Journals Brazilian Journal of Infectiou...

Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Paula M Luz, Hailey Spaeth, Justine A Scott, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G Veloso, Kenneth A Freedberg, Elena Losina
INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, though Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is available to all, the benefits may not be experienced uniformly. We projected Life Expectancy (LE) for People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in care as currently observed and estimated the impact of guideline-concordant care. METHODS: Using a microsimulation model, we projected LE for a cohort of PLHIV and for four population groups: cisgender Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), cisgender Men who have Sex with Women (MSW), Cisgender Women (CGW), and Transgender Women (TGW)...
February 15, 2024: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Guido Schäfer, Rabea Lübke, Olaf Degen, Maria Mader, Robin Scheiter, Annika Wolski, Marylyn M Addo, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Sven Pischke
BACKGROUND: While the sexual transmissibility of HAV in MSM has been extensively described, the potential for sexual transmission of HEV has not been definitively established. Although HEV has been detected in the ejaculate of chronically infected men, studies among MSM PrEP users in France did not observe an elevated anti-HEV seroprevalence as an indicator of increased exposure risk by sexual intercourse. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 111 unselected PrEP users and 111 age- and sex-matched blood donors were tested for anti-HEV IgG, IgM and HEV (PCR)...
February 13, 2024: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mohammad Jafari, Ahmad Jabrodini, Aliyar Pirouzi, Ahmad Meshkin, Mehdi Mohsenzadeh
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has had a devastating impact on the global population, with an estimated 650 million people infected and more than 6.6 million lives lost. Asymptomatic individuals have been shown to play a significant role in the transmission of the virus. Therefore, this study aims to investigate and compare the prevalence of asymptomatic individuals across three waves associated with the Beta, Delta, and omicron variants of the virus...
February 13, 2024: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lucieni Oliveira Conterno, Plínio Trabasso, Mariângela Ribeiro Resende, Paula Sanches Paschoali, Leticia Bergamo Pascucci, Maria Luiza Moretti
UNLABELLED: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is frequent in patients with hematologic malignancies or submitted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of the GM (galactomannan) test in prescribing therapeutic antifungals; to determine invasive aspergillosis (IA) frequency, the factors associated with positive GM test, and the in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study including patients aged 18 or over with hematological malignancy or submitted to HSCT...
February 6, 2024: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Edwiges Motta, Luiz Antonio B Camacho, Ana M Bispo de Filippis, Marcellus Costa, Luciana Pedro, Sandra W Cardoso, Marta Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Ygara da Silva Mendes, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Lara E Coelho
BACKGROUND: Safety data on the yellow fever vaccine 17DD in People Living with HIV (PLWH) are limited. This study explored the occurrence of post-vaccination 17DD viremia and the kinetics of hematological and liver laboratorial parameters in PLWH and HIV-uninfected participants [HIV(-) controls]. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a longitudinal interventional trial (NCT03132311) study that enrolled PLWH and HIV(-) controls to receive a single 17DD dose and were followed at 5, 30 and 365 days after vaccination in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2024: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vinicius Lins Costa Mello, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Basil
INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 remains an important threat to global health and maintains the challenge of COVID-19 hospital care. To assist decision making regarding COVID-19 hospital care many instruments to predict COVID-19 progression to critical condition were developed and validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate eleven COVID-19 progression prediction scores for critically ill hospitalized patients in a Brazilian population. METHODOLOGY: Observational study with retrospective follow-up, including 301 adults confirmed for COVID-19 sequentially...
2024: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Verônica de França Diniz Rocha, Euclimeire Neves da Silva, Jailton Azevedo, Marcelo Teles Ribeiro, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Tania Fraga Barros, Joice Neves Reis
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered crises in the public health sector that have complex and multifaceted interrelationships with antimicrobial resistance. It is important to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on microbiological profile, antibiotic and alcohol gel consumption in Intensive Care Units (ICU). METHODS: This is a retrospective study undertaken in an infectious disease hospital located in Bahia/Brazil during three periods: from March 2019 to February 2020; from March 2020 to February 2021; and from March 2021 to February 2022...
