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Physiological Genomics

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30978160/the-cardiac-endothelial-cell-transcriptome-in-neonatal-adult-and-remodeling-hearts
#1
Zarha Vermeulen, Ligia Mateiu, Lindsey Dugaucquier, Gilles W De Keulenaer, Vincent Fm Segers
Background - Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) are the most numerous cells in the myocardium and orchestrate cardiogenesis during development, regulate adult cardiac function, and modulate pathophysiology of heart failure. It has been shown that the transcriptome of CMVECs differs from other endothelial cell types, but transcriptomic changes in cardiac endothelial cells during cardiac maturation and cardiac remodeling have not been studied earlier. Methods and Results - CMVECs were isolated from rat hearts based on CD31 expression and were immediately processed for RNA sequencing...
April 12, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30978148/identification-of-suitable-reference-microrna-for-qpcr-analysis-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Christie Buonpane, Guillermo Ares, Beshoy Benyamen, Carrie Y Yuan, Catherine J Hunter
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) accounts for 10-15% of IBD and is associated with considerable morbidity for patients. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNA), small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate gene expression, have been the target of research in IBD diagnosis, surveillance and therapy. Proper selection of reference genes, which are a prerequisite for accurate measurement of miRNA expression, are currently lacking. We hypothesize that appropriate normalization requires unique reference genes for different tissue and disease types...
April 12, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30925123/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-the-plag1-oxr1-region-on-bta14-for-carcass-meat-yield-in-cattle
#3
Rui Zhang, Jian Miao, Yuxin Song, Wengang Zhang, Lingyang Xu, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Huijiang Gao, Bo Zhu, Junya Li, Xue Gao
Carcass meat yield is an important carcass trait that contributes to the production efficiency and economic benefits in beef cattle. It is therefore critical to identify QTLs associated with carcass traits to enable selection. Our previous studies have identified several causal variants within the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 ( PLAG1) and coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 7 ( CHCHD7) genes on BTA14 for carcass traits in Chinese Simmental. In current study, we carried out a genome-wide association study for carcass meat yield in 472 Wagyu cattle using Bovine HD SNP array...
March 29, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30925122/profiling-expression-changes-of-genes-associated-with-temperature-and-sex-during-high-temperature-induced-masculinization-in-the-nile-tilapia-brain
#4
Yan Zhao, Yuan Mei, Hong Ju Chen, Litao Zhang, Hui Wang, Xiang Shan Ji
Fish sex-determining mechanisms can be classified as genotypic (GSD), temperature (TSD), or genotypic plus temperature effects (GSD+TE). Previous studies have shown that culturing water temperature during thermosensitive periods (TSP) could affect the expression of many genes in the gonad in some fish. However, few studies have focused on gene expression changes in the brain after temperature treatment during TSP in fish species. In this study, three families were developed by crossing XX neomales with XX females and one of them was used for transcriptome analysis...
March 29, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875275/the-salt-sensitive-transcriptome-of-isolated-kidney-distal-tubule-cells
#5
Elizabeth Anne Swanson, Jonathan William Nelson, Sophia Jeng, Kayla J Erspamer, Chao-Ling Yang, Shannon McWeeney, David H Ellison
In the distal kidney tubule, the steroid hormone aldosterone regulates sodium reabsorption via the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. Most studies seeking to identify ENaC-regulating aldosterone-induced proteins have used transcriptional profiling of cultured cells. To identify salt-sensitive transcripts using an in vivo model, we used low-NaCl or high-NaCl diet to stimulate or suppress endogenous aldosterone, in combination with magnetic- and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate distal tubule cells from mouse kidney for transcriptional profiling...
March 15, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875273/gene-expression-variability-the-other-dimension-in-transcriptome-analysis
#6
Tristan V de Jong, Yuri M Moshkin, Victor Guryev
Transcriptome sequencing is a powerful technique to study molecular changes that underlie the differences in physiological conditions and disease progression. A typical question that is posed in such studies is finding genes with significant changes between sample groups. In this respect expression variability is regarded as a nuisance factor that is primarily of technical origin and complicates the data analysis. However, it is becoming apparent that the biological variation in gene expression might be an important molecular phenotype that can affect physiological parameters...
March 15, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30849009/the-genetic-and-genomic-evidence-for-an-important-role-of-the-na-h-exchanger-3-in-the-blood-pressure-regulation-and-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#7
Xiao C Li, Xiaowen Zheng, Xu Chen, Chunling Zhao, Dongmin Zhu, Jianfeng Zhang, Jia L Zhuo
The sodium (Na+ )/hydrogen (H+ ) exchanger 3 (NHE3) and sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ /K+ -ATPase) are two of the most important Na+ transporters in the proximal tubules of the kidney. On the apical membrane side, NHE3 primarily mediates the entry of Na+ into and the exit of H+ from the proximal tubules, directly and indirectly being responsible for reabsorbing about 50% of filtered Na+ in the proximal tubules of the kidney. On the basolateral membrane side, Na+ /K+ -ATPase serves as a powerful engine driving Na+ out of, while pumping K+ into the proximal tubules against their concentration gradients...
