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Alberto Amato, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2018: Protist
Aneta Trefancová, Anna Mácová, Jana Kvičerová
Coccidia of the genus Isospora, their origin, taxonomy, and host specificity have been discussed for many years. The crucial point in question being the division of the genus, based on distinct evolutionary history and the presence/absence of the Stieda body, into the genera Isospora (Eimeriidae) parasitizing mainly birds and reptiles, and Cystoisospora (Sarcocystidae) parasitizing mammals. The description of the majority of Isospora species from rodents is based solely on the oocysts found in their faeces...
December 11, 2018: Protist
Joel K Elliott, Hunter Simpson, Alex Teesdale, Amy Replogle, Marianne Elliott, Kathryn Coats, Gary Chastagner
The objective of this study was to identify the parasite causing the formation of root hair galls on eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Puget Sound, WA. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that a novel protist formed plasmodia that developed into sporangia in root hair tip galls and released biflagellate swimming zoospores. Root hair galls were also observed in the basal section of root hairs, and contained plasmodia or formed thick-walled structures filled with cells (resting spores). Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA sequence data obtained from cells in sporangia indicated that the closest relative of the parasite with a known taxonomic identification was Plasmodiophora diplantherae (86...
December 10, 2018: Protist
Olga Matantseva, Ilya Pozdnyakov, Maren Voss, Iris Liskow, Sergei Skarlato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Protist
José A Ortega-Escalante, Owen Kwok, Stephen M Miller
Volvox carteri is an excellent model for investigating the evolution of multicellularity and cell differentiation, and the rate of future progress with this system will depend on improved molecular genetic tools. Several selectable markers for nuclear transformation of V. carteri have been developed, including the nitrate reductase (nitA) gene, but it would be useful to have additional markers to multiplex transgenes in this species. To further facilitate molecular genetic analyses of V. carteri, we developed two new selectable markers that provide rapid, easily selected, and stable resistance to the antibiotics hygromycin and blasticidin...
November 15, 2018: Protist
Nina Antos-Krzeminska, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
Plants, fungi, and some protists possess a more branched electron transport chain in their mitochondria compared to canonical one. In these organisms, the electron transport chain contains several rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenases. Some are located on the outer surface, and others are located on the inner surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The putative role of these enzymes still remains elusive, but they may prevent the overreduction of the electron transport chain components and decrease the production of reaction oxygen species as a consequence...
November 10, 2018: Protist
Scott R Santos, Mary Alice Coffroth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Protist
Sebastian C Treitli, Michael Kotyk, Naoji Yubuki, Eliška Jirounková, Jitka Vlasáková, Pavla Smejkalová, Petr Šípek, Ivan Čepička, Vladimír Hampl
Oxymonads are a group of flagellates living as gut symbionts of insects or vertebrates. They have several unique features, one of them being the absence of mitochondria. Diversity of this group is seriously understudied, which is particularly true for small species from the family Polymastigidae. We isolated 34 strains of oxymonads with Polymastigidae-like morphology from 24 host species and unused cesspits and sequenced the SSU rRNA gene. Our strains formed two clades in the phylogenetic tree with Streblomastix strix branching between them...
November 2018: Protist
Timur G Simdyanov, Gita G Paskerova, Andrea Valigurová, Andrei Diakin, Magdaléna Kováčiková, Joseph Schrével, Laure Guillou, Andrej A Dobrovolskij, Vladimir V Aleoshin
Blastogregarines are poorly studied parasites of polychaetes superficially resembling gregarines, but lacking syzygy and gametocyst stages in the life cycle. Furthermore, their permanent multinuclearity and gametogenesis by means of budding considerably distinguish them from other parasitic Apicomplexa such as coccidians and hematozoans. The affiliation of blastogregarines has been uncertain: different authors considered them highly modified gregarines, an intermediate apicomplexan lineage between gregarines and coccidians, or an isolated group of eukaryotes altogether...
November 2018: Protist
Yegor Shɨshkin, Daria Drachko, Vladimir I Klimov, Vasily V Zlatogursky
Two closely related new species of centrohelid heliozoans with unusual morphology were studied with light and electron microscopy. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were also obtained and secondary structure of 18S rRNA molecule reconstructed. The cells, covered with inner siliceous plate scales formed colonies. The entire colony was surrounded with a thick layer of external scales. Inner scales were tabulate and had a patternless surface, except for the presence of an axial rib. Outer scales had a boat-like (Yogsothoth knorrus gen...
November 2018: Protist
Kerstin Hoef-Emden
For years the genus Chroomonas was defined as being a cryptophyte with rectangular periplast plates, with a gullet and with biliprotein types PC 630 or 645. In phylogenetic trees the genus proved to be paraphyletic. Moreover, cells with hexagonal periplast plates were found in an SEM preparation from material of the type species C. nordstedtii. In this study, material of Hansgirg's C. nordstedtii was subjected to PCR and to sequencing of two short DNA tags. These tags allowed for an unambiguous identification of the real C...