2024: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Debora Ferreira Barreto Vieira, Derick Mendes Bandeira, Marcos Alexandre Nunes da Silva, Ana Luisa Teixeira de Almeida, Mia Araújo, Ana Beatriz Machado, Luis Fernando Lopez Tort, Valéria Pereira Nacife, Marilda M Siqueira, Fernando Couto Motta, Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa, Ortrud Monika Barth
This study compares the effects of virus-cell interactions among SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) isolated in Brazil in 2021, hypothesizing a correlation between cellular alterations and mortality and between viral load and transmissibility. For this purpose, reference isolates of Alpha, Gamma, Zeta, and Delta variants were inoculated into monolayers of Vero-E6 cells. Viral RNA was quantified in cell supernatants by RT‒PCR, and infected cells were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of cellular changes 24, 48, and 72 h Postinfection (hpi)...
December 8, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Karla Dzul-Rosado, Dayana Guadalupe Lavín-Sánchez, Gerardo Álvarez Hernández, Salvador Gómez-Carro, Fernando I Puerto-Manzano
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) presents with fever, fatigue, elevated inflammatory markers (acute phase reactants), and a history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 or positive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolded, the risk of MIS-C in the pediatric population increased. However, exposure to other viruses and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 positive antibodies in children hospitalized for various pathogen-associated illnesses will also remain common and may complicate differential diagnoses with diseases endemic to the region such as rickettsial diseases...
December 6, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Luciano Kleber de Souza Luna, Jessica Santiago Cruz, Tânia do Socorro Souza Chaves, Nancy Bellei
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) poses a global health concern, particularly affecting young children, the elderly, and immunosuppressed individuals. RSV viral load is essential for understanding transmission, disease severity, prevention, and treatment. This retrospective study aimed to analyze the frequency rates and viral loads of RSV infections in different patient cohorts and age groups over an eight-year period in a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. This study analyzed 1380 Immunocompetent (IC) and Immunosuppressed (IS) patients with acute respiratory tract infections...
November 30, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Angelina Edna Quintas, Cláudia Camila Dias, Adis Del Carmen Cogle, Lemuel Cordeiro, António Sarmento
BACKGROUND: The transmission of diseases by blood products continues to be a worldwide health problem, especially in Africa. Seroprevalence rates of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Syphilis, and Coinfection in Angola are poorly documented. This study aims to identify the seroprevalence of markers with positive results for Hepatitis B, C, HIV, Syphilis, and Coinfection in blood donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using a database of positive serological markers for these infections and coinfection in 2734 blood donors traced from 2011 to 2016 in Luanda, Angola...
November 27, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yisi Liu, Shan Ren, Lina Ma, Xiao Lin, Hong Li, Junfeng Lu, Zhenhuan Cao, Sujun Zheng, Zhongjie Hu, Xinyue Chen
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance is the highest treatment goal recommended by the current guidelines for hepatitis B. Levels of antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) are strongly associated with HBsAg recurrence, but hepatitis B vaccination may increase the anti-HBs seroconversion rate and reduce recurrence. We conducted a retrospective clinical study to ascertain the effect of this vaccination on the seroconversion rate and levels of protective anti-HBs after HBsAg. In this retrospective study, we distributed a questionnaire through an online survey platform to collect information related to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with functional cure of hepatitis B with Interferon-α (IFNα) therapy...
November 27, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Luciene Silva Dos Santos, Marina Rovani Drummond, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart, Andrea Fernandes Eloy da Costa França, Elemir Macedo de Souza, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho
Leprosy reactions are an acute inflammatory phenomenon that can arise before diagnosis, during treatment, or after cure of leprosy. These reactions are considered one of the main diseases that cause physical disabilities. Immunosuppressive treatment for these immune responses makes these patients susceptible to coinfections, which can trigger new leprosy reactions. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of infection by Bartonella sp. in blood samples from 47 patients who had untreatable episodes of type 2 leprosy reactions for more than six months, comparing them with a control group...
