024: Medical Mycology
Yi Lu, Shubo Li, Zhihui Su, Chongliang Luo, Meifeng Gu, Dasen Yuan, Bang-E Qin, Kai Dai, Han Xia, Yong Chen, Fuhua Peng, Ying Jiang
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of fungal meningitis and is associated with a high mortality. The clinical significance of concurrent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains unclear. A retrospective cohort study was performed by analyzing CSF samples from 79 HIV-negative Chinese Han patients with confirmed CM. We identified CSF viral DNA in these patients by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and compared 10-week survival rates among those with and without EBV DNA in CSF...
May 6, 2024: Medical Mycology
Megan Burrows, Janice Miller, Rachael M Liesman, Nathan C Bahr
Antigen testing is an important diagnostic tool for histoplasmosis but has limited availability globally. We evaluated the OIDx urine lateral flow antigen assay among 204 persons suspected to have histoplasmosis. Among patients with proven histoplasmosis, sensitivity was 33.3% (3/9, 95% CI 7.5-70.1%) and specificity 80.5% (157/195, 95% CI 74.3-85.8%). The MiraVista urine antigen test had better specificity (96.9%) and equal sensitivity. The OIDx test demonstrated 33.3% (3/9) positive agreement and 84.0% (163/194) negative agreement with the MiraVista test...
May 3, 2024: Medical Mycology
Yuan Wang, Yunchu Zhang, Hong Leng, Jianfei Dong
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a pathogenic fungus that undergoes morphological transitions between hyphal and yeast, adapting to diverse environmental stimuli and exhibiting distinct virulence. Existing researches on anti-fungal blue light (ABL) therapy have either focused solely on hyphae or neglected to differentiate between morphologies, obscuring potential differential effects. To address this gap, we established a novel dataset of 150 C. albicans-infected mouse skin tissue slice images with meticulously annotated hyphae and yeast...
May 1, 2024: Medical Mycology
Eduardo Mastrangelo Marinho Falcão, Priscila Marques de Macedo, Ziadir Francisco Coutinho, Francisco Inacio Bastos, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle
The epidemiological dynamics of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) has been changing over the years. We analyzed secondary public data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SIH/SUS), focusing on PCM-related hospitalizations and in-hospital deaths. In the period between 2010 and 2019, 396 hospitalizations and 30 deaths were related to PCM among 7 073 334 hospitalizations registered in Rio de Janeiro. We highlight the rising rates, reflecting the increase in the number of acute forms previously reported...
April 29, 2024: Medical Mycology
Leyna Díaz, Gemma Castellá, M Rosa Bragulat, Andreu Paytuví-Gallart, Walter Sanseverino, F Javier Cabañes
Malassezia yeasts belong to the normal skin microbiota of a wide range of warm-blooded animals. However, their significance in cattle is still poorly understood. In the present study, the mycobiota of the external ear canal of 20 healthy dairy Holstein cows was assessed by cytology, culture, PCR, and next-generation sequencing. The presence of Malassezia was detected in 15 cows by cytology and PCR. The metagenomic analysis revealed that Ascomycota was the predominant phylum but M. pachydermatis the main species...
April 29, 2024: Medical Mycology
Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Charline Miossec, Marie Machouart, Maud Gits-Muselli, Mazouz Benderdouche, Stéphane Ranque, Françoise Botterel, Sophie Brun
Tinea capitis (TC) is still a frequent dermatophytosis in France, both autochthonous and imported. A nationwide retrospective survey was performed and a total of 4,395 TC cases were recorded within 36 French mycology laboratories during a 6-year period. TC is a disease that occurs in childhood with 85% of the cases occurring before 10 years old and 94% before the age of 15. Anthropophilic origin was predominant with 779 cases of Trichophyton tonsurans (32.6%), 738 cases of Trichophyton soudanense/T. violaceum (31%), and 445 cases of Microsporum audouinii (19...
April 23, 2024: Medical Mycology
Yasemin Oz, Mustafa Yılmaz, Tuba Bulduk, Mehmet Basayigit, Eren Gunduz, Selma Metintas
Although Candida species are the most common cause of fungemia, non-Candida rare yeasts (NCY) have been increasingly reported worldwide. Although the importance of these yeast infections is recognized, current epidemiological information about these pathogens is limited and they have variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics for fungemia caused by NCY by comparing with candidemia. The episodes of NCY fungemia between January 2011 and August 2023 were retrospectively evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics, predisposing factor and outcome...
April 16, 2024: Medical Mycology
Ilvana Çaklovica Küçükkaya, Günseli Orhun, Arif Atahan Çağatay, Sadık Kalaycı, Figen Esen, Fikrettin Şahin, Ali Ağaçfidan, Zayre Erturan
Candida species are the primary cause of fungal infections in intensive care units (ICUs). Despite the increasing prevalence of Candida-related infections, monitoring the progression of these infections from colonization in COVID-19 ICU patients lacks sufficient information. This study aims prospectively to compare 62 COVID-19 and 60 non-COVID-19 ICU patients from admission to discharge in terms of colonization development, rates, isolated Candida species, risk factors, and Candida infections during hospitalization...
April 9, 2024: Medical Mycology
Levent Şensoy, Aynur Atilla, Yusuf Taha Güllü, Demet Gür Vural, Mehmet Turgut, Şaban Esen, Esra Tanyel
This study aimed to determine the level of IL-8 in diagnosing of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). We conducted this study with 50 controls and 25 IPA patients with haematological malignancies. Demographic data, hematological diagnoses, chemotherapy regimen, galactomannan level, fungal culture, and computed tomography findings of the patients were evaluated prospectively. IL-8 levels were studied with the ELISA method. The mean age of patients in the case group was 60.84±15.38 years, while that of the controls was 58...