November 2018: Protist
Izumi Iwata, Daiske Honda
Thraustochytrid cells attach to their food via ectoplasmic nets (ENs). Here, we analyzed the cause and effect relationship between the various forms and functions of ENs of Schizochytrium aggregatum. The ENs spread out over a large area forming a fine network to efficiently search for the experimental food source. After recognizing the experimental food source, the ENs that attached to the food source became thicker, and net elements developed. The thick ENs on the surface at the attachment site were enveloped in dense materials (fibrous materials), which were visualized as fibrous layers under a transmission electron microscope...
November 2018: Protist
Alexis D Fischer, Michael L Brosnahan, Donald M Anderson
Many dinoflagellate cysts experience dormancy, a reversible state that prevents germination during unfavorable periods. Several of these species also cause harmful algal blooms (HABs), so a quantitative understanding of dormancy cycling is desired for better prediction and mitigation of bloom impacts. This study examines the effect of cold exposure on the duration of dormancy in Alexandrium catenella, a HAB dinoflagellate that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Mature, dormant cysts from Nauset Marsh (Cape Cod, MA USA) were stored at low but above freezing temperatures for up to six months...
November 2018: Protist
Pooja Potdar, Patricia Pinto, Nicole D'Souza, Prajakta Joshi, Akshay Malwade, Subhojit Sen
To circumvent nuclei isolation for nucleosomal mapping of wild-type (cell walled) algal cells, we developed a quick and versatile methodology, by abrasion of whole cells (Chlamydomonas, Scenedesmus and yeast), allowing Micrococcal Nuclease (MNase) direct access to nuclear chromatin, in situ. Varying parameters such as bead abrasion, vortex and incubation conditions, we optimized capture of an 'early digest' which may probe chromatin differentially, based on nucleosome accessibility. A comparison of such ladders across vegetative cells, gametes and zygotes revealed an increase in the average nucleosomal repeat length (+17-34nt) upon gametogenesis, indicating a trend of chromatin compaction...
November 2018: Protist
Zuo Yi Chen, Nina Lundholm, Øjvind Moestrup, Janina Kownacka, Yang Li
To understand the diversity of the diatom genus Chaetoceros Ehrenberg, the C. lorenzianus complex was previously chosen as a model and three new species were described. In the present study, yet another new species, Chaetoceros pauciramosus sp. nov., was discovered from Chinese tropical waters and the temperate south-eastern Baltic Sea. In the latter locality it has been known since 2003 and identified as C. cf lorenzianus, and now found to comprise a dominating component of the autumn phytoplankton community...
November 2018: Protist
Olga Matantseva, Ilya Pozdnyakov, Maren Voss, Iris Liskow, Sergei Skarlato
The spread of harmful dinoflagellate blooms has been linked to the increasing availability of nitrogen, including its dissolved organic forms. The relationships between organic and inorganic nutrient uptake by dinoflagellates are not completely understood; moreover, it is not clear whether organic substances are used exclusively as nitrogen or also as carbon sources. We used laboratory culture experiments to investigate the concurrent uptake of glycine and nitrate by Prorocentrum minimum and estimate a role of two widespread organic substrates, glycine and urea, as carbon sources...
November 2018: Protist
Gwenn M M Hennon, Olivia M Williamson, María D Hernández Limón, Sheean T Haley, Sonya T Dyhrman
Heterosigma akashiwo is a raphidophyte known for forming ichthyotoxic blooms. In order to predict the potential impacts of rising CO2 on H. akashiwo it is necessary to understand the factors influencing growth rates over a range of CO2 concentrations. Here we examined the physiology and gene expression response of H. akashiwo to concentrations from 200 to 1000ppm CO2 . Growth rate data were combined from this and previous studies and fit with a CO2 limitation-inhibition model that revealed an apparent growth optimum around 600-800ppm CO2 ...
October 24, 2018: Protist
James T Melton, Fiona C Wood, Jordan Branch, Mandakini Singla, Yonas I Tekle
Thecamoebida Smirnov and Cavalier-Smith, 2011 (Discosea, Amoebozoa) has been molecularly understudied. The group until recently consisted of three genera containing species that live in terrestrial or aquatic environments. Here, we describe a fourth genus, Stratorugosa tubuloviscum gen. nov. sp. nov., which was isolated from a freshwater Amoeba proteus Ward's Science culture. Although this species most closely morphologically resembles a large, rugose Thecamoeba, S. tubuloviscum gen. nov. sp. nov. can be differentiated from Thecamoeba spp...
October 16, 2018: Protist
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