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Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759032/heterogeneous-expression-of-proinsulin-processing-enzymes-in-beta-cells-of-non-diabetic-and-type-2-diabetic-humans
#1
Gladys Teitelman
Although there is evidence indicating transcriptional and functional heterogeneity in human beta cells, it is unclear whether this heterogeneity extends to the expression level of the enzymes that process proinsulin to insulin in beta cells. To address this question, the expression levels of prohormone convertases (PC) 1/3, proprotein convertase 2 (PC2), and carboxypeptidase E (CPE) were determined in immune-stained sections of human pancreas. In non-diabetic donors, the level of proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) expression varied among beta cells of each islet but the average per islet was similar for all islets of each donor...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694090/mechanical-compression-of-coverslipped-tissue-sections-during-heat-induced-antigen-retrieval-prevents-section-detachment-and-preserves-tissue-morphology
#2
Andreas H Eckhard, Jennifer T O'Malley, Joseph B Nadol, Joe C Adams
Heat-induced antigen retrieval (HIAR) is routinely employed on aldehyde-fixed tissue sections to enhance the reactivity of antibodies that exhibit weak or no specific interactions with tissue antigens when applied in conventional immunohistochemical protocols. A major drawback of HIAR protocols is, however, the heat-induced detachment of sections from the microscope slide with resultant impaired tissue morphology or loss of the section. We developed a method in which tissue sections mounted on glass slides are temporally coverslipped, and a clamp is used to compress the sections on the microscope slide during HIAR treatment...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633620/the-diagnostic-value-of-chemokine-chemokine-receptor-pairs-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#3
Xiaolei Jiao, Guiming Shu, Hui Liu, Qin Zhang, Zhe Ma, Chaoyi Ren, Hongsheng Guo, Jingxiang Shi, Junguo Liu, Chuanshan Zhang, Yijun Wang, Yingtang Gao
Chemokines and their receptors have been proposed to play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. To investigate their roles in the progression of primary and metastatic malignant liver tumors and their prognosis, we compared expression profiles of CXCL12/CXCR4, CCL20/CCR6, and CCL21/CCR7 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression levels of the chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs in 29 HCC and 11 CRLM specimens and adjacent noncancerous tissues, and correlations with clinicopathological variables and overall survival were determined...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628843/selecting-an-optimal-positive-ihc-control-for-verifying-antigen-retrieval
#4
Seshi R Sompuram, Kodela Vani, Anika K Schaedle, Anuradha Balasubramanian, Steven A Bogen
Positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) controls are intended to detect problems in both immunostaining and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER). However, it is not known what features in a control are important for verifying HIER. Contrary to expectation, the fact that a tissue is formalin-fixed does not necessarily render it suitable in verifying proper HIER. Some tissue controls, for some immunostains, strongly stain even without HIER. Consequently, the control may verify the immunostain but provide little or no information regarding the HIER step...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624131/gold-substituted-silver-intensified-peroxidase-immunolabeling-for-fib-sem-imaging
#5
Adrian Boey, Vasily Rybakin, Dharamdajal Kalicharan, Katlijn Vints, Natalia V Gounko
Modern electron microscopy offers a wide variety of tools to investigate the ultrastructural organization of cells and tissues and to accurately pinpoint intracellular localizations of macromolecules of interest. New volumetric electron microscopy techniques and new instrumentation provide unique opportunities for high-throughput analysis of comparatively large volumes of tissue and their complete reconstitution in three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy. However, due to a variety of technical issues such as the limited penetration of label into the tissue, low antigen preservation, substantial electron density of secondary detection reagents, and many others, the adaptation of immuno-detection techniques for use with such 3D imaging methods as focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) has been challenging...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30620237/nonpathological-chondrogenic-features-of-valve-interstitial-cells-in-normal-adult-zebrafish
#6
Alina Schulz, Jana Brendler, Orest Blaschuk, Kathrin Landgraf, Martin Krueger, Albert M Ricken
In the heart, unidirectional blood flow depends on proper heart valve function. As, in mammals, regulatory mechanisms of early heart valve and bone development are shown to contribute to adult heart valve pathologies, we used the animal model zebrafish (ZF, Danio rerio) to investigate the microarchitecture and differentiation of cardiac valve interstitial cells in the transition from juvenile (35 days) to end of adult breeding (2.5 years) stages. Of note, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed major differences in ZF heart valve microarchitecture when compared with adult mice...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576266/netrin-1-like-immunoreactivity-coexpresses-with-dcc-and-has-a-differential-level-in-the-myenteric-cholinergic-and-nitrergic-neurons-of-the-adult-mouse-colon
#7
Suh Youn Ko, John T Price, Gregory L Blatch, Kulmira Nurgali