April 9, 2024: Medical Mycology
Shaoqin Zhou, Mawahib A I Ismail, Vishukumar Aimanianda, G Sybren de Hoog, Yingqian Kang, Sarah A Ahmed
Aspergillus flavus is a commonly encountered pathogen responsible for fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) in arid regions. The species is known to produce aflatoxins, posing a significant risk to human health. This study aimed to investigate the aflatoxin profiles of A. flavus isolates causing FRS in Sudan. A total of 93 clinical and 34 environmental A. flavus isolates were studied. Aflatoxin profiles were evaluated by phenotypic (thin-layer and high-performance chromatography) and genotypic methods at various temperatures and substrates...
April 5, 2024: Medical Mycology
Mirko Benvenuti, Mirca Zotti, Sebastiano La Maestra
Fungi are often considered a delicacy and are primarily cultivated and harvested, although numerous species are responsible for intoxication due to toxin content. Foodborne diseases are a significant public health concern, causing approximately 420,000 deaths and 600 million morbidities yearly, of which mushroom poisoning is one of the leading causes. Epidemiological data on non-cultivated mushroom poisoning in individual countries are often unrepresentative, as intoxication rarely requires emergency intervention...
April 3, 2024: Medical Mycology
Kenan Gu, Robert Spitz, Erin Hammett, Anna Jaunarajs, Varduhi Ghazaryan, Edward P Garvey, Thorsten Degenhardt
VT-1598 is a novel fungal CYP51 inhibitor and 1-tetrazole-based antifungal drug candidate with improved selectivity minimizing off-target binding to and inhibition of human CYP450 enzymes. Data are presented from this first clinical study in evaluation of the safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) of single ascending dose of 40, 80, 160, 320, and 640 mg VT-1598, comprising a 160 mg cohort in both fasting and fed states. Eight healthy adults per dose were randomized to receive either oral VT-1598 or placebo (3:1)...
April 3, 2024: Medical Mycology
Rebecca van Grootveld, Judith van Paassen, Eric C J Claas, Laura Heerdink, Ed J Kuijper, Mark G J de Boer, Martha T van der Beek
The diagnostic performance of a prospective, systematic screening strategy for COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) during the COVID-19 pandemic was investigated. Patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU were screened for CAPA twice weekly by collection of tracheal aspirate (TA) for Aspergillus culture and PCR. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sampling was performed in patients with positive screening results and clinical suspicion of infection. Patient data were collected from April 2020-February 2022...
March 27, 2024: Medical Mycology
Anne-Pauline Bellange, Gbaguidi-Haore Houssein, Ana Berceanu, Laura Gouzien, Chaima El Machhour, Damien Bichard, Fanny Lanternier, Emeline Scherer, Laurence Millon
Our objective was to determine whether the twice-weekly screening of high-risk hematology patients by Mucorales qPCR on serum affects the prognosis of mucormycosis. Results from all serum Mucorales qPCR tests performed on patients from the hematology unit from January 2017 to December 2022 were analyzed. Patients with positive results were classified as having proven, probable or 'PCR-only' mucormycosis. One-month mortality for the local cohort was compared with that of a national cohort of cases of mucormycosis collected by the French surveillance network for invasive fungal disease ('Réseau de surveillances des infections fongiques invasives en France' (RESSIF)) from 2012 to 2018...
March 26, 2024: Medical Mycology
Rowena Alves Coelho, Fernando Almeida-Silva, Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho, Vanessa Brito de Souza Rabello, Gabriela Rodrigues de Souza, Maria Cristina da Silva Lourenço, Marcio L Rodrigues, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) and pheohyphomycosis (PHM) are the most common implantation mycoses caused by dematiaceous fungi. In the past, flucytosine (5-FC) has been used to treat CBM, but development of resistance is common. Carmofur belongs to the same class as 5-FC and has in vitro inhibitory activity against the main agents of CBM and PHM. The aim of this study was to compare the action of these two pyrimidine analog drugs against CBM and PHM agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the selectivity index based on cytotoxicity tests of these two drugs against some agents of these mycoses were determined, with carmofur presenting a higher selectivity index than 5-FC...
March 26, 2024: Medical Mycology
Mohammad Javad Najafzadeh, Tahmineh Shaban, Hossein Zarrinfar, Alireza Sedaghat, Neginsadat Hosseinikargar, Fariba Berenji, Mahsa Jalali, Michaela Lackner, Jasper Elvin James, Macit Ilkit, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Our understanding of fungal epidemiology and the burden of antifungal drug resistance in COVID-19-associated candidemia (CAC) patients is limited. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study in Iran to explore clinical and microbiological profiles of CAC patients. Yeast isolated from blood, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) using the broth microdilution method M27-A3 protocol...
March 23, 2024: Medical Mycology
Gabriel Ávalos, Javier Caballero-Gómez, Pablo Matas-Méndez, Sabrina Castro-Scholten, Débora Jiménez-Martín, Pamela C Köster, Mónica Santín, Begoña Bailo, David Cano-Terriza, David González-Barrio, Marta Mateo, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Alejandro Dashti, Fernando Nájera, David Carmena
Microsporidia is a diverse group of obligate, intracellular and spore-forming parasites that infect a wide range of animals. Among them, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. are the most frequently reported species in humans. Limited information is available about the presence and molecular diversity of microsporidian species in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. was investigated by molecular methods in wild and captive Iberian lynxes from Spain...
March 18, 2024: Medical Mycology
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