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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872002/avian-articular-orthopedics
#1
REVIEW
Mikel Sabater González
In most avian species, luxations occur infrequently compared with other orthopedic conditions. A comprehensive review about avian luxations was published 4 years ago. The aim of this article was to review and describe from an orthopedic point of view the different types of luxations and subluxations reported in birds, their surgical treatment, and, whenever possible, the potential limitations and complications related with these procedures.
March 11, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872001/skeletal-cartilage-and-bone-formation-composition-and-function-in-small-mammals-birds-and-reptiles
#2
REVIEW
Mikel Sabater González
Cartilage and bone are the main skeletal tissues in exotic vertebrates and are distinguished by their cells and the extracellular matrices they produce. Differences in cartilage and bone formation and growth exist among small mammals, birds, and reptiles. A basic knowledge of cartilage and bone formation, composition, and function in small mammals, birds, and reptiles commonly kept as pets, and the major differences observed among species, is necessary to correctly evaluate and treat cartilage and bone lesions in these groups of animals...
March 11, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872000/skeletal-bone-structure-and-repair-in-small-mammals-birds-and-reptiles
#3
REVIEW
Mikel Sabater González
Bone strength depends on its structure, its composition, and the forces it is subjected to. Bone structure varies greatly between species and these differences may have clinical implications in their assessment or treatment. Fractures occur when the magnitude of the sum of forces affecting it exceeds its ultimate strength. The aim of bone healing is to recover the normal structure of the bone to maintain its normal function, but the mechanisms of bone healing differ greatly among species. This article provides a basic reference for the bone structure of small mammals, birds, and reptiles...
March 11, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961904/exotic-animal-zoo-and-wildlife-orthopedics
#4
EDITORIAL
Mikel Sabater González, Daniel Calvo Carrasco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961903/exoskeleton-repair-in-invertebrates
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Pellett, Michelle O'Brien
This article focuses on exoskeleton repair in invertebrates presented due to physical trauma with impairment of the integument and often with hemolymph loss. Invertebrates, especially the larger-bodied arthropods, can severely damage their exoskeleton if dropped or if they are handled during ecdysis. Clinicians are encouraged to familiarize themselves with the basic first-aid techniques for invertebrate exoskeleton repair. With simple techniques and using items found in most homes, clients can be guided through basic first-aid procedures to prevent fatalities from hemolymph loss until the animal can be properly attended by a clinician...
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961902/locoregional-anesthesia-in-exotic-pets
#6
REVIEW
Dario d'Ovidio, Chiara Adami
Locoregional techniques are used in exotic pets to improve perioperative analgesia as well as decrease the requirement of systemic analgesics during and after invasive surgeries. This article focuses on the techniques that have been described for exotic mammals, birds, and reptiles, focusing on those that rely on ultrasonographic or nerve stimulator guidance.
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961901/orthopedics-in-reptiles-and-amphibians
#7
REVIEW
Peter M DiGeronimo, João Brandão
Musculoskeletal disorders are a common cause for presentation of reptiles and amphibians to the veterinarian. A clinical approach to orthopedic cases starts with a thorough history and review of husbandry, and identification of any underlying or concomitant disease. Medical management is indicated for pathologic fractures. Traumatic fractures may require surgical intervention. Stabilization options include external coaptation and/or external and internal fixation. Special considerations must be given to shell fractures in chelonians...
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961900/avian-skull-orthopedics
#8
REVIEW
Minh Huynh, Mikel Sabater González, Hugues Beaufrére
Because the avian skull is the reflection of the wide biodiversity of birds, many anatomic, morphologic, and functional variations are encountered. The main objectives of this article are to review the surgical considerations associated with the functional anatomy of the avian jaw apparatus and its variation among species, and to describe the general medical and surgical management of head traumatic and developmental disorders in birds.
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961899/fracture-management-in-avian-species
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Calvo Carrasco
In treating avian species with fractures, the clinician must be prepared to think laterally and assess each case individually, taking into account the unique characteristics of the fracture, the temperament of the species and the individual, its lifestyle, and the desired outcome. All this should be considered during the decision making process, which should involve the owner or career of the patient. The clinician should aim for a result as close as possible to the original functional anatomy. The degree of perfection required for postoperative return to normal function is dictated by the species and the lifestyle of the patient...