March 8, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30822223/chronic-hypoxia-changes-gene-expression-profile-of-primary-rat-carotid-body-cells-consequences-on-the-expression-of-nos-isoforms-and-et-1-receptors
#8
Matias Mosqueira, Rodrigo Iturriaga
Sustained chronic hypoxia (CH) produces morphological and functional changes in the carotid body (CB). Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a major role as modulators of the CB oxygen chemosensory process. To characterize the effects of CH related to normoxia (Nx) on gene expression, particularly on ET-1 and NO pathways, primary cultures of rat CB cells were exposed to 7 days of CH. Total RNA was extracted, cDNA-32 P synthesized and hybridized with 1185 genes printed on a nylon membrane Atlas cDNA Expression Array...
March 1, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716010/obesity-complements-preeclampsia
#9
Kelsey N Olson, Leanne M Redman, Jenny L Sones
Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating adverse outcome of pregnancy. Characterized by maternal hypertension, when left untreated PE can result in death of both mother and baby. The cause of PE remains unknown and there is no way to predict which women will develop PE during pregnancy. The only known treatment is delivery of both the fetus and placenta, therefore an abnormal placenta is thought to play a causal role. Women with obesity before pregnancy have an increased chance of developing PE. Increased adiposity results in a heightened state of systemic inflammation which can influence placental development...
February 4, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681907/the-role-of-gut-metabolism-of-adrenal-corticosteroids-and-hypertension-clues-gut-cleansing-antibiotics-give-us
#10
David J Morris, Andrew Samuel Brem
Intestinal bacteria can metabolize sterols, bile acids, steroid hormones, dietary proteins, fiber, foodstuffs, and short chain fatty acids (SCFCs). The metabolic products generated by some of these intestinal bacteria have been linked to a number of systemic diseases including obesity with type 2 diabetes mellitus, some forms of inflammation, and more recently, systemic hypertension. In this review, we primarily focus on the potential role selected gut bacteria play in metabolizing the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol...
January 25, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707046/activation-of-the-cannabinoid-receptor-2-increases-renal-perfusion
#11
J D Pressly, H Soni, S Jiang, J Wei, R Liu, B M Moore, A Adebiyi, F Park
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an increasing clinical problem that is associated with chronic kidney disease progression. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation has been shown to mitigate some of the deleterious tubular effects due to AKI, but its role on the renal vasculature has not been fully described. In this study, we investigated the effects of our novel CB2 receptor agonist, SMM-295, on renal vasculature by assessing cortical perfusion with laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in luminal diameter with isolated afferent arterioles...
March 1, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657733/clock-gene-expression-is-altered-in-veterans-with-sleep-apnea
#12
Muna T Canales, Meaghan Rayann Holzworth, Shahab Bozorgmehri, Areef Ishani, I David Weiner, Richard B Berry, Rebecca J Beyth, Michelle L Gumz
Clock gene dysregulation has been shown to underlie various sleep disorders and may lead to negative cardio-metabolic outcomes. However, the association between sleep apnea(SA) and core clock gene expression is unclear. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 49 Veterans enrolled in a study of SA outcomes in Veterans with chronic kidney disease, not selected for SA or sleep complaints. All participants underwent full polysomnography and next morning whole blood collection for clock gene expression. We defined SA as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)≥15 events/hour; nocturnal hypoxemia(NH) was defined as ≥10% of total sleep time spent at <90% oxygen saturation...
January 18, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633643/microrna-146a-association-with-the-cardiometabolic-disease-risk-factor-tmao
#13
Alisha R Coffey, Matt Kanke, Tangi L Smallwood, Jody Albright, Wendy Pitman, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Kunjie Hua, Erik Gertz, Sudha B Biddinger, Ryan E Temel, Daniel Pomp, Praveen Sethupathy, Brian J Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbial choline metabolism byproduct that is processed in the liver and excreted into circulation, is associated with increased atherosclerotic lesion formation and cardiovascular disease risk. Genetic regulators of TMAO levels are largely unknown. In the present study, we used ~300 mice from a genetically heterogeneous mouse population (Diversity Outbred; DO) to determine hepatic microRNA associations with TMAO in the context of an atherogenic diet...
January 11, 2019: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576260/gene-expression-effects-of-lithium-and-valproic-acid-in-a-serotonergic-cell-line
#14
Diana Balasubramanian, John F Pearson, Martin A Kennedy
Valproic acid (VPA) and lithium are widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. However, the underlying mechanism of action of these drugs is not clearly understood. We used RNA-Seq analysis to examine the global profile of gene expression in a rat serotonergic cell line (RN46A) after exposure to these two mood stabilizer drugs. Numerous genes were differentially regulated in response to VPA (log2 fold change ≥ 1.0; i.e. odds ratio of ≥ 2, at FDR <5%), but only two genes ( Dynlrb2 and Cdyl2) showed significant differential regulation after exposure of the cells to lithium, with the same analysis criteria...
