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Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

Alaa Eldin H Youssef, Abeer E Dief, Nesrine M El Azhary, Doaa A Abdelmonsif, Ola S El-Fetiany
Multiple sclerosis is among the most common causes of neurological disabilities in young adults. Over the past decade, several therapeutic strategies have emerged as having potential neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. We investigated the effect of intranasal administration of LINGO-1-directed siRNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on demyelination and remyelination processes in a rat model of demyelination. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 6 groups (n = 10 each) and subjected to intrapontine stereotaxic injection of ethidium bromide (EB) to induce demyelination...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Vadim Mitrokhin, Tatiana Filatova, Andrey Shim, Andrey Bilichenko, Denis Abramochkin, Andre Kamkin, Mitko Mladenov
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on calcium movement in rat ventricular myocytes. L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L ) were recorded with the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp techniques. IFN-γ induces current density reduction at the test potential of 0 mV by 47.6 ± 7.4%. Heparin, a selective inhibitor of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 )-induced Ca2+ release, applied via a patch pipette, induced an ICa,L amplitude decrease of about 46 ± 5.6%. The addition of IFN-γ to heparin-treated cells has no effect on ICa,L ...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiangbo Chen, Yisen Huang, Yubin Wang, Qiuli Wu, Shunzhong Hong, Zicheng Huang
Gastric cancer (GC), a common and lethal cancer in the world, has a high risk of metastasis. Our study was to explore the effects of THBS4 on GC progress and metastasis and the underlying mechanisms. The proliferations of MGC-803 and BGC-823 cells were analyzed via cell count, MTT, and soft agar colony formation assay. The migration and invasion of transfected GC cells was investigated via transwell migration and invasion assay. The mRNA abundance of THBS4 and KLF9 was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Sakshi Tyagi, Nirmal Singh, Jasleen Kaur Virdi, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Diabetes mellitus significantly hampers the development of cardioprotective response to remote pre/post/perconditioning stimuli by impairing the activation of cardioprotective signaling pathways. Among the different pathways, the impairment in O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) signaling and release of cardioprotective humoral factor may contribute in attenuating remote preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Moreover, the failure to phosphorylate extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), and AKT along with up-regulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and decrease in autophagy may also attenuate remote preconditioning-induced cardioprotection...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Anand Thirupathi, Bruno Luiz da Silva Pieri, João Annibal Milano Peixoto Queiroz, Matheus Scarpatto Rodrigues, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Daniela Roxo de Souza, Thais Fernandes Luciano, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Claudio Teodoro De Souza
With aging, there is a reduction in mitochondrial activity, and several changes occur in the body composition, including increased adiposity. The dysfunction of mitochondrial activity causes changes and adaptations in tissue catabolic characteristics. Among them, we can mention brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT's main function is lipid oxidation for heat production, hence playing a role in adaptive thermogenesis induced by environmental factors such as exercise. It is known that exercise causes a series of metabolic changes, including loss body fat; however, there is still no consensus in the academic community about whether both strength and aerobic exercise equally reduces adiposity...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Bo Zhang, Yang Yang, Reziwan Keyimu, Jin Hao, Zhihe Zhao, Rui Ye
Lamin A/C is the major architectural protein of cell nucleus in charge of the nuclear mechanosensing. By integrating extracellular mechanical and biochemical signals, lamin A/C regulates multiple intracellular events including mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate determination. Herein, we review the recent findings about the effects and mechanisms of lamin A/C in governing MSC lineage commitment, with a special focus on osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Better understanding of MSC differentiation regulated by lamin A/C could provide insights into pathogenesis of age-related osteoporosis...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
D Torres-Villarreal, A Camacho, H Castro, R Ortiz-Lopez, A L de la Garza
Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid widely found in fruits, vegetables, and tea. Kaempferol possesses beneficial biological properties such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Positive energy balance during obesity correlates with a pro-inflammatory chronic state. In this context, we hypothesized that kaempferol might promote anti-obesity effects by modulating adipogenesis and lipolytic pathways. Adipocyte viability at 24, 48, and 72 h was measured by an ATP-based assay. Pre-adipocytes (day 0) or mature adipocytes (day 12) were treated with 60 μM kaempferol until day 21 to evaluate its potential anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effect, respectively...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
A Kaisanlahti, T Glumoff
Mammalian adipose tissue is traditionally categorized into white and brown relating to their function and morphology: while white serves as an energy storage, brown adipose tissue acts as the heat generator maintaining the core body temperature. The most recently identified type of fat, beige adipocyte tissue, resembles brown fat by morphology and function but is developmentally more related to white. The synthesis of beige fat, so-called browning of white fat, has developed into a topical issue in diabetes and metabolism research...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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November 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Yang Zhou, Bo Pang, Yingbin Xiao, Simin Zhou, Bin He, Fan Zhang, Wei Liu, Huali Peng, Peng Li
The protective effects of downregulated miR-199a-5p on ischemic and hypoxic cardiomyocytes were well recognized, but the underlying mechanism of inhibited miR-199a-5p is not yet clear. The present study explored the relationship between enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling and lowered production of miR-199a-5p in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. This study firstly found the correlation between elevated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11, as well as subsequent STAT3 signaling activation and the downregulation of miR-199a-5p in hypoxic myocardial samples from children with congenital heart disease...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Jonatan Miranda, Itziar Eseberri, Arrate Lasa, María P Portillo