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961898/animal-models-of-osteoarthritis-in-small-mammals
#10
REVIEW
C Iván Serra, Carme Soler
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects the synovial joint. Animal models commonly used to study the disease and its therapeutic treatment are generally spontaneous or induced. The lack of an animal model representing all types of existing OA requires knowledge about what can be expected from each species and their limitations. The choice of species is crucial, as the selection of the age of individuals at the start of a study, their sex, and nutritional and environmental conditions. A better understanding of the small mammal models used for the study of osteoarthritic pathology may benefit both researcher and clinician dealing with these animals...
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961897/exotic-mammal-orthopedics
#11
REVIEW
Yasutsugu Miwa, Daniel Calvo Carrasco
Orthopedic disorders are a common clinical presentation for the exotic clinician. Before treating the fracture it is vital to stabilize the patient. Small exotic mammals are characterized by relatively thinner bones, adding to the difficulty the small size already represents. A combination of conservative and surgical treatment options are available. The principles of orthopedic surgery and ideas behind the treatment options remain the same as for small mammals, but not all techniques can be directly extrapolated...
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961896/orthopedic-diagnostic-imaging-in-exotic-pets
#12
REVIEW
Federico Vilaplana Grosso
Orthopedic diseases are a common problem in exotic pets. Diagnostic imaging modalities are more accessible and available in exotic animal veterinary medicine; the higher standards of care of the veterinary profession have progressed toward an increased offer of advanced imaging modalities. The literature on the use of diagnostic imaging modalities in orthopedic disease of exotic pets is scarce. This article discusses when to use the different diagnostic imaging techniques and reviews the imaging findings usually found in the most common orthopedic diseases in small mammal, avian, and reptile exotic pet species using different imaging modalities, especially radiography and computed tomography...
May 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454766/introduction-to-ocular-surface-disease-in-exotics
#13
EDITORIAL
Sarah L Czerwinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454765/ocular-surface-biology-and-disease-in-amphibians
#14
REVIEW
David L Williams
Vision is essential for amphibians, so a healthy ocular surface is critically important. There are ocular surface abnormalities that occur predominantly in captive animals, such as corneal lipidosis, whereas others, such as UV-induced trauma or infectious and parasitic conditions, may be critical to survival for animals in the wild. It is believed that inherited defects are going to be seen in small captive populations but it may be that confined wild groups of amphibians can be just as severely affected. Anything that blinds an animal severely affects its life changes...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454764/ocular-surface-biology-and-disease-in-fish
#15
REVIEW
David L Williams
Ensuring the clarity of the ocular surface of fish species with which we interact is of great importance. There is still much more to learn about the ocular surface of fish species. A better understanding of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the ocular surface is thus vital for fish welfare, as well as being a fascinating subject in its own right.
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454763/ocular-surface-disease-in-new-world-camelids
#16
REVIEW
Sarah L Czerwinski
This article discusses the anatomy, physiology, and common disease affecting the ocular surface of New World camelids, llamas, and alpacas.
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454762/ocular-surface-disease-in-birds
#17
REVIEW
Angela Griggs
Avian ocular disease may be primary or a manifestation of systemic disease. Various infectious and noninfectious diseases have been reported to cause ocular pathology. Thorough physical examination and diagnostic testing are necessary to determine a treatment plan.
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454761/ocular-surface-diseases-in-marine-mammals
#18
REVIEW
Carmen Maria Helena Colitz
Marine mammal eyes are adapted for underwater and air environments by increasing the mucins in tear film and having flatter corneas and round crystalline lenses. The cornea and lens are most commonly affected by environmental imbalances. Lack of shade and excessive exposure to sunlight are significant risk factors for keratopathy in pinnipeds, and likely true in cetaceans. Natural aging is also important, as sun damage and exposure to other oxidative stressors can cause cumulative damage to the cornea over time...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454760/ocular-examination-and-corneal-surface-disease-in-the-ferret
#19
REVIEW
Kathern E Myrna, Nicola Di Girolamo
This article provides a brief, clinically relevant review of corneal surface disease in the ferret. A description of the ophthalmic examination of the ferret is provided. Stepwise descriptions of the most common ophthalmic abnormalities are provided, along with common rule-outs.
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454759/ocular-surface-disease-in-rodents-guinea-pigs-mice-rats-chinchillas
#20
REVIEW
Caroline Monk
This article discusses the clinical appearance, differential diagnoses, and treatment considerations of corneal disease in the most common domesticated species of rodent: mouse, rat, chinchilla, and guinea pig. Many corneal diseases are related to inbred strains of either research or pet rodents. Diseases are complicated by husbandry and treatment-related challenges in this small, social species. This article is broken down by species, first discussing normal anatomy, then discussing commonly encountered diseases, and concluding with treatment considerations...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
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