Chibuike Ibe, Chinonyelum Annette Okoye, Emeka Nweze, Akaninyene Otu
Cryptococcosis is a neglected tropical disease and the main cause of fungal related deaths in HIV-positive persons in Africa. It is an AIDS-defining illness that has almost surpassed tuberculosis (TB) in mortality despite wide coverage with antiretroviral therapy. What is known about the cryptococcosis burden in Africa is from estimations based on data from a few studies on the infection burden and associated complications. Consequently, the projected implications of cryptococcosis in Africa have been based on these estimations...
May 27, 2023: Medical Mycology
Alejandro N Etchecopaz, Carolina Rodríguez Laboccetta, Gustavo Martinez, Florencia Pastorino, Leandro Díaz, Ana C Bratanich, Paula Badino, Javier Mas, Adriana I Toranzo, Cristina E Canteros, María L Cuestas
This study aimed to perform a seroepidemiological survey on the prevalence of sporotrichosis among cats living in the Northern area of Buenos Aires, where a four-fold increase of Sporothrix brasiliensis infections were diagnosed during the last decade. For this purpose, an in-house indirect ELISA test sensitized with S. brasiliensis crude antigens was used. The ELISA test showed 100.0% sensitivity and 95.0% specificity. Antibodies against S. brasiliensis antigens were detected in 3.7% (9/241) of healthy cats evaluated, suggesting likely exposure or infection to this fungus...
May 19, 2023: Medical Mycology
Dario Corrêa-Junior, Igor Avellar-Moura, Glauber R de S Araújo, Iara Bastos de Andrade, Fernando Almeida-Silva, Mariana Lucy Mesquita Ramos, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Susana Frases
Nannizzia gypsea is a geophylic agent of human and animal dermatophytosis. This study compares the metabolic and morphostructural plasticity of N. gypsea strains isolated from moss, sand, and a dog. The in vitro metabolic plasticity included the detection of extracellular enzymes, thermotolerance, resistance to oxidative stress, and assessment of fungal growth. Structural plasticity studies included cell surface hydrophobicity, electronegativity, and size of macroconidia. Virulence was assessed on Tenebrio mollitor model...
May 11, 2023: Medical Mycology
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Valliappan Muthu, Kuruswamy Thurai Prasad, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Ritesh Agarwal
The estimates of the minimal important difference (MID) for the Saint George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) score in CPA remain unknown. We performed a retrospective analysis on treatment-naïve CPA subjects (n = 148) treated with six-month oral itraconazole therapy and completed SGRQ at baseline and six months. The study's objective was to estimate the MID for SGRQ. We used an anchor-based method to determine the MID and found the MID for SGRQ of 7.3.
May 8, 2023: Medical Mycology
Jin Yeong Hong, Cheol-In Kang, Jinyoung Yang, Jae-Hoon Ko, Kyungmin Huh, Sun Young Cho, Doo Ryeon Chung, Chul Won Jung, Kyong Ran Peck
Posaconazole (PSC) delayed-release tablet prophylaxis is the standard of care for preventing invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy. The clinical features, risk factors, and PSC profiles of breakthrough IFI (bIFI) in patients receiving PSC tablet prophylaxis were investigated. A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted, including adult patients with myeloid malignancy who received prophylactic PSC tablets while undergoing chemotherapy from June 2016 to June 2021...
April 29, 2023: Medical Mycology
Andréia Spanamberg, Ana Paula Ravazzolo, Ricardo Araujo, Natália Tomazi, Beatriz Fuentes, Laerte Ferreiro
The classical dermatophytes diagnosis is based on mycological culture and microscopy observation both human and animal hair, skin and nail samples. The aim of this work was to develop the new in-house real-time PCR with pan-dematophyte reaction for detection and identification of the main dermatophytes directly from hair samples, providing a simple and rapid diagnosis of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats. An in house SYBR-Green real-time PCR was designed and used for detecting a DNA fragment encoding chitin synthase 1 (CHS1)...
April 29, 2023: Medical Mycology
Margarita Estreya Zvezdanova, Manuel González de Aledo, José Israel López-Mirones, Jesús Ortega, Andrés Canut, Carmen Castro, Carmen Gomez, Silvia Hernáez, Marina Oviaño, María Ercibengoa, Miriam Alkorta, Patricia Muñoz, David Rodriguez-Temporal, Belén Rodríguez-Sánchez
The goal of this study was to validate an optimized sample preparation method for filamentous fungal isolates coupled with the use of an in-house library for the identification of molds using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry in a multicenter context. For that purpose, 3 Spanish microbiology laboratories participated in the identification of 97 fungal isolates using MALDI-TOF MS coupled with the Filamentous Fungi library 3.0 (Bruker Daltonics) and an in-house library containing 314 unique fungal references. The isolates analyzed belonged to 25 species from the genus Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scedosporium/Lomentospora, the Mucorales order and the Dermatophytes group...
