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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769163/molecular-characterisation-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-muscle-growth-regulatory-factors-myogenin-and-myogenic-factor-6-in-the-trans-himalayan-cyprinid-fish-schizothorax-richardsonii
#1
Manchi Rajesh, Biju Sam Kamalam, Alexander Ciji, Md Shabaz Akhtar, Nityanand Pandey, Subodh Gupta, Debajit Sarma, Narrotam Prasad Sahu, Atul Kumar Singh
In vertebrates, myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) play an important role in muscle growth through the processes of cell determination and differentiation. Herein, we report the molecular characterisation of two MRFs, myogenin (myog) and myogenic factor 6 (myf6) in Indian snow trout Schizothorax richardsonii. The full length mRNA sequence of Srmyog and Srmyf6 was 1437 and 1296 bp, with an ORF of 762 and 720 bp, encoding a putative protein of 253 and 239 amino acids, respectively. In silico analysis and predicted tertiary protein structure revealed that both these nuclear localized MRFs contained the highly conserved basic helix loop helix motif, to potentially aid in dimerization with functional partners and DNA binding...
February 12, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30743060/the-environmental-tolerances-and-metabolic-physiology-of-sablefish-anoplopoma-fimbria
#2
Robine H J Leeuwis, Gordon W Nash, Rebeccah M Sandrelli, Fábio S Zanuzzo, Anthony K Gamperl
Given the potential impacts of global warming, such as increases in temperature and the frequency/severity of hypoxia in marine ecosystems, it is important to study the impacts of these environmental challenges on sea-cage reared aquaculture species. This study focuses on the sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), an emerging aquaculture species that has a unique ecology in the wild. For instance, adults inhabit oxygen minimum zones and cool waters at depths up to 1500 m. Using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (~1132 g adults) as a comparative species, we used intermittent-flow respirometry to characterize the tolerance and metabolic response of sablefish (~10 g juveniles and ~675 g adults) to acute increases in temperature (2 °C h-1 ) and decreases in oxygen level (~10% air saturation h-1 )...
February 8, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30743059/ontogeny-of-the-cortisol-stress-response-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-during-early-development-in-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#3
Brian C Peterson, Nagaraj G Chatakondi, Brian C Small
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, and reproduction. The objective of this study was to investigate the ontogeny of the cortisol and GR stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) at several early life stages. To accomplish this, resting and stress-induced levels of tissue cortisol and the two catfish GRs (GR-1 and GR-2) expression were measured...
February 8, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738911/is-the-teleost-heart-oxygen-limited-insights-using-hyperoxic-incubations-of-contracting-cardiac-tissue-from-rainbow-trout
#4
Hans Gesser, Kenneth J Rodnick
Considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the negative effects of reduced PO2 on cardiac function. Much less is known about the impacts of elevated PO2 (hyperoxia) on cardiac performance and energetics, especially in fishes. The fish heart is of particular interest because cardiac dependence on oxygen is extremely variable between species and the early evolution of fish occurred when atmospheric PO2 was higher than current conditions. Although extracellular PO2 is variable and normally does not exceed 21 kPa, recent evidence suggests that teleost cardiac function is stimulated at supraphysiological PO2 values...
February 7, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735703/metabolic-effects-of-epinephrine-on-the-crab-neohelice-granulata
#5
Jorge Felipe Argenta Model, Jordana Tres Dos Santos, Roselis Silveira Martins Da Silva, Anapaula Sommer Vinagre
Although widely known for their involvement in the control of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of vertebrates, the participation of catecholamines (CAs) in the metabolism of invertebrates is less understood. This study was designed to identify the physiological role of Epinephrine (E) in the intermediary metabolism of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata and how E regulates the metabolism in crabs fed with a high-carbohydrate (HC) or a high-protein (HP) diet. To answer these questions, we evaluated in vivo the effects of E injections on glucose and triglycerides in the hemolymph and tissue glycogen levels of crabs fed with HC or HP diet...
February 5, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735702/temperature-dependent-pre-and-postprandial-activity-in-pacific-bluefin-tuna-thunnus-orientalis
#6
Adrian C Gleiss, Jonathan J Dale, Dane H Klinger, Ethan E Estess, Luke D Gardner, Benjamin Machado, Alexander G Norton, Charles Farwell, Barbara A Block
Bluefin tunas are highly specialized fish with unique hydrodynamic designs and physiological traits. In this study, we present results in a captive population that demonstrate strong effects of ambient temperature on the tail beat frequency and swimming speed of a pelagic fish in both pre- and post-prandial states. We measured the responses of a ram ventilator, the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), after digestion of a meal to explore the impacts of the metabolic costs of digestion on behavior and respiration...
