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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759261/impact-of-dose-adaptations-following-voriconazole-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Vincent J Lempers, Edmé Meuwese, Annelies M Mavinkurve-Groothuis, Stefanie Henriet, Inge M van der Sluis, Lidwien M Hanff, Adilia Warris, Birgit C P Koch, Roger J Brüggemann
Voriconazole is the mainstay of treatment for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Although Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of voriconazole is recommended, it remains unknown if TDM-based dose adaptations result in target attainment. Patients <19 years from two pediatric hematologic-oncology wards were retrospectively identified based on unexplained high voriconazole trough concentrations (Cmin > 6 mg/l). Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment, voriconazole dosing information, voriconazole Cmin before and after adjustment based on TDM were obtained...
February 13, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759240/increased-virulence-of-albino-mutant-of-fonsecaea-monophora-in-galleria-mellonella
#2
Yinghui Liu, Xiaowen Huang, Hongfang Liu, Liyan Xi, Chester R Cooper
Fonsecaea monophora has been the predominant pathogen of chromoblastomycosis in Southern China, but its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. New models are needed to study this infection. In the current study, we examined the role of melanin on the pathogenicity of F. monophora in Galleria mellonella model using melanin and albino strain. Interestingly, the albino mutant strain displayed higher pathogenicity compared to the melanin stain and restoration of melanin of albino mutant could reverse the pathogenicity...
February 13, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753649/the-serine-peptidase-inhibitor-tpck-induces-several-morphophysiological-changes-in-the-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-candida-parapsilosis-sensu-stricto
#3
Rafael M Gandra, Laura N Silva, Xênia M Souto, Leandro S Sangenito, Lucas P S Cruz, Lys A Braga-Silva, Diego S Gonçalves, Sergio H Seabra, Marta H Branquinha, André L S Santos
Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto (C. parapsilosis) has emerged as the second/third commonest Candida species isolated from hospitals worldwide. Candida spp. possess numerous virulence attributes, including peptidases that play multiple roles in both physiological and pathological events. So, fungal peptidases are valid targets for new drugs development. With this premise in mind, we have evaluated the effect of serine peptidase inhibitors (SPIs) on both cell biology and virulence aspects of C. parapsilosis...
February 9, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753591/experimental-candida-albicans-osteomyelitis-microbiologic-antigenic-histologic-and-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-characteristics-in-a-newly-established-rabbit-model
#4
Maria N Gamaletsou, Joseph Meletiadis, Sofia Chatziioannou, Ioannis G Panayiotides, Euthimios Agadakos, Michalis Katsimpoulas, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Vidmantas Petraitis, Thomas J Walsh, Nikolaos V Sipsas
Candida osteomyelitis is a debilitating disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. As there are no animal models or prospective studies for this uncommon infection, little is known about the pathogenesis, diagnosis, or treatment. We therefore sought to establish an animal model for the study of the pathophysiology, diagnostic modalities, and therapeutic interventions of Candida osteomyelitis. We developed a modified version of the Norden rabbit model of tibial osteomyelitis, in which the right tibia was inoculated intraoperatively with different inocula of C...
February 7, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753590/use-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-real-time-pcr-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-bal-for-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-including-azole-resistant-cases-in-high-risk-haematology-patients-the-need-for-a-combined-use-with-galactomannan
#5
Malgorzata Mikulska, Elisa Furfaro, Elena De Carolis, Enrico Drago, Ilaria Pulzato, Maria Lucia Borghesi, Emanuela Zappulo, Anna Maria Raiola, Carmen Di Grazia, Valerio Del Bono, Giuseppe Cittadini, Emanuele Angelucci, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Claudio Viscoli
Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is challenging, particularly in high-risk patients with lung lesions other than typical according to 2008-EORTC/MSG criteria. Even if microbiology is positive, they still remain unclassified according to 2008-EORTC/MSG. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) provides new mycological documentation of IA. This retrospective study assessed Aspergillus fumigatus real time qPCR (MycoGENIE®) in BAL to diagnose IA and identify azole-resistant strains. Clinical, radiological, and microbiological data from 114 hematology patients (69% HSCT recipients; 29% on mould active agents) from years 2012-2017 were collected; and 123 BAL samples were tested with qPCR (cutoff: Ct < 40) and galactomannan (GM, Platelia®, cutoff: 0...
