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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

Nicole M Hartung, Malwina Mainka, Nadja Kampschulte, Annika I Ostermann, Nils Helge Schebb
Quantitative analysis of oxylipins by means of chromatography/mass spectrometry is based on (external) calibration with standard compounds. Therefore, the quality of analytical standards is of fundamental importance for accurate results. Recently launched certified standards with an assured concentration within a narrow range are useful tools for this purpose. However, such standards are only available for a few compounds. Based on the exemplary comparison of certified with none certified standards we suggest a tiered approach to validate and control the concentrations when preparing an external calibration based on non-certified oxylipin standards...
February 12, 2019: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Shilpa Sonti, Mansi Tolia, Richard I Duclos, Ralph H Loring, Samuel J Gatley
INTRODUCTION: Synaptamide, theN-acylethanolamine of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is structurally similar to the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine, anandamide. It is an endogenous ligand at the orphan G-protein coupled receptor 110 (GPR110; ADGRF1), and induces neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis in hippocampal and cortical neurons, as well as neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells. PURPOSE: Our goal was to characterize the metabolic fate (synthesis and metabolism) of synaptamide in a dopaminergic cell line using immortalized fetal mesencephalic cells (N27 cells)...
February 11, 2019: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Yazun Bashir Jarrar, Qais Jarrar, Abdulqader Abed, Mohammad Abu-Shalhoob
Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites are involved in cardiovascular diseases and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the gene expression of ARA-metabolizing cyp450 genes in the hearts, kidneys and livers of experimental mice. Thirty five Balb/c mice were divided into 5 groups, and each group contained 7 mice. Then, the groups were administered different NSAIDs, diclofenac mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, or meloxicam, for 14 days in doses equivalent to those used in human treatment...
February 11, 2019: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Vittore Verratti, Luigi Brunetti, Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sheila Leone, Run Wang, Francesco Berardinelli
Prostaglandin (PG)E2 seems to promote tumor proliferation by regulating cell growth, inhibiting apoptosis, promoting angiogenesis, and suppressing host immune surveillance of cancer cells. The suppression of prostaglandins biosynthesis is thought to be the main molecular mechanism for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs antineoplastic effect. Yet the relationship between PGE2 and human renal cell carcinoma remains unclear. The aim of our study is to evaluate the PGE2 content in human renal parenchyma and Renal Cell Carcinoma...
February 8, 2019: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Marco Antonio Pires-Lapa, Marianna Mainardi Koga, Ildefonso Alves da Silva-, Luciano Ribeiro Filgueiras, Sonia Jancar
Dendritic cells (DCs) link innate and adaptive immunity. The microenvironment generated during the innate immunity affects DCs and the type of adaptive immunity generated. Lipid mediators are released early in inflammation and could modify the functional state of DCs. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) has a wide range of effects on macrophages and in the present study we investigated if it also affects DCs. Murine bone marrow-derived DCs were employed and it was found that stimulation of DCs with LTB4 (10 nM) increased the gene expression of the high affinity receptor BLT-1 but not of BLT-2...
February 7, 2019: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Mai M Helmy, Maged W Helmy, Mahmoud M El-Mas
We recently reported that celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor, counteracts the adverse circulatory and renal actions of cyclosporine (CSA). Despite the seemingly advantageous nature of this interaction particularly in clinical settings that necessitate the combined use of the two drugs such as immune-related arthritis, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This prompted us to test the hypothesis that the facilitation of the cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) signaling accounts for such favorable effects of celecoxib on CSA nephrotoxicity...
January 15, 2019: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Kerstin Hiesinger, Karen M Wagner, Bruce D Hammock, Ewgenij Proschak, Sung Hee Hwang
Over the last two decades polypharmacology has emerged as a new paradigm in drug discovery, even though developing drugs with high potency and selectivity toward a single biological target is still a major strategy. Often, targeting only a single enzyme or receptor shows lack of efficacy. High levels of inhibitor of a single target also can lead to adverse side effects. A second target may offer additive or synergistic effects to affecting the first target thereby reducing on- and off-target side effects. Therefore, drugs that inhibit multiple targets may offer a great potential for increased efficacy and reduced the adverse effects...
December 26, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Yan Xiong, Xiao-Dan Zhu, Ping Wan, Yu-Ping Ren, Chong Wang, Run-Wei Yan, Yuan Guo, Ai-Ping Bai
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a membrane lipid hydrolase, acting to generate ceramide and regulate cell functions and inflammatory responses.The roles of ASM in mediating T cell functions are postulated whereas its function in regulation of macrophages remains uncertain. The study was performed to explore ASM activity in control of macrophage functions. RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with desipramine, an ASM inhibitor, prior to LPS challenge in vitro. LPS initiated ASM activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Conversely, inhibition of ASM activity by desipramine diminished LPS induced ASM activities and TNF production of RAW 264...
December 11, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Thomas W Carion, David Kracht, Eliisa Strand, Edwin David, Cody McWhirter, Abdul Shukkur Ebrahim, Elizabeth A Berger
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been shown to regulate corneal inflammation. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) is a transmembrane protein belonging to the GPCR family. Ligands include pro-resolving lipids, lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and resolvin D1 (RvD1). The current study focuses on the effect of VIP regarding the FPR2 receptor axis in improving disease outcome in a mouse model of bacterial keratitis. Infection was induced in C57BL/6 (B6) mice using P. aeruginosa (PA) ATCC 19660. Mice received topical treatment (VIP or PBS) 3× daily after infection...