February 5, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30731204/the-effects-of-salinity-and-photoperiod-on-aerobic-scope-hypoxia-tolerance-and-swimming-performance-of-coho-salmon-oncorhynchus-kisutch-reared-in-recirculating-aquaculture-systems
#7
Yuanchang Fang, Victor K S Chan, Chandler W Hines, Kevin T Stiller, Jeffrey G Richards, Colin J Brauner
Land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) have been used to rear salmon from smolt to market-sized adults, but high operating costs have limited their wide spread adoption. One clear advantage of using RAS for salmon aquaculture over open net pens is that fish can be reared under optimal conditions in an attempt to maximize growth and physiological performance and reduce overall production costs. However, few studies have attempted to define the optimal conditions for the long-term rearing of salmon...
February 4, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703561/a-study-on-the-physiological-and-behavioral-mechanisms-underlying-the-differences-in-survival-capacity-between-two-cyprinid-fish-species
#8
Cheng Fu, Yu-Liang Cui, Jia-Jia Xu, Ya Wang, Shi-Jian Fu
The crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are close relatives and coexist in most of their natural habitats but with different levels of abundance. The crucian carp is usually more abundant than the common carp in high predation-pressure habitats. To verify whether the crucian carp exhibits a significantly higher survival capacity combined with additional antipredator strategies than the common carp, we measured the morphology, behavioral traits, fast-start escape swimming performance and survival time under predation in both fish species...
January 28, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703560/modulation-of-stress-and-innate-immune-response-by-corticosteroids-in-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus
#9
Fábio S Zanuzzo, Rafael E Sabioni, Cleni M Marzocchi-Machado, Elisabeth C Urbinati
Understanding how stress and corticosteroid modulates the innate immune response is one of the keys to improving productivity and reducing losses in intensive aquaculture. Thus, we investigated the effects of dietary corticosteroids (7 days; long-term exposure) and transport (4 h; short-term stress) on stress and innate immune response in pacu. For this end, fish were fed with diets containing dexamethasone (100 mg kg-1 ) or hydrocortisone (200 mg kg-1 ), followed by transport, and then were intraperitoneally inoculated with heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila or PBS (sham-inoculation)...
January 28, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703559/effect-of-ration-level-on-growth-performance-body-composition-intermediary-metabolism-and-serum-parameters-in-juvenile-patagonian-blennie-eleginops-maclovinus
#10
R Oyarzún, D Martínez, M Soto-Dávila, J L P Muñoz, P Dantagnan, L Vargas-Chacoff
Eleginops maclovinus is an endemic species of the southern cone with beneficial physiological characteristics for aquaculture. However, this species has a low growth rate under captive conditions, and the optimal feed ration together with the metabolic process is unknown. This study aimed to determine the optimum feed ration during 90 days based on growth performance, body composition, intermediary metabolism, and serum parameters. For this, fish were randomly assigned to rations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% of body weight...
January 28, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30695736/dietary-inclusion-effect-of-feed-ingredients-showing-high-feeding-attractiveness-to-rockfish-sebastes-schlegeli-hilgendorf-1880-on-the-growth-performance-feed-utilization-condition-factor-and-whole-body-composition-of-fish-ii
#11
Hee Sung Kim, Sung Hwoan Cho
Dietary inclusion effect of feed ingredients showing high feeding attractiveness to rockfish on the growth, feed utilization, condition factor (CF) and whole body composition of fish was investigated. Three hundred sixty juvenile rockfish were randomly distributed into 18 50-L flow-through tanks (twenty fish per tank). Six experimental diets were prepared: the control (Con) diet containing 55% anchovy meal, and 5% anchovy meal in the Con diet was replaced with an equivalent amount of jack mackerel, sardine, Pollack, squid and shrimp meals, referred to as the JM, SM, PM, SQM and SHM diets, respectively...
January 26, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690154/boldness-in-early-emerging-rainbow-trout-a-metabolic-cost-with-no-return
#12
Peter V Skov, Joao de Jesus Gregersen, Manuel Gesto, Alfred Jokumsen
The timing with which salmonid larvae emerge from their gravel nests is thought to be correlated with a particular suite of behavioural and physiological traits that correspond to the position of the individual on the bold-shy continuum. Aggressiveness, dominance and resilience to stress characterise bold individuals and are potentially interesting traits to exploit in aquaculture production. In the present study a series of experiments were performed, with the purpose of characterising behavioural, metabolic and production related traits in rainbow trout juveniles from different emergence fractions...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690153/pharmacological-characterization-of-the-5-ht1a-receptor-of-bombyx-mori-and-its-role-in-locomotion
#13
Ping Chen, Rong Xiong, Wei Zhao, Xi Chen, Tian Li, Haiyin Li, Yan Li, Wangshang Shen
Serotonin is involved in the regulation of many physiological and behavioral processes in vertebrates and invertebrates. The effects of serotonin are mediated through interactions of several 5-HT receptor types. The expression and pharmacological properties of 5-HT1 have received more attention than other serotonin receptors, but its functions at the individual level are little studied in arthropods. Silkworm, a Lepidoptera model, almost has no reports about serotonin receptors. To analyze the function of Bm5-HT1A receptor in vitro, the ORF of Bm5-HT1A was cloned into the pcDNA3...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690152/metabolic-and-functional-impacts-of-hypoxia-vary-with-size-in-atlantic-salmon