Netrin-1 is a potent axonal and neuronal guidance cue in the developing nervous system. Netrin-1 functions are mediated by its receptors, such as deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) present on axons and neurons. Localization of DCC and Netrin-1 on various types of enteric neurons and their role in the mature enteric nervous system is unknown. The results of our study revealed that almost all enteric neurons and processes express DCC and Netrin-1 in the adult mice. Netrin-1-like-immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons with some showing strong or weak staining...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30562131/cold-ischemia-score-an-mrna-assay-for-the-detection-of-extended-cold-ischemia-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissue
#8
William Mathieson, Kathleen Mommaerts, Johanna M Trouet, Conny Mathay, Ping Guan, Latarsha J Carithers, Daniel Rohrer, Dana R Valley, Alexander Blanski, Scott Jewell, Helen M Moore, Fay Betsou
Although there are thousands of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks potentially available for scientific research, many are of questionable quality, partly due to unknown preanalytical variables. We analyzed FFPE tissue biospecimens as part of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Biospecimen Preanalytical Variables program to identify mRNA markers denoting cold ischemic time. The mRNA was extracted from colon, kidney, and ovary cancer FFPE blocks (40 patients, 10-12 hr fixation time) with 1, 2, 3, and 12 hr cold ischemic times, then analyzed using qRT-PCR for 23 genes selected following a literature search...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30562126/characterization-and-validation-of-antibodies-for-immunohistochemical-staining-of-the-chemokine-cxcl12
#9
Simon P Fricker, Kam Sprott, Melanie Spyra, Philipp Uhlig, Nicole Lange, Kerstin David, Yan Wang
Chemokines and their receptors have been implicated in cancer biology. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is essential for the homing and retention of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow niches, and has a significant role in neonatal development. It is also implicated in multiple facets of cancer biology including metastasis, angiogenesis/neo-vasculogenesis, and immune cell trafficking at the tumor microenvironment (TME). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an ideal method for investigating involvement of CXCL12 in the TME...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30562121/factors-affecting-ultrastructural-quality-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-the-postmortem-human-brain
#10
Jill R Glausier, Anisha Konanur, David A Lewis
Electron microscopy (EM) studies of the postmortem human brain provide a level of resolution essential for understanding brain function in both normal and disease states. However, processes associated with death can impair the cellular and organelle ultrastructural preservation required for quantitative EM studies. Although postmortem interval (PMI), the time between death and preservation of tissue, is thought to be the most influential factor of ultrastructural quality, numerous other factors may also influence tissue preservation...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30501365/defining-changes-in-the-spatial-distribution-and-composition-of-brain-lipids-in-the-shiverer-and-cuprizone-mouse-models-of-myelin-disease
#11
Rajanikanth J Maganti, Xiaoping L Hronowski, Robert W Dunstan, Brian T Wipke, Xueli Zhang, Luke Jandreski, Stefan Hamann, Peter Juhasz
Myelin is composed primarily of lipids and diseases affecting myelin are associated with alterations in its lipid composition. However, correlation of the spatial (in situ) distribution of lipids with the disease-associated compositional and morphological changes is not well defined. Herein we applied high resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to evaluate brain lipid alterations in the dysmyelinating shiverer (Shi) mouse and cuprizone (Cz) mouse model of reversible demyelination...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30452875/leukocyte-nucleus-reveals-a-linear-order-of-chromosomes-separated-in-two-parental-genomes-that-favors-the-process-of-gene-activation
#12
Jyoti P Chaudhuri, Sultan Karamanov, Liliana Scott, Thomas Liehr, Joachim U Walther
Analysis of trisomy 8 cells and the chromosome-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals on the ring-shaped nucleus of a neutrophil reveal that homologue chromosomes orient in diametrical opposition to each other. This positioning results in a separation of the two haploid sets of parental chromosomes organized as two exclusive groups. These two groups impart the nucleus a symmetry that fortifies immune protection by accelerating chemotaxis. The ring form of the nucleus is a legacy of the orientation of chromosomes as a rosette during metaphase and telophase stages...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30452872/impaired-junctions-and-invaded-macrophages-in-oral-epithelia-with-oral-pain
#13
Reiko U Yoshimoto, Reona Aijima, Yukiko Ohyama, Junko Yoshizumi, Tomoko Kitsuki, Yasuyoshi Ohsaki, Ai-Lin Cao, Atsushi Danjo, Yoshio Yamashita, Tamotsu Kiyoshima, Mizuho A Kido
Recurrent or chronic oral pain is a great burden for patients. Recently, the links between epithelial barrier loss and disease were extended to include initiation and propagation. To explore the effects of pathohistological changes in oral epithelia on pain, we utilized labial mucosa samples in diagnostic labial gland biopsies from patients with suspected Sjögren's syndrome (SS), because they frequently experience pain and discomfort. In most labial mucosa samples from patients diagnosed with SS, disseminated epithelial cellular edema was prevalent as ballooning degeneration...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30452870/an-automated-algorithm-to-quantify-collagen-distribution-in-aortic-wall
#14