December 4, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Guohui Zou, Jinhua Zhu, Zhongyong Liu, Lu Wu, Ri Xu, Hongtao Chen, Peng Deng, Changqing Deng
Restenosis is a major problem after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treatment. Inflammation is one of the major core mechanisms involved in the occurrence of restenosis, and plays an important role in intimal hyperplasia. Detoxification and activating blood circulation decoction (DABCD) is a traditional Chinese medicine that is used in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic and inflammatory diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated that DABCD-mediated cardioprotection involves anti-inflammatory mechanisms and could be developed as a novel drug for the treatment of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and aortic restenosis...
November 16, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Qiong-Feng Chen, Hua Hao, Xiao-Dong Kuang, Quan-Dong Hu, Yong-Hong Huang, Xiao-Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: The renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and lipoxins (LXs) have similar roles in many processes. We previously reported that BML-111, a Lipoxin receptor agonist, inhibited chronic injury hepatic fibrosis by regulating RAAS, but whether LXs are involved in BML-111-mediated protection from acute injury is unclear still. METHODS: We established models of acute liver/lung injury and confirmed them with histopathology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurements...
November 6, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Katherine N Theken
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used agents for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. However, it has long been recognized that there is substantial inter-individual variability in the analgesic response to NSAIDs, reflecting the complex interplay between mechanisms of pain, differences between distinct NSAIDs, and patient-specific factors such as genetic variation. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding how these factors contribute to variability in the analgesic response to NSAIDs...
November 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Reheman Adili, Megan Hawley, Michael Holinstat
Thrombosis is the most common underlying pathology responsible for morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation play central roles in hemostasis; however, the same process may also cause thrombosis and vessel occlusion at the site of ruptured atherosclerotic lesions leading to heart attack and stroke. ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are an essential component of the platelet phospholipid membrane and play a major role in many aspects of platelet function...
November 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Mohammad Shahidur Rahman, Pinky Karim Syeda, Michael N N Nartey, Md Mazharul Islam Chowdhury, Hidehisa Shimizu, Kohji Nishimura, Mitsuo Jisaka, Fumiaki Shono, Kazushige Yokota
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is relatively unstable and dehydrated non-enzymatically into PGJ2 derivatives, which are known to serve as pro-adipogenic factors by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, a master regulator of adipogenesis. 11-Deoxy-11-methylene-PGD2 (11d-11m-PGD2 ) is a novel, chemically stable, isosteric analogue of PGD2 in which the 11-keto group is replaced by an exocyclic methylene. Here we attempted to investigate pro-adipogenic effects of PGD2 and 11d-11m-PGD2 and to compare the difference in their ways during the maturation phase of cultured adipocytes...
October 26, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Jia Peng, Xiang-Ping Li
Apolipoprotein A-IV is lipid-binding protein, which is synthesized by the intestine and secreted into mesenteric lymph. ApoA-IV is correlated with chylomicrons and high density lipoprotein, but a large portion is free-lipoprotein, in circulation. Studies showed that apoA-IV has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, and is able to mediate reverse cholesterol transport, which suggest that it may has anti-atherosclerotic effects and be related to protection from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
October 22, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Cristiano Fava, Sara Bonafini
Metabolites of arachidonic acid via CYP450 such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), have vasoactive and natriuretic properties and have been implicated in BP homeostasis and the incidence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in animal studies. In humans, genetic studies considering genes implicated in arachidonic acids metabolism (CYP4F2, CYP4A11, CYP2J2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2A1/2, EPHX2) can offer a hint to understand their role, if any, in hypertension development and its deleterious cardiovascular effects...
October 5, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Sean S Davies, Linda S May-Zhang
Isolevuglandins are 4-ketoaldehydes formed by peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Isolevuglandins react rapidly with primary amines including the lysyl residues of proteins to form irreversible covalent modifications. This review highlights evidence for the potential role of isolevuglandin modification in the disease processes, especially atherosclerosis, and some of the tools including small molecule dicarbonyl scavengers utilized to assess their contributions to disease.
October 5, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Meiyan Dai, Lujin Wu, Ling Tu, Xizhen Xu, Dao Wen Wang
Macrophages in adipose tissue are associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation, which contributed to insulin resistance and the related metabolic diseases. Macrophages display phenotypic plasticity, and polarize under the condition of obesity. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs) are lipid mediators that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory cascades and glucose homeostasis. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the macrophages recruitment, infiltration and polarization in obese mice, and also discuss the immune-metabolic regulatory role of EETs in this process (See Fig...
October 5, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Liang Xiao, David M Patrick, Luul A Aden, Annet Kirabo
Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and recent evidence suggests that isolevuglandin (IsoLG)-protein adducts play a role. Several hypertensive stimuli contribute to formation of IsoLG-protein adducts including excess dietary salt and catecholamines. The precise intracellular mechanisms by which these hypertensive stimuli lead to IsoLG-protein adduct formation are still not well understood; however, there is now evidence implicating NADPH-oxidase derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process...
September 29, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Daniela Wojcik-Baszko, Karol Charkiewicz, Piotr Laudanski
Preeclampsia is a complex disorder and the pathogenesis of it is still not fully understood. The most commonly accepted theory of pathogenesis assumes that there occurs impaired trophoblastic invasion and failure in spiral artery remodeling. Nowadays, obesity becomes one of the most important, modifiable risk factors for the development of preeclampsia. Despite research into the condition, predicting which women with risk factors will develop preeclampsia remains problematic. Emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation of maternal and placental lipid metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of the condition...
September 21, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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