February 7, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715430/erratum-candida-auris-the-recent-emergence-of-a-multidrug-resistant-fungal-pathogen
#6
Kaitlin Forsberg, Kate Woodworth, Maroya Walters, Elizabeth L Berkow, Brendan Jackson, Tom Chiller, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690480/prospective-multicenter-surveillance-of-clinically-isolated-aspergillus-species-revealed-azole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-with-tr34-l98h-mutation-in-the-kyoto-and-shiga-regions-of-japan
#7
Yasuhiro Tsuchido, Michio Tanaka, Satoshi Nakano, Masaki Yamamoto, Yasufumi Matsumura, Miki Nagao
The prevalence of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAF) in Japan is unclear. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of clinically isolated Aspergillus species and the frequency of azole resistance in Aspergillus species, particularly Aspergillus fumigatus, in the Kyoto and Shiga regions of Japan. Strains of clinically isolated Aspergillus species were prospectively collected from nine acute care hospitals. Species identification was performed by DNA sequence analysis, and all strains were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing...
January 25, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690478/multi-centric-evaluation-of-the-online-msi-platform-for-the-identification-of-cryptic-and-rare-species-of-aspergillus-by-maldi-tof
#8
Sébastien Imbert, Anne Cécile Normand, Frédéric Gabriel, Sophie Cassaing, Christine Bonnal, Damien Costa, Laurence Lachaud, Lilia Hasseine, Lise Kristensen, Christine Schuttler, Hélène Raberin, Sophie Brun, Marijke Hendrickx, Dirk Stubbe, Renaud Piarroux, Arnaud Fekkar
The taxonomy of Aspergillus species has recently been revolutionized with the introduction of cryptic species and section concepts. However, their species-level identification in routine laboratories remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the identification accuracy of cryptic species of Aspergillus in various laboratories using the mass spectrometry identification (MSI) platform, an independent and freely accessible online mass spectrometry database. Over a 12-month period, when a select set of MSI users identified cryptic species, they were contacted and requested to send the isolates to our laboratory for sequence-based identification...
January 25, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668766/progressive-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-in-people-receiving-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-infection-a-systematic-review
#9
J Oggun Cano-Torres, Alejandro Olmedo-Reneaum, José M Esquivel-Sánchez, Antonio Camiro-Zuñiga, Arely Pérez-Carrisoza, Carlos Madrigal-Iberri, Rommel Flores-Miranda, Luis E Ramírez-González, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio
Histoplasmosis is the most clinically significant mycosis in Latin America; still it has been neglected in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There is limited information about its contribution to morbidity and mortality in this population. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature to provide an estimation of the frequency and mortality of histoplasmosis among people with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Latin America, and factors associated with mortality...
January 18, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668754/neutrophil-mediated-antifungal-activity-against-highly-virulent-cryptococcus-gattii-strain-r265
#10
Keigo Ueno, Nao Yanagihara, Yoshiko Otani, Kiminori Shimizu, Yuki Kinjo, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki
Vaccine-induced immune responses, including neutrophil, macrophage, and T-cell responses, ameliorate cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii. However, whether neutrophils can exert fungicidal activity against C. gattii remains to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the neutrophil-mediated fungicidal effect against C. gattii R265 in vitro and compared it to the related fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans standard strain H99. We found that neutrophils recognized, phagocytosed, and killed C...