Dustin M Nguyen, Markus U Wagenhäuser, Dennis Mehrkens, Matti Adam, Philip S Tsao, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Arterial diseases including abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis are biomechanical diseases characterized by significant changes in the structure and strength of the vessel wall. It is now established that local variations in fibrillar collagen and elastin matrix turnover is critical to arterial stiffening and progression of the disease. The collagen content in the aortic wall has nominally been quantified by biochemical assays and immunohistochemical analysis as the total amount because of the difficulty in separating the media and adventitia...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30431382/the-influence-of-tgf-%C3%AE-3-egf-and-bgn-on-sox9-and-runx2-expression-in-human-chondrogenic-progenitor-cells
#15
Jerome Nicolas Janssen, Sarah Batschkus, Stefan Schimmel, Christa Bode, Boris Schminke, Nicolai Miosge
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease and leads to the degradation of the extracellular matrix by an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. TGF-β3 (transforming growth factor beta-3) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) influence the osteochondrogenic potential of chondrocytes. In this study, we compared the expression of mediators and receptors in the TGF-β3 and EGF pathways, as well as biglycan (BGN), in healthy and diseased chondrocytes. Furthermore, we used chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) for in vitro stimulation and knockdown experiments to elucidate the effects of TGF-β3 and EGF on the chondrogenic potential...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30052477/characterization-of-fgd5-expression-in-primary-breast-cancers-and-lymph-node-metastases
#16
Marit Valla, Patricia G Mjønes, Monica J Engstrøm, Borgny Ytterhus, Diana L Bordin, Barbara van Loon, Lars A Akslen, Lars J Vatten, Signe Opdahl, Anna M Bofin
Faciogenital dysplasia 5 ( FGD5) amplification drives tumor cell proliferation, and is present in 9.5% of breast cancers. We describe FGD5 expression, assess associations between FGD5 amplification and FGD5 expression, and assess FGD5 expression in relation to proliferation and prognosis. FGD5 immunohistochemistry was done on primary tumors ( n=829) and lymph node metastases ( n=231) from a cohort of Norwegian patients. We explored associations between FGD5 amplification, FGD5 expression, and proliferation, and analyzed the prognostic value of FGD5 expression by estimating cumulative risks of death and hazard ratios (HRs)...
November 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29985723/characterization-of-epidermal-lipoxygenase-expression-in-normal-human-skin-and-tissue-engineered-skin-substitutes
#17
Carolyne Simard-Bisson, Lorraine Andrée Parent, Véronique J Moulin, Bernard Fruteau de Laclos
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are enzymes likely to be involved in corneocyte lipid envelope formation and skin barrier function. In humans, mutations in epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 ( eLOX-3) and 12R-lipoxygenase ( 12R-LOX) genes are associated with autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI), whereas deletion of these genes in mice causes epidermal defects. LOXs also represent a matter of interest in psoriasis as well as in cancer research. However, their expression as well as the exact role of these enzymes in normal human skin have not been fully described...
November 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29873589/acute-and-chronic-iron-overloading-differentially-modulates-the-expression-of-cellular-iron-homeostatic-molecules-in-normal-rat-kidney
#18
Bassem Refaat, Abdelghany Hassan Abdelghany, Mohammad A BaSalamah, Mohamed El-Boshy, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris
Little is known about the renal responses to acute iron overloading. This study measured the renal tubular expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1), cubilin/megalin receptors, hepcidin, ferroportin, and ferritin chains following subacute intoxication of 40 male Wistar rats with a single oral dose of ferrous iron (300 mg/kg). The animals were randomly subdivided into 4 equal subgroups at the time of necropsy (1, 2, 4, and 8 hr). The results were compared with the controls ( n=15) and with the chronic group ( n=15), which received iron for 4 weeks (75 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week)...
November 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29775115/immunofluorescent-localization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-thymus
#19
Dailun Hu, Philip K Nicholls, Changfu Yin, Khama Kelman, Qionglan Yuan, Wayne K Greene, Zhongli Shi, Bin Ma
The thymus is innervated by sympathetic/parasympathetic nerve fibers from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting a neural regulation of thymic function including T-cell development. Despite some published studies, data on the innervation and nerve-immune interaction inside the thymus remain limited. In the present study, we used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) coupled with confocal microscopy/three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to reveal the distribution of non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSC) and their interactions with immune cells inside mouse thymus...
November 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29762076/the-degeneration-of-the-vestibular-efferent-neurons-after-intratympanic-gentamicin-administration
#20
Qianru Wu, Yibo Zhang, Chunfu Dai, Yu Kong, Lijun Pan
Intratympanic gentamicin (ITG) has been used to treat refractory Ménière's disease. Disequilibrium after ITG was still a challenge for some patients, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that gentamicin distributed in the bilateral vestibular efferent neurons (VEN) after ITG; however, does it lead to VEN damage and cause further disequilibrium in patients following ITG? In this study, we observed severe damaged gentamicin-positive neurons of VEN and severe fractured myelin layer plates around neural fibers when viewed under transmission electron microscopy at day 3 after ITG...
November 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
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