April 26, 2023: Medical Mycology
Anne-Laure Bidaud, Anne-Cécile Normand, Arnaud Jabet, Sophie Brun, Sarah Delliere, Geneviève Cremer, Françoise Foulet, Aymen Ayachi, Sébastien Imbert, Christophe Hennequin, Éric Dannaoui, Alicia Moreno-Sabater
The increase in terbinafine resistance worldwide due to Trichophyton indotineae underlies the need for surveillance networks, deploying easy to perform methods to correctly identify resistant isolates and thereby reduce their spread. In the present study, we evaluated the performances of the terbinafine containing agar method (TCAM). Different technical parameters, such as culture medium (RPMI agar [RPMIA] or Sabouraud dextrose agar [SDA]) and inoculum size, were evaluated. Our study showed that terbinafine susceptibility determined using the TCAM was reliable and independent of the inoculum or medium used...
April 19, 2023: Medical Mycology
Michaela Švarcová, Tomáš Větrovský, Miroslav Kolařík, Vit Hubka
This study looked for correlations between molecular identification, clinical manifestation and morphology for Trichophyton interdigitale and T. mentagrophytes. For this purpose, a total of 110 isolates were obtained from Czech patients with various clinical manifestations of dermatophytosis. Phenotypic characters were analysed, and the strains were characterized using multilocus sequence typing. Among the 12 measured/scored phenotypic features, statistically significant differences between species were found only in growth rates at 37°C and in the production of spiral hyphae...
April 17, 2023: Medical Mycology
Yin-Tse Huang, Tsu-Chun Hung, Yun-Chen Fan, Chi-Yu Chen, Pei-Lun Sun
Scedosporium and Lomentospora are important opportunistic pathogens causing localized or disseminated infection in humans. Understanding their environmental distribution is critical for public hygiene and clinical management. We carried out the first environmental survey in urbanized and natural regions in Taiwan. Overall, Scedosporium and Lomentospora species were recovered in 132 out of 273 soil samples (48.4%) across Taiwan. We morphologically and molecularly identified six Scedosporium species and one Lomentospora species...
April 14, 2023: Medical Mycology
Anni Wang, Jia Liu, Junyu Liu, Zhihui Su, Shiqi Yao, Lu Yang, Liuxu Fan, Iok Keng Ngai, Xiaofeng Xu, Ying Jiang, Fuhua Peng
Oxidative imbalances have been observed in various neurological diseases. Despite the microbiological control in cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a proportion of previously healthy patients experience a clinical deterioration known as post-infectious inflammatory response syndrome (PIIRS). However, the antioxidant status in PIIRS remains unclear. In this study, we found that the serum antioxidant status of HIV-negative immunocompetent CM patients during PIIRS episodes was lower than that of healthy controls. There was a relationship between baseline serum indirect bilirubin levels and the development of PIIRS, and serum uric acid levels may indicate the severity of the disease during PIIRS episodes...
April 13, 2023: Medical Mycology
Hélène Guegan, Maël Roojee, Solène Le Gal, Mathilde Artus, Gilles Nevez, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Florence Robert-Gangneux
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is the most frequent fungal opportunistic infection defining AIDS in HIV-infected patients, and is of growing importance in HIV-negative patients. In this latter category of patients, the diagnosis mainly relies on real-time PCR (qPCR) detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pj) on respiratory samples. The PneumoGenius®kit (PathoNostics) allows the simultaneous detection of Pj mtLSU and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) polymorphisms, which could be of interest to anticipate therapeutic failure...
April 7, 2023: Medical Mycology
Mercedes Chozas, Alejandro Dashti, Laura Prieto-Pérez, Ramón Pérez-Tanoira, Elena Cobo, Begoña Bailo, Marta Del Palacio, Carolina Hernández-Castro, David González-Barrio, David Carmena, Pamela C Köster
Microsporidia are fungi-related eukaryotic intracellular parasites that opportunistically infect immunocompromised individuals such as those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among them, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. are the most clinically relevant species. We investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of microsporidial and protist infections in mostly immunocompetent HIV-positive patients in Madrid, Spain. A structured questionnaire was used to retrieve data on factors potentially associated with an increased risk of infection, including sexual attitudes and sex-risk behaviour...