December 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576257/differential-circrna-expression-profiles-in-latent-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-validation-using-clinical-samples
#15
Yun-Yan Lou, Qiong-Dan Wang, Yu-Tian Lu, Meng-Yun Tu, Xi Xu, Ying Xia, Ying Peng, Mei-Mei Lai, Xiao-Qun Zheng
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an opportunistic prototypic beta-herpesvirus that can cause severe and even fatal diseases in immune-naive newborns and immunocompromised adults. Host-virus interactions occurring at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels are critical for establishing an HCMV latent or lytic infection, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the expression of circRNAs in human leukemia monocytes (THP-1 cells) latently infected with HCMV and explored the diagnostic value of circRNAs in children with HCMV infection...
December 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30540547/identification-of-molecular-signatures-of-cystic-fibrosis-disease-status-using-plasma-based-functional-genomics
#16
Hara Levy, Shuang Jia, Amy Pan, Xi Zhang, Mary L Kaldunski, Melodee L Nugent, Melissa Reske, Rachel A Feliciano, Diana Quintero, Michael M Renda, Katherine J Woods, Kathy Murkowski, Keven Johnson, James Verbsky, Trivikram Dasu, Justin Eze Ideozu, Susanna McColley, Michael W Quasney, Mary K Dahmer, Ellis D Avner, Philip M Farrell, Carolyn L Cannon, Howard Jacob, Pippa M Simpson, Martin J Hessner
Although cystic fibrosis (CF) is attributed to dysfunction of a single gene, the relationships between the abnormal gene product and development of inflammation and progression of lung disease are not fully understood, limiting our ability to predict an individual patient's clinical course and treatment response. To better understand CF progression, we characterized the molecular signatures of CF disease status using plasma-based functional genomics. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors were cultured with plasma samples from CF patients (n=103) and unrelated, healthy controls (n=31)...
December 12, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30526334/metabolic-fitness-in-relation-to-genetic-variation-and-leukocyte-dna-methylation
#17
Maarten Caspers, Sara Blocquiaux, Ruben Charlier, Johan Lefevre, Katrien De Bock, Martine Thomis
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent condition causing increased risk of several life-threatening diseases. MetS has a pronounced hereditary basis, but is also influenced by environmental factors, partly through epigenetic mechanisms. In this study, the five phenotypes underlying MetS were incorporated into a continuous score for metabolic fitness (MF) and associations with both genotypic variation and leukocyte DNA methylation were investigated. Baseline MF phenotypes (waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, serum triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins) of 710 healthy Flemish adults were measured...
December 7, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30526312/the-atp2a2-rs3026468-does-not-associate-with-quadriceps-contractile-properties-and-acute-muscle-potentiation-in-humans
#18
Eric A Kirk, Shiva M Singh, Charles L Rice
The ATP2A2 gene encodes the SERCA protein required for active calcium re-uptake to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle. The ATP2A2 rs3026468 variant has been associated with voluntary strength phenotypes in humans but requires further validation. Here we investigated a homogenous cohort of eighty, young, healthy, active Caucasian males who were assessed for maximal isometric strength, voluntary activation, stimulated contractile properties and potentiation in the quadriceps...
December 7, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30444453/aging-melatonin-biosynthesis-and-circadian-clockworks-in-the-gastrointestinal-system-of-the-laboratory-mouse
#19
Jiffin Kuriacko Paulose, Charles Vincent Cassone, Vincent M Cassone
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is vital in its capacities for nutrient and water uptake, immune function, metabolism and detoxification, and stem-cell derived regeneration. Of significance to human health are a myriad of gastrointestinal disorders associated with aging that integrate with the circadian clock. Here we present data from three groups of mice: young (3 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old-aged (24 months old). Small intestine and colon samples taken every 4 hours under light:dark (LD) conditions were assayed for gene expression related to molecular circadian rhythmicity, transcription, cell-signaling, and immune function...
November 16, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30345904/impact-of-pyroxd1-deficiency-on-cellular-respiration-and-correlations-with-genetic-analyses-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-in-saudi-arabia-and-sudan
#20
Madhurima Saha, Hemakumar M Reddy, Mustafa A Salih, Elicia Estrella, Michael D Jones, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Kyung-Ah Cho, Silveli Suzuki-Hatano, Skylar A Rizzo, Muddathir H Hamad, Maowia M Mukhtar, Ahlam A Hamed, Maha A Elseed, Monkol Lek, Elise Valkanas, Daniel G MacArthur, Louis M Kunkel, Christina A Pacak, Isabelle Draper, Peter B Kang
Next-generation sequencing is commonly used to screen for pathogenic mutations in families with Mendelian disorders, but due to the pace of discoveries, gaps have widened for some diseases between genetic and pathophysiological knowledge. We recruited and analyzed 16 families with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) of Arab descent from Saudi Arabia and Sudan who did not have confirmed genetic diagnoses. The analysis included both traditional and next-generation sequencing approaches. Cellular and metabolic studies were performed on Pyroxd1 siRNA C2C12 myoblasts and controls...
November 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
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