November 16, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ronaldo Morales, Vanessa D'Amaro Juodinis, Daniela Carla de Souza, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge Santos
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin is widely prescribed to treat or prevent Gram-positive infections in pediatric liver transplant recipients. The objective of this prospective cohort study is to describe vancomycin pharmacokinetics and to evaluate the therapeutic target attainment after initial dose regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with previous renal injury were excluded. Vancomycin therapy started with 40‒60 mg/kg/day. The pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed using two steady-state blood samples and the first-order kinetic equations...
November 14, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marcos Eduardo Passos da Silva, Maicon Aleandro da Silva Gomes, Renata Santos Rodrigues, Nucia Cristiane da Silva Lima, Anjo Gabriel Carvalho, Roger Lafontaine Mesquita Taborda, Najla Benevides Matos
Acinetobacter spp. are one of the main pathogens responsible for healthcare-associated infections and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality globally, mainly because of their high capacity to present and develop resistance to antimicrobials. To identify species of the Acinetobacter and their resistance profiles from samples collected from hospitalized patients, health professionals and hospital environmental sources in the intensive care units of different public reference hospitals in Porto Velho City, Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon...
November 14, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Carolina Arai, Juliano Alves Lemos-Machado, Marcelo Vivolo Aun, Carolina Bonet-Bub, Leandro Dinalli Santos, Angelica Espinosa Miranda, Vivian I Avelino-Silva
Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) are useful to identify syphilis cases, particularly for hard-to-reach populations and if laboratory services are scarce. However, RDT performance may be suboptimal. We aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of a syphilis RDT using well-characterized blood donors' samples. We categorized samples from 811 blood donors into five groups: 1 - Samples with reactive Chemiluminescence (QML), FTA-Abs, and VDRL; 2 - Samples with reactive QML and FTA-Abs, and nonreactive VDRL; 3 - Samples with reactive QML, and nonreactive for other markers (false-positives); 4 - Controls with nonreactive QML; and 5 - Samples reactive for HIV, with nonreactive QML...
November 13, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Daniel Joelsons, Cecília Salete Alencar, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Yeh-Li Ho
BACKGROUND: Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the primary cause of hospitalization in the United States and the third leading cause of death in Brazil. The gold standard for diagnosing the etiology of CAP includes blood culture, Gram-stained sputum, and sputum culture. However, these methods have low sensitivity. No studies investigating the etiology of CAP have been conducted in Brazil in the last 20-years, and the empirical choice of antimicrobials is mainly based on the IDSA guidelines...
November 13, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Daniele Souza de Santana, Eduardo Martins Netto, Sara Nunes Vaz, Paulo Henrique Dantas, Carlos Brites
INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 can trigger different clinical presentations in distinct population groups, some of which are considered at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Little is known about the susceptibility of certain populations to the infection. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of COVID-19 among People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWH) attending a tertiary public hospital in Salvador, Brazil, patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and Hospital's Healthcare Workers (HCW), and to compare their SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels...
October 6, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hélio Ranes de Menezes Filho
Among individuals coinfected with HCV and HIV, studies of mortality from non-hepatic causes have shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of HCV and HIV co-infection to mortality from hepatic and non-hepatic causes in Brazil. This retrospective cohort study included blood donors from Fundação Pró-Sangue de São Paulo (FPS) who were followed from 1994 to 2016 to compare mortality and its causes between HIV-HCV coinfected individuals versus those seronegative for all tested infections...
October 6, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Beatriz Avila Zaccaron, Roberta Arb Saba Rodrigues Pinto, Bruno de Mendonça Costa, Alexandre Inácio Cruz de Paula, Emellyne Pamela Diniz Pires Papalini, Maria Emilia Xavier Dos Santos Araújo
Infectious keratitis is a sight-threatening condition that is usually an ocular emergency. The visual outcome depends on prompt and accurate clinical management as well as geographic and epidemiological awareness. We conducted a retrospective observational study to define the epidemiological and laboratory profile, as well as the clinical course of bacterial keratitis in a tertiary hospital in São Paulo over 2 years. Information about age, sex, predisposing factors, topical and surgical treatment, visual acuity, ulcers' classification, bacterioscopy, culture, and antibiotic sensitivity tests were collected...
October 5, 2023: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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