April 6, 2023: Medical Mycology
Caitlin Keighley, Alun Pope, Debbie Marriott, Sharon C-A Chen, Monica A Slavin
Time-to-positivity (TTP) may assist in predicting outcome of candidaemia. We analysed a candidaemia dataset collected prospectively in Australia over 1 year (2014-2015). Time to positivity was defined as the period from blood culture sampling to the blood culture flagging positive. Of 415 candidaemia episodes, overall 30-day mortality was 29% (120/415); mortality with Candida albicans was 35% (59/169), C. glabrata complex, 37% (43/115), C. tropicalis, 43% (10/23), Pichia kudriavzevii 25% (3/12) and C. parapsilosis complex 7% (5/71)...
April 5, 2023: Medical Mycology
Intan M W Dewi, Nisa Fauziah, Savira Ekawardhani, Basti Andriyoko, Robiatul Adawiyah, Yovita Hartantri, Arto Yuwono Soeroto, Bachti Alisjahbana, David W Denning, Retno Wahyuningsih
Chronic pulmonary fungal infections may occur in patients with previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and are often clinically misclassified as TB, especially when bacteriological confirmation for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is absent. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antibody against Histoplasma capsulatum and Aspergillus fumigatus in patients with confirmed and clinically chronic TB. Antibodies against H. capsulatum and A. fumigatus were measured from serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
March 31, 2023: Medical Mycology
Ilana Heckler, Maite Sabalza, Azadeh Bojmehrani, Iswariya Venkataraman, Curtis Thompson
Dermatomycosis of the hair, skin or nails are one of the most common fungal infection worldwide. Beyond permanent damage to the affected area, the risk of severe dermatomycosis in immunocompromised people can be life-threatening. The potential risk of delayed or improper treatment highlights the need for a rapid and accurate diagnosis. However, with traditional methods of fungal diagnostics such as culture, a diagnosis can take several weeks. Alternative diagnostic technologies have been developed which allow for an appropriate and timely selection of an antifungal treatment, preventing nonspecific over-the-counter self-medication...
March 29, 2023: Medical Mycology
Lívia Silveira Munhoz, Vanice Rodrigues Poester, Jéssica Louise Benelli, Aryse Martins Melo, Mariana Rodrigues Trápaga, Cristina Wayne Nogueira, Gilson Zeni, Mariana Martins Flores, David A Stevens, Melissa Orzechowski Xavier
Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 is a stable organoselenium compound with promising in vitro antifungal activity against several fungi, including Sporothrix brasiliensis. This species is associated with feline and zoonotic sporotrichosis, an emergent mycosis in Latin America. We evaluated the activity of (PhSe)2, alone and in association with itraconazole, in the treatment of sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis, in a murine model. Sixty mice were subcutaneously infected with S. brasiliensis in the footpad and treated by gavage for 30 consecutive days...
March 28, 2023: Medical Mycology
JingJing Chen, Oliver Blechert, Shuzhen Xiong, Ping Zhan
Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes are the most common agents of dermatomycosis, a disease affecting millions worldwide. It has been widely recognized that secreted proteases are a key factor for host colonization. Dermatophytes have an unusually high amount of secreted protease, differentially expressed, and influenced by various conditions. This study analyzed the rule and expression of secreted deuterolysin protease of the M35 protein family in these two representative dermatophyte species. All strains secreted protease and could grow on keratin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source...
March 25, 2023: Medical Mycology
Letizia Angiolella, Florencia Rojas, Javier Mussin, Gustavo Giusiano
Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia furfur are recognized as an important part of the human and animals healthy skin microbiota, but also as an opportunistic fungus due to their association with a broad spectrum of skin and systemic infections. Human skin infections associated with Malassezia spp. are often chronic, recurrent, and topical or oral azole treatments are challenging with not always successful outcomes. A wide inter and intraspecies antifungal susceptibility variability that may suggest a combination of wild type strains and resistant mutants was reported...
March 23, 2023: Medical Mycology
Manuela Matos, Catarina Jota Baptista, Paula A Oliveira, Ana Cristina Matos, Ana Sofia Soares, Marlene Santos, Luís Figueira, Ana Cláudia Coelho
Mycobiota are essential to the health of any living being, creating a balanced and complex interaction between bacteria, the immune system and the tissue cells of the host. Talaromyces marneffei (also known as Penicillium marneffei) is a dimorphic fungus, endemic in South Asia, that often causes a life-threatening systemic fungal infection (called penicilliosis), particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Nasal swabs from 73 healthy volunteers were analysed to characterise their mycobiota, through its cultural characteristics, morphology and molecular methods (PCR)...
March 22, 2023: Medical Mycology
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