Some researchers have proposed important variations in adipose tissue among different strains of rats and mice in response to a high-caloric (hc) diet, but data concerning the mechanisms underlying these differences are scarce. The aim of the present research was to characterize different aspects of triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism and clock genes between Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. For this purpose, 16 male Sprague-Dawley and 16 male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8) and fed either a normal-caloric (nc) diet or a hc diet for 6 weeks...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Leonardo Catalano-Iniesta, María Carmen Iglesias-Osma, Virginia Sánchez-Robledo, Marta Carretero-Hernández, Enrique J Blanco, José Carretero, María José García-Barrado
The adrenomedullary chromaffin cells' hormonal pathway has been related to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. In mice, the deletion of insulin receptor substrate type 2 (Irs2) causes peripheral insulin resistance and reduction in β-cell mass, leading to overt diabetes, with gender differences on adrenergic signaling. To further unravel the relevance of Irs2 on glycemic control, we analyzed in adult Irs2 deficient (Irs2-/- ) mice, of both sexes but still normoglycemic, dopamine effects on insulin secretion and glycerol release, as well as their adrenal medulla by an immunohistochemical and morphologic approach...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
María Iñiguez, Patricia Pérez-Matute, María Jesús Villanueva-Millán, Emma Recio-Fernández, Irene Roncero-Ramos, Margarita Pérez-Clavijo, José-Antonio Oteo
Obesity is a global epidemic characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by important complications such as nonalcoholic liver steatosis. Beneficial antiobesogenic effects have been described for some mushrooms. The current study aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of Agaricus bisporus (AB) supplementation against the metabolic alterations induced by high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 weeks with one of the following diets: (1) control diet (n = 7), (2) HFD (n = 7), (3) HFD supplemented with 5% AB (n = 9), and (4) HFD supplemented with 10% AB (n = 9)...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Gwendoline Astre, Simon Deleruyelle, Alizée Dortignac, Christelle Bonnet, Philippe Valet, Cédric Dray
To fight against metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, new alimentary behaviors are developed. For instance, hyperproteined, gluten-free, or collagen-enriched diets could be preconized in order to reduce the consequences of obesity. In this aim, this study evaluates the potential effects of warm sea fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) on representative metabolic and inflammatory parameters. For that, male C57Bl6/J mice fed with either a chow- (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) were submitted or not to specific collagen peptides in drinking water (4 g/kg bw/d) for 20 weeks...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Milan Holeček, Melita Vodeničarovová
The aim was to determine the effects of enhanced availability of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) on ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) and protein metabolism in two types of skeletal muscle under hyperammonemic conditions. Isolated soleus (SOL, slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch) muscles from the left leg of white rats were incubated in a medium with 1 mM ammonia (NH3 group), BCAAs at four times the concentration of the controls (BCAA group) or high levels of both ammonia and BCAA (NH3 + BCAA group)...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Christian Carpéné, Jean Galitzky, Chloé Belles, Alexia Zakaroff-Girard
Tyramine is found in foodstuffs, the richest being cheeses, sausages, and wines. Tyramine has been recognized to release catecholamines from nerve endings and to trigger hypertensive reaction. Thereby, tyramine-free diet is recommended for depressed patients treated with irreversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidases (MAO) to limit the risk of hypertension. Tyramine is a substrate of amine oxidases and also an agonist at trace amine-associated receptors. Our aim was to characterize the dose-dependent effects of tyramine on human adipocyte metabolic functions...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Ganimete Bajraktari, Rebekka Pohl, Susanne Feder, Kristina Eisinger, Wolfgang Mages, Elisabeth M Haberl, Christa Buechler
The scaffold protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is a component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and has been comprehensively studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. SNTA is further expressed in the liver where its biological role remains unclear. Unpublished data from our group suggested that SNTA deficiency is associated with altered tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) levels in fat. TUBA8 is highly expressed in different cell lines including hepatoma cells, and here we analyzed whether SNTA has a role herein. In Hepa1-6 cells, TUBA8 protein levels were increased upon SNTA knock down and were reduced upon overexpression of SNTA...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Yong Tang, Guojun Cao, Xiaobo Min, Tao Wang, Shiran Sun, Xiaolong Du, Weikang Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common chronic liver disease. NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been widely studied in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Cathepsin B (CTSB) is a ubiquitous cysteine cathepsin, and the role of CTSB in the progression and development of NAFLD has received extensive concern. However, the exact roles of CTSB in the NAFLD development and NLRP3 inflammasome activation are yet to be evaluated. In the present study, we used methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet to establish mice NASH model...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Sergio Perez-Diaz, Maria P Garcia-Sobreviela, Yolanda Gonzalez-Irazabal, Beatriz Garcia-Rodriguez, Silvia Espina, Izaskun Arenaz, Jose M Arbones-Mainar
Adipose tissue (AT) expands under obesogenic conditions. Yet, when the growth exceeds a certain limit, AT becomes dysfunctional and surplus lipids start depositing ectopically. Polymerase I and transcription release factor (PTRF) has been proposed as a mechanism leading to a dysfunctional AT by decreasing the adipogenic potential of human adipocyte precursors. However, whether or not PTRF can be secreted by the adipocytes into the bloodstream is not yet known. For this work, PTRF presence was investigated in plasma...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
J L Marques-Rocha, M Garcia-Lacarte, M Samblas, J Bressan, J A Martínez, F I Milagro
The main aim of this investigation was to study the regulatory roles of let-7b and miR-155-3p on the expression of inflammation-associated genes in monocytes, macrophages, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages (AcM). A second goal was to analyze the potential modulatory roles of different fatty acids, including oleic, palmitic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on the expression of these miRNAs in the three cell types. This hypothesis was tested in human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1), which were differentiated into macrophages with 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and further activated with LPS for 24 h...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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