#14
Tina Oldham, Barbara Nowak, Malthe Hvas, Frode Oppedal
The most capricious environmental variable in aquatic habitats, dissolved O2 , is fundamental to the fitness and survival of fish. Using swim tunnel respirometry we test how acute exposure to reduced O2 levels, similar to those commonly encountered by fish in crowded streams and on commercial aquaculture farms, affect metabolic rate and swimming performance in Atlantic salmon of three size classes: 0.2, 1.0 and 3.5 kg. Exposure to 45-55% dissolved O2 saturation substantially reduced the aerobic capacity and swimming performance of salmon of all sizes...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690151/rapid-metabolic-compensation-in-response-to-temperature-change-in-the-intertidal-copepod-tigriopus-californicus
#15
Morgan L Scheffler, Felipe S Barreto, Casey A Mueller
Animals living in the intertidal zone must adapt to thermal variability, including adjustments in metabolism. We examined metabolic responses to temperature in the copepod, Tigriopus californicus, which inhabits supratidal splash pools along the Pacific coast of North America. We maintained three populations of T. californicus at 20 °C, one from southern California (San Diego, "SD") and two from Oregon (Fogarty Creek, "FCN", Boiler Bay, "BOB") and examined possible geographic patterns in metabolism...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690150/short-and-long-term-low-salinity-acclimation-effects-on-the-branchial-and-intestinal-gene-expression-in-the-european-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#16
Fotini Kokou, Pazit Con, Assaf Barki, Tali Nitzan, Tatiana Slosman, Itzhak Mizrahi, Avner Cnaani
The European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a teleost remarkably adapted to a wide range of water salinity, through osmoregulatory mechanisms, mainly operating in the gills and the intestine. As an important aquaculture species, its rearing in low-salinity conditions offers benefits for its inland culture. However, this demands a full comprehension of the European seabass osmoregulatory mechanisms and its response to acclimation protocols. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different acclimation protocols in terms of osmoregularity and stress response, following transferring of European seabass juveniles from seawater to freshwater...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690149/a-novel-crustacean-hyperglycemic-hormone-chh-from-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-regulating-carbohydrate-metabolism
#17
An Liu, Jing Liu, Xuelei Chen, Bei Lu, Chaoshu Zeng, Haihui Ye
Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) plays a crucial role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism in crustaceans. In this study, a new cDNA encoding type I CHH peptide, termed Sp-CHH3, was isolated from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain and its potential functions were investigated. The full length cDNA of Sp-CHH3 was identified as encoding a 127-aa precursor composed of a 27-aa signal peptide, a 23-aa CHH precursor-related peptide and a 75-aa mature peptide with a typical motif of CHH. Phylogenic analysis suggested that, Sp-CHH3 is a previously unreported CHH from S...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690148/what-can-we-learn-from-glucocorticoid-administration-in-fish-effects-of-cortisol-and-dexamethasone-on-intermediary-metabolism-of-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-l
#18
I Jerez-Cepa, M Gorissen, J M Mancera, I Ruiz-Jarabo
In aquaculture facilities fish welfare could be compromised due to stressors. Fish deal with stress, inter alia, through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal endocrine axis and, as a result, corticosteroids are released into the blood. Recent studies have described that corticosteroids actions depend on the specific affinities to their receptors, and the subsequent differentiated responses. Cortisol is the main corticosteroid hormone in teleost fish, being its actions dependent on the intensity and time of exposure to stressors...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690147/effects-of-biodensity-on-the-growth-stress-physiology-and-welfare-of-arctic-charr-salvelinus-alpinus-in-freshwater
#19
Andrew Sevier, Richard Smith, Tillmann Benfey, Roy Danzmann, Nicholas Bernier, Richard Moccia
Biodensity is a major factor affecting the production and welfare of farmed fishes. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) (average mass 176.9 ± 3.9 g) were held at biodensities of 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 kg/m3 (4 replicates per treatment) during a 91 day study which examined key growth, stress physiology, and welfare parameters. During experimentation fish were fed to near satiety, and a random subsample of 20 fish (5 per replicate tank) were collected from each treatment every 21 days. Biodensity was found to have no significant effect on mortality rates or physical fin damage...
January 25, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677507/hymenoptera-flight-muscle-mitochondrial-function-increasing-metabolic-power-increases-oxidative-stress
#20
Christopher P Hedges, Reuben T Wilkinson, Jules B L Devaux, Anthony J R Hickey
Insect flight is a high intensity activity, but biomechanical and metabolic requirements may vary depending on life style and feeding mode. For example, bees generally feed on pollen and nectar, whereas wasps also actively hunt and scavenge heavy prey. These variations in metabolic demands may result in different capacities of metabolic pathways in flight muscle, and utilisation some of these pathways may come at a cost of increased free radical production. To examine how metabolic requirements and oxidative stress vary between species, we explored the variation in flight mechanics and metabolism of the honeybee (Apis mellifera), bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), and German wasp (Vespula germanica)...
January 21, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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