January 18, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657975/comparative-antifungal-susceptibility-analyses-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-vni-and-cryptococcus-gattii-vgii-from-the-brazilian-amazon-region-by-the-etest-vitek-2-and-the-clinical-and-laboratory-standards-institute-broth-microdilution-methods
#11
Marília Martins Nishikawa, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Fabio Brito-Santos, Carlos Roberto Nascimento, Miguel Madi Fialho, Luciana Trilles, Bernadina Penarrieta Morales, Sérgio Alves da Silva, Wallace Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira Santos, Silvana Tulio Fortes, Paola Cardarelli-Leite, Márcia Dos Santos Lázera
Early diagnosis, efficient clinical support, and proper antifungal therapy are essential to reduce death and sequels caused by cryptococcosis. The emergence of resistance to the antifungal drugs commonly used for cryptococcosis treatment is an important issue of concern. Thus, the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical strains from northern Brazil, including C. neoformans VNI (n = 62) and C. gattii VGII (n = 37), to amphotericin B (AMB), 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole was evaluated using the Etest and Vitek 2 systems and the standardized broth microdilution (CLSI-BMD) methodology...
January 17, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657948/prevalence-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-sporothrix-species-in-jiangxi-central-china
#12
Jie Li, Ping Zhan, Qing Jiang, Yangmin Gao, Yun Jin, Lei Zhang, Yunpeng Luo, Xinyi Fan, Jiufeng Sun, Sybren de Hoog
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by traumatic inoculation of pathogenic Sporothrix species. Until recently, Sporothrix globosa was considered as the unique Chinese species causing this disorder. In the present study, 33 clinical Sporothrix strains isolated from Jiangxi, China, were classified and antifungal susceptibility for each strain was determined. Thirteen S. globosa strains and 20 S. schenckii strains were identified by morphology and by multilocus analysis using rDNA ITS, CAL, and EF1α (i...
January 16, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657946/unique-clinical-features-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-among-chinese-patients-without-predisposing-diseases-against-patients-with-predisposing-diseases
#13
Lijun Xu, Xinyue Zhang, Yongzheng Guo, Ran Tao, Xiahong Dai, Zongxing Yang, Ying Huang, Biao Zhu, Yan Xu
The clinical features of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in patients without predisposing diseases (PD) remain unclear. In sum, 162 of the 167 patients without PD and 162 of the 309 patients with PD were enrolled after propensity score matching. Demographic characteristics, symptoms, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics were compared between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the factors associated with 10-week mortality. In total, approximately 35...
January 16, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649538/molecular-types-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-in-western-australia-and-correlation-with-antifungal-susceptibility
#14
Gar-Hing Andrew Lee, Ian Arthur, Adam Merritt, Michael Leung
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes have a worldwide distribution; however, there is geographical variation in the prevalence of different molecular types. Additionally, antifungal susceptibility differences between molecular types have been demonstrated. This study investigates the distribution of cryptococcal molecular types among human clinical isolates over a 10-year period from a Western Australian population. Molecular type was determined based on polymorphisms in the phospholipase gene locus identified through amplification and sequencing...
January 15, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649480/farnesol-inhibits-planktonic-cells-and-antifungal-tolerant-biofilms-of-trichosporon-asahii-and-trichosporon-inkin
#15
Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Lívia Maria Galdino Pereira, José Kleybson de Sousa, Rosana Serpa, Ana Raquel Colares Andrade, Fernando Victor Monteiro Portela, Antônio José de Jesus Evangelista, Jamille Alencar Sales, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Aguiar, Patrícia Bruna Leite Mendes, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, José Júlio da Costa Sidrim, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Marcos Fabio Gadelha Rocha
Trichosporon species have been considered important agents of opportunistic systemic infections, mainly among immunocompromised patients. Infections by Trichosporon spp. are generally associated with biofilm formation in invasive medical devices. These communities are resistant to therapeutic antifungals, and therefore the search for anti-biofilm molecules is necessary. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of farnesol against planktonic and sessile cells of clinical Trichosporon asahii (n = 3) andTrichosporon inkin (n = 7) strains...
January 15, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649412/assessment-of-temperature-dependent-proteomes-of-pythium-insidiosum-by-using-the-swiss-prot-database
#16
Theerapong Krajaejun, Onrapak Reamtong, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Ratchainant Thammasudjarit
Pythium insidiosum causes the life-threatening disease, called pythiosis. Information on microbial pathogenesis could lead to an effective method of infection control. This study aims at assessing temperature-dependent proteomes, and identifying putative virulence factors of P. insidiosum. Protein extracts from growths at 25°C and 37°C were analyzed by mass spectrometry and SWISS-PROT database. A total of 1052 proteins were identified. Upon exposure to increased temperature, 219 proteins were markedly expressed, eight of which were putative virulence factors of P...
January 15, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649411/rapid-and-robust-identification-of-clinical-isolates-of-talaromyces-marneffei-based-on-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-or-dimorphism-in-galleria-mellonella
#17
Andrew M Borman, Mark Fraser, Adrien Szekely, Elizabeth M Johnson
Talaromyces marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen that causes serious infections particularly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the mould form typically produces a characteristic red-diffusing pigment, and conidia from penicillate heads, several nonpathogenic Talaromyces/Penicillium species are morphologically and phenotypically similar. While those other species do not exhibit thermal dimorphism, conversion of T. marneffei to the distinctive fission yeast form in vitro is arduous and frequently incomplete...
January 15, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649481/unequivocal-identification-of-an-underestimated-opportunistic-yeast-species-cyberlindnera-fabianii-and-its-close-relatives-using-a-dual-function-pcr-and-literature-review-of-published-cases
#18
Amir Arastehfar, Wenjie Fang, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Mohammad Hosein Afsarian, Farnaz Daneshnia, Mina Bakhtiari, Sara Khanjari Sadati, Hamid Badali, Sadegh Khodavaysi, Ferry Hagen, Wanqing Liao, Weihua Pan, Kamiar Zomorodian, Teun Boekhout
Although Cyberlindnera fabinaii is a rare opportunist yeast species, its ability to cause septicemia, produce biofilm, and rapid acquisition of resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole, reinforced the urge for its identification from its closely related species. Widely used biochemical assays mainly identify Cyberlindnera fabinaii as Cyberlindnera jadinii and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, resulting in underestimation of this yeast in clinical settings. Moreover, the urge for a reliable molecular means of identification remains unsolved for 28 years...
January 12, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649423/species-specific-detection-of-medically-important-aspergilli-by-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-method-in-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#19
Kazuya Tone, Junko Suzuki, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Koichi Makimura
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a common subtype of pulmonary aspergillosis and a life-threatening disease. However, its diagnosis remains difficult due to the lack of specific clinical features and radiologic findings, as well as the difficulty of isolating Aspergillus spp. We developed a novel species-specific detection method of medically important aspergilli using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for CPA. Specific LAMP primer sets for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus nidulans were designed...
January 12, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649403/novel-canine-anti-coccidioides-immunoglobulin-g-enzyme-immunoassay-aids-in-diagnosis-of-coccidioidomycosis-in-dogs
#20
Eric D Holbrook, Russell T Greene, Stanley I Rubin, Janelle S Renschler, Bradley P Book, Andrew S Hanzlicek, Michelle M Durkin, Melinda L Smedema, L Joseph Wheat
The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis (CM) in dogs is typically based on clinical presentation, serology, and (less frequently) spherule identification. Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) is the most commonly employed serological method, but AGID is slow (requiring up to a week for titer). A Coccidioides antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is also available; however, sensitivity is low in CM dogs. An antibody EIA was developed to detect canine immunoglobulin G (IgG) reacting to Coccidioides antigens. Serum was evaluated from dogs with pathology proven CM and/or AGID positive CM, as well as dogs with histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, non-fungal infections, or healthy dogs...